Click here to load reader

Pr Hard Copy

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)

Text of Pr Hard Copy

  • 8/3/2019 Pr Hard Copy


    Social awareness on cigarette smokingIntroduction to social awareness

    History of cigarette

    A reproduction kokok a carving from the temple at Palenque , Mexico, depicting a Mayan priestsmoking from a smoking tube.

    The earliest forms of cigarettes were largely indistinguishable from their predecessor, the cigar.Cigarettes have been attested in Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds andsmoking tubes. The Maya , and later the Aztecs , smoked tobacco and various psychoactive drugsin religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and templeengravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in theCaribbean, Mexico and Central and South America until recent times .[14]

    The South and Central American cigarette used various plant wrappers; when it was brought back to Spain, maize wrappers were introduced, and by the 17th century, fine paper. Theresulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya 's paintings La Cometa , LaMerienda en el Manzanares , and El juego de la pelota a pala (18th century). [15]

    By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France, where it received the name cigarette ; and in1845, the French state tobacco monopoly began manufacturing them .[15]

    In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became increasingly popular during and after the Crimean War , when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkishcomrades and Russian enemies, who had begun rolling and smoking tobacco in strips of oldnewspaper for lack of proper cigar-rolling leaf .[15] This was helped by the development of
  • 8/3/2019 Pr Hard Copy


    tobaccos that are suitable for cigarette use, and by the development of the Egyptian cigaretteexport industry .

    Francisco Goya's La Cometa , depicting a man smoking an early quasi-cigarette.

    Cigarettes may have been initially used in a manner similar to pipes and cigars and not inhaled;for evidence, see the Lucky Strike ad campaign asking consumers "Do You Inhale?" from the30's. As cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic inhaling may have become moreagreeable. On the other hand, Moltke noticed in the 1830s (cf. Unter dem Halbmond ) thatOttomans (and he himself) inhaled the Turkish tobacco and Latakia from their pipes [16] (whichare both initially sun-cured, acidic leaf varieties).

    The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is largely a 20th century phenomenon at the start of the century the per capita annual consumption in the USA was 54cigarettes (with less than 0.5% of the population smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year), andconsumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time about 50% of men and 33%of women smoked (defined as smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year). [17] By 2000,consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, and by 2006 per capita consumption haddeclined to 1,691; [18] implying that about 21% of the population smoked 100 cigarettes or more

    per year.

    German Doctors were the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancer which led tothe first anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany .[19][20] During World War I and World War II,cigarettes were rationed to soldiers. During the Vietnam War, cigarettes were included with C-ration meals. It was only in 1975 that the government quit putting cigarettes in military rations.During the second half of the 20th century, the adverse health effects of cigarettes started to

    become widely known and text-only health warnings became commonplace on cigarette packets.Warnings became prevalent but unpopular, mainly due to the political influences held by tobaccogrowers. The United States has not yet implemented graphical cigarette warning labels, whichare considered a more effective method to communicate to the public the dangers of cigarettesmoking. [21] Canada , Thailand , Malaysia , India , Pakistan , Australia , Brazil , New Zealand , theUnited Kingdom , France , Romania , Singapore and Turkey however, have both textual warnings
  • 8/3/2019 Pr Hard Copy


    and graphic visual images displaying, among other things, the damaging effects tobacco use hason the human body.

    The cigarette has evolved much since its conception; for example, the thin bands that traveltransverse to the "axis of smoking" (thus forming circles along the length of the cigarette) arealternate sections of thin and thick paper to facilitate effective burning when being drawn, and

    retard burning when at rest. Synthetic particulate filters remove some of the tar before it reachesthe smoker.

    Manufacturing of cigarette

    Diagram of a cigarette.1. Filter made of 95% cellulose acetate.2. Tipping paper to cover the filter.3. Rolling paper to cover the tobacco.4. Tobacco blend.

    ConsumptionAs of 2002, approximately 5.5 trillion cigarettes are produced globally each year and are smoked

    by over 1.1 billion people or greater than one-seventh of the world population. While smokingrates have leveled off or declined in developed nations, they continue to rise in developing partsof the world. Smoking rates in the United States have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006 fallingfrom 42% to 20.8% of adults. [3] In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4%

    per year. [4]

    Smoking prevalence by gender (2000)Percent smoking

    Region Men WomenAfrica 29% 4%United States 35% 22%Eastern Mediterranean 35% 4%Europe 46% 26%Southeast Asia 44% 4%Western Pacific 60% 8%

    Components of cigarette
  • 8/3/2019 Pr Hard Copy


  • 8/3/2019 Pr Hard Copy


    AmmoniaAmmonia speeds up the delivery of the nicotine. It freebases the nicotine in the same way as a crackuser takes cocaine.

    TarTar is deposited into the lungs every time a person inhales. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day

    deposits 1 to 1.5 pounds into the lungs every year

    BenzeneUsed as a solvent in fuel & dyes. Known to cause cancer.

    CadmiumUsed to make batteries, cadmium is known to cause kidney damage. It increases the risk of developing lung cancer.

    Carbon monoxideThis is the same chemical pushed out by cars. It prevents the blood carrying oxygen around the body.A heavy smokers ability to carry oxygen around the body is reduced by up to 15%.

    Hydrogen CyanideYet another gas that reduces the bodys ability to carry oxygen around the body.

    PyridinePyridine is a central nervous system depressant that booststhe effect of smoking.

    Effects of smokingBodyThere's hardly a part of the human body that's not

    affected by the chemicals in the cigarettes you smoke.Let's take a tour of your body to look at how smokingaffects it.

    Starting at the TopAs a sm