Political Geography - Anoka-Hennepin School District 11 ... Political Geography Chapter 8 . State ¢â‚¬â€œ

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  • Political Geography

    Chapter 8

  • State

    – An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an

    established government that has control over its

    internal and foreign affairs

    Sovereignty

    – A state having control over its internal affairs without

    interference from other states

    A World of States

  • Fertile Crescent - Mesopotamia

    City-state

    • A sovereign state that comprises a town and the

    surrounding countryside

    Egypt - Ancient Greece

    European States – Roman Empire: Controlled most of Europe, North

    Africa, and Southwest Asia from modern day Spain to

    Iran and from Egypt to England.

    – Collapsed in fifth century because of attacks and

    internal disputes.

    – European portion fragmented into estates.

    Ancient States

  • Self-determination

    – The right of ethnic groups to govern themselves

    within sovereign states

    Nation state

    – A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied

    by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

    Multinational states

    – Contain two or more ethnic groups with traditions of

    self determination

    – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

    Nation and Multinational States

  • Three Baltic states

    – Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

    Three European states

    – Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine

    Five Central Asian states

    – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

    Three Caucasus states

    – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia

    The Former USSR

  • Korea: one state or two?

    – Divided into two occupation zones after defeat of

    Japan in WWII.

    – Two Korean Governments

    • Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North

    Korea)

    • Republic of Korea ( South Korea)

    Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic)

    – Considered a sovereign state

    – Morocco claims the territory

    Challenges in Defining States

  • Who owns Antarctica?

  • Who controls the seas?

  • Colony – A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely

    independent

    • European colonies

    Colonialism • The effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political,

    economic, and cultural principles on that territory

    European colonies: motives

    – Promotion of Christianity

    – Resource extraction

    – Establishment of political power

    – “God, glory, and gold”

    – UK and France largest colonizers

    Colonization

  • Colonies then and now...

  • Remaining colonies

    – 68 places globally (U.S. State Department)

    – Entities not included as colonies by entities

    other than the State Department

    • Greenland, Hong Kong, Macao

    – Entities considered as colonies by other entities but not by the State

    Department

    • Lord Howe Island (Australia)

    • Ascension Island (Great Britain)

    • Easter Island (Chile)

    Are there still colonies?

  • Elongated states: potential isolation

    – States that have long narrow shapes

    • Malawi

    • Gambia

    Shapes of States

  • Fragmented states: problematic

    – States that include several discontinuous

    pieces of territory

    • Tanzania

    • Angola

    Shapes of States

  • Prorupted states: access or disruption

    – States with large projecting extensions

    – Created because:

    • Access to resources

    –Congo

    • To separate two states

    –Namibia

    » Caprivi Strip

    Shapes of States

  • Compact states: efficient – Distance from center to boundary in any

    direction does not vary by much

    • Burundi

    • Rwanda

    • Uganda

    • Kenya

    Shapes of States

  • Landlocked states

    – No direct outlet to the sea

    • Lesotho

    • Zambia

    • Botswana

    • Zimbabwe

    Shapes of States

  • Perforated states: completely surrounded

    – A state that completely surrounds

    another state

    • South Africa and Lesotho

    Shapes of States

  • Boundary

    – An invisible line marking the extent of a state’s territory

    Physical boundaries

    – Deserts, Mountains, Water

    Cultural boundaries

    – Geometric and Ethnic boundaries

    Frontiers

    – A zone where no state exercises complete political control

    – Historically, frontiers separated states.

    Boundaries of States

  • National government

    • Autocracy

    – A country that is run according to the interests

    of the ruler rather than the people

    • Anocracy

    – A country that is not fully democratic nor fully

    autocratic

    • Displays a mix of the two types of government

    Governing States

  • Unitary state

    • Allocates most power to the federal government

    • Local governments have relatively little power

    Federal state

    • Strong powers are allocated to units of local

    government

    Local government

  • – Redrawing legislative boundaries for the

    purpose of benefiting the party in power

    Gerrymandering

  • Military alliances

    – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

    – Warsaw Pact

    Economic cooperation

    – European Union

    – COMECON

    Superpowers

    – Balance of power

    • A condition of roughly equal strength between

    opposing forces

    Cooperation Among States

  • The systematic use of violence by a group in

    order to intimidate a population or coerce a

    government into granting its demands

    Terrorism

  • State-sponsored sanctuary for terrorists

    Afghanistan and Pakistan

    – Taliban

    • Arabic for “students of Muslim schools”

    Providing supplies to terrorists

    – Iran: The U.S. has accused Iran of developing nuclear weapons.

    Providing supplies to terrorists

    – Iraq: The U.S. lead an attack against Iraq in 2003, in order to depose Saddam

    Hussein.

    • 1991 Operation Desert Storm

    State-sponsored terrorist attacks

    – Libya: Muammar el-Qaddafi brutally attacked Libyan protesters.

    State-sponsored terrorism