Prehistoric peoples . When there are no written records, how do we know how prehistoric humans lived?. Archaeology. http://bama.ua.edu/~alaarch/Whatisarchaeology/index.htm. Siteartifact evidence. inference. Several Ways to Date Artifacts. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
When there are no written records, how do we know how prehistoric humans lived?Archaeologyhttp://bama.ua.edu/~alaarch/Whatisarchaeology/index.htm
Several Ways to Date Artifacts1. Stratigraphic dating-according to the Law of Superposition, the lowest stratum is the oldest, and the highest stratum is the more recent deposit.that the record was the oldestthe CD was the youngest, the cassette tape was older than the CD, but younger than the recordyou are providing a chronology, or timeframe, without the use of dates, but is instead based on, or relative to, the other artifacts that have been uncovered.
Anthropology--Study cultures who still live much like prehistoric peoplesHistory is not cut and dried Sometimes there are different theories, dates, or ideas about the same event in history!The Multiregional Hypothesis
The multiregional hypothesis is a model to account for the pattern of human evolution proposed by Milford H. Wolpoff in 1988. Multiregional origin holds that the evolution of humanity from the beginning of the Pleistocene 2.5 million years BP to the present day has been within a single, continuous human species, evolving worldwide to modern Homo sapiens.
9Out of Africa
Out of Africa Theory
According to both genetic and fossil evidence, archaic Homo sapiens evolved to anatomically modern humans solely in Africa, between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, with members of one branch leaving Africa by 60,000 years ago and over time replacing earlier human populations such as Neanderthals and Homo erectus. According to this theory, around the above time frame, one of the African subpopulations went through a process of speciation, prohibiting gene flow between African and Eurasian Human populations. The recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa is the near-consensus position held within the scientific community.There's a good deal of argument about how anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens came onto the scene, but it's generally agreed that we originated in Africa, where all the oldest hominid fossils are found. Multiregional Hypothesis: Homo sapiens evolved in each of the regions where its fossils are now found from ancestral Homo erectus that migrated out of Africa about 1.5 million years ago. Advocates of this hypothesis consider H. erectus to be an early version of H. sapiens, and not a different species. Constant interbreeding between neighboring populations of this "archaic" Homo sapiens may have prevented reproductive isolation, resulting in our present-day races of Homo sapiens, rather than multiple species of Homo."Out of Africa" Hypothesis: All H. sapiens now living evolved from a second major migration out of Africa that occurred about 100,000 years ago, and not from wandering Homo erectus. These later migrants replaced the descendants of the earlier H. erectus migrants.So far, DNA analyses have supported the "Out of Africa" ("Replacement") hypothesis. But as any hypothesis, this one is subject to further testing as new analytic methods become available.
Paleolithic or Old Stone Age (@ 2.5 million to 8000 BCE)
What discoveries have been made about the lives of Paleolithic humans in the areas of SPICE ? Paleolithic shelters
A flint biface Another advance was that the Mode 2 tools were worked symmetrically and on both sides (hence the name Biface) indicating greater care in the production of the final tool" 17
What is wrong with this cartoon?
20The Lady of Brassempouy Circa 23,000 BCE
One of the Earliest Known Realistic Representations of a Human Face Circa 23,000 BCE Paleolithic mammoth-ivory sculpture 21Paleolithic sculpture (Venus figurines)
The Venus of Willendorf Circa 24,000 BCE 22,000 BCE Among the earliest pieces of prehistoric sculpture that has been found is the Venus of Willendorf , limestone, height 11 cm, found in lower Austria, now in Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. Clearly the female reproductive anatomy has been exagerrated, and therefore experts think it likely that it represented a fertility symbol, perhaps carried by a male hunter/gatherer as a reminder of his mate back homeThe Oldest Known Ceramic Figurine 29,000 BCE 25,000 BCE The Venus of Doln Vstonice (Czech: Vstonick Venue), a ceramic Venus figurine, found at a Paleolithic site in the Moravian basin south of Brno, is, together with a few others from nearby locations, the oldest known ceramic in the world, predating the use of fired clay to make pottery. It is 111 millimeters (4.4 inches) tall, and 43 millimeters (1.7 inches) at its widest point, and is made of a clay body fired at a relatively low temperature.
22Paleolithic sculpture (animals)
In the sculpture of a bison, the overall geometric form (a brick shape) is again strongly felt. There is powerful tension between the shoulders and the hindquarters, and between the head and the hindquarters. There is also strong tension between the forelimbs and the hindquarters, between the fore and hind limbs, and between the hind limbs and the hump of the back. Again, the figure is highly plastic.
Three dimensional sculpture of a horse carved in ivory, with coat and markings shown by engraved shading, from the Grotte des Espelugues, Lourdes, Hautes Pyrenees. Length 7.5 cm. Discovered in 1886 in a crevice in the Grotte. Musee de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Lascaux cave contains some of the most well-known Upper Paleolithic art. These paintings are estimated to be 16,000 years old. They primarily consist of realistic images of large animals, most of which are known from fossil evidence to have lived in the area at the time. The cave was discovered on 12 September 1940 by four teenagers, Marcel Ravidat, Jacques Marsal, Georges Agnel, and Simon Coencas, as well as Ravidat's dog, Robot. Public access was made easier after World War II. By 1955, the carbon dioxide produced by 1,200 visitors per day had visibly damaged the paintings. The cave was closed to the public in 1963 in order to preserve the art. After the cave was closed, the paintings were restored to their original state, and are now monitored on a daily basis.
Altamira (Spanish for 'high view') is a cave in Spain famous for its Upper Paleolithic cave paintings featuring drawings and polychrome rock paintings of wild mammals and human hands. In 1879, amateur archaeologist Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola was led by his eight-year-old daughter to discover the cave's drawings. The cave was excavated by Sautuola and archaeologist Juan Vilanova y Piera from the University of Madrid, resulting in a much acclaimed publication in 1880 which interpreted the paintings as Paleolithic in origin. The French specialists, led by Gabriel de Mortillet and Emile Cartailhac, were particularly adamant in rejecting the hypothesis of Sautuola and Piera, and their findings were loudly ridiculed at the 1880 Prehistorical Congress in Lisbon. Due to the supreme artistic quality, and the exceptional state of conservation of the paintings, Sautuola was even accused of forgery. A fellow countryman maintained that the paintings had been produced by a contemporary artist, on Sautuola's orders.
25The Earliest Musical Instruments Circa 33,000 BCE
A bone flute with five finger holes, carved from the hollow bone of a gryphon (griffon) vulture, and found in 2009 at Hohle Fels Cave in the hills west of Ulm, Germany, is the most complete of the musical instruments so far recovered from the caves in the region. A three-hole flute carved from mammoth ivory was uncovered from another cave in the area, as well as two flutes made from the wing bones of a mute swan.26Hunters and Gatherers
Neolithic or new stone age (@ 8000 to 3000 BCE) What are the changes in SPICE from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic period?
Neolithic farming villagesCatal Huyuk
walls of Jericho
Jericho, the world's first city, was built in the Stone Age sometime between 11,000 and 10,000 years ago. The wild grasses its inhabitants gathered were later domesticated. That is, they were genetically engineered via selective breeding to produce ever fatter seeds. We know the results today as wheat and barley.Jericho, the world's first city, was built in the Stone Age sometime between 11,000 and 10,000 years ago. The wild grasses its inhabitants gathered were later domesticated. That is, they were genetically engineered via selective breeding to produce ever fatter seeds. We know the results today as wheat and barley.
Banpo Chinathree housing styles and sizes
Neolithic tools and weapons
These are modern Obsidian points. This black volcanic glass was the economic fuel that powered Catal Huyuk.
34pottery found at Catal Huyuk
35pottery found at Banpo
textiles and baskets
Nevertheless, there is evidence of cloth being made in Mesopotamia and in Turkey as far back as 7000 to 8000 BC. Since fabric remnants have been difficult to find, to say the least, some historians use other sources as guides in piecing together our textile heritage.Nevertheless, there is evidence of cloth being made in Mesopotamia and in Turkey as far back as 7000 to 8000 BC. Since fabric remnants have been difficult to find, to say the least, some historians use other sources as guides in piecing together our textile heritage.Basketmaking has been called the mother of pottery, as a potter used a basket mould long before the invention of the wheel. Pieces of Neolithic Age pottery show that the clay had been moulded around a basket structure. Stone Age pots often were ornamented with basketwork patterns. The picture shows one of the oldest co