Piece by Piece. The Specifics of Analysis. Analysis Defined. Tears a text down into its parts and explains how those parts work together Examines a subject part by part The activity we engage in every time we listen, read, or take in sensorial impressions. The Act of A nalysis. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Specifics of AnalysisPiece by PieceTears a text down into its parts and explains how those parts work togetherExamines a subject part by partThe activity we engage in every time we listen, read, or take in sensorial impressions
Analysis Defined.2Analysis = SpecificsInduction = SectionsHypothesis = Focus
The Act of Analysis
Analysis-The reader breaks the text into smaller partsInduction-Those specifics are examined to determine their relation, i.e. their patternsHypothesis-Those patterns are explained via a connecting idea
Types of AnalysisThe plays the thing.-William Shakespeare, HamletTextual AnalysisExamines the following.Works structureRhetorical techniques (irony, tone, etc)Figures of speechSound devicesOther literary stylingsThe Textual Method.Visual Traits: Look at the length of the paragraphs and the arrangement of lines and stanzas.Syntax: Grammatical constructions. Consider the use of pronouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. Note the order of the subject, predicate, complements and modifiersSentences: Length and structure. Look at the number of words, kinds of sentences (simple, compound, complex, compound-complex), and sentence patterns. In poetry check out the line(meter) and stanza length.Point of view: Speaker. Determine how the author chooses to tell the story. Does the point of view shift?
Specifics of Textual Analysis.7Diction: Choice of words. Determine whether the words are formal or informal, concrete or abstract, connotative or denotative.Sound Devices: Look for sound devices: assonance, consonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia.Imagery: Word pictures. What mood does the imagery evoke? Examine the images for connotative or symbolic overtones.Figures of speech: Literary devices: simile, metaphor, symbol, personification
Continue Textual AnalysisStructure: Arrangement of ideas: Look for chronological presentation, flashback, stream of consciousness, connection by suggestion, contrasts or comparisons. Is the piece primarily narrative, descriptive, or expository. If the piece is a poem, is it arranged in traditional structures, or is it free verse?
Tone: Tone is the attitude the speaker takes toward the subject matter, the emotional coloring of the work.
If, for instance, a friend tells you, Im going to get married today, the facts of his statement are clear. But the emotional meaning may vary according to the tone of voice with which the statement is made. He may be ecstatic (Im getting married today!); he may be incredulous (I cant believe it. Im getting married today.); he may be resigned (Might as well face it: Im getting married today.); he may be in despair (Horrors! Im getting married today.).
Continue Textual AnalysisPractice Time..Design
I found a dimpled spider, fat and white,On a white heal-all, holding up a mothLike a white piece of rigid satin cloth --Assorted characters of death and blightMixed ready to begin the morning right,Like the ingredients of a witches' broth --A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth,And dead wings carried like a paper kite.
What had that flower to do with being white,The wayside blue and innocent heal-all?What brought the kindred spider to that height,Then steered the white moth thither in the night?What but design of darkness to appall?--If design govern in a thing so small.
~Robert FrostHave students examine the poem using some of the textual techniques mentioned in the previous slides. Examples may be.The work is a sonnetUse of imagery-(use of the color of white-austere and cold/contrasts with blue-suggesting life)Rhetorical technique of posing questions in the poemAsk What effect is achieved in the poem? 10Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. ~Leo Tolstoy, Anna KareninaSociological AnalysisConcerned with the way social groups operateExamine the nature of power inherent in all relationshipsTargets groups of characters, isolating the conflicts and inadequacies in the arrangement and between individuals within and without those groupsExamine interactions within cultures Isolates the forces that create conditions under which the characters operate
Sociological Analysis Defined.*Discuss what in a characters culture can be examined: gender, economics, education, religion, work, geography, ethnicity, nationality, social trends, and customs*cultures not defined by size-friends we associate with, colleagues we work with, own families12SOLDIER'S HOME, by Ernest HemingwayKrebs went to the war from a Methodist college in Kansas. There is a picture which shows him among his fraternity brothers, all of them wearing exactly the same height and style collar. He enlisted in the Marines in 1917 and did not return to the United States until the second division returned from the Rhine in the summer of 1919. There is a picture which shows him on the Rhine with two German girls and another corporal. Krebs and the corporal look too big for their uniforms. The German girls are not beautiful. The Rhine does not show in the picture. By the time Krebs returned to his home town in Oklahoma the greeting of heroes was over. He came back much too late. The men from the town who had been drafted had all been welcomed elaborately on their return. There had been a great deal of hysteria. Now the reaction had set in. People seemed to think it was rather ridiculous for Krebs to be getting back so late, years after the war was over.
Practice timeHave students look at this excerpt and pick out the evidence that supports a sociological analysis.13Why then will you say that I am mad?~Edgar Allen Poe, The Tell-Tale HeartPsychological AnalysisAn analysis of a characters personality could be applied to characters and their motivationsDeals with the conflict between what a character unconsciously desires and a contrary desire on the part of the same character that violates social norms
Psychological Analysis definedKohlbergs Stages of Moral DevelopmentPre conventional stages-behavior motivated by anticipation of pleasure or painPunishment and obedienceBartering and exchange Conventional MoralityInterpersonal ConformityLaw and OrderPost conventional or principled moralityPrior Rights and Social ContractUniversal Ethical Principles
One Theory of Psychological AnalysisKohlbergs Stages of Moral DevelopmentPre conventional stages-behavior motivated by anticipation of pleasure or painPunishment and obedience-characters are motivated by fear and punishment. Behavior is deemed good or bad depending on its consequent punishmentBartering and exchange-characters do right because they are rewarded for such. In this way, morality is not an ethical debate but a bargaining process. Conventional MoralityInterpersonal Conformity-characters at this level find rewards via approval from others as they conceive behavior in social terms. They act ethically not as a result of ethical behavior but because they have learned to socialize their behavior.Law and Order-Society becomes embodied in legal institutions. Characters emphasize the importance of social stability as protected by obedience to laws and a desire for justice.Prior Rights and Social Contract-believe the state exists to guarantee rights that man is naturally endowed with, as the Founding Fathers argued. The social contract aids the individual, who submits to it to bring about the highest fulfillmentUniversal Ethical Principles-need no social contract or laws to regulate their behavior is needed fo characters
16 TRUE! --nervous --very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why will you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses --not destroyed --not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell. How, then, am I mad? Hearken! and observe how healthily --how calmly I can tell you the whole story. It is impossible to say how first the idea entered my brain; but once conceived, it haunted me day and night. Object there was none. Passion there was none. I loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For his gold I had no desire. I think it was his eye! yes, it was this! He had the eye of a vulture --a pale blue eye, with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and so by degrees --very gradually --I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye forever. ~THE TELL-TALE HEART by Edgar Allan Poe (1843)
Practice TimeHave students pick out the psychological elements of the excerpt from The Tell Tale Heart. 17Well, now that we have seen each other, said the Unicorn, if youll believe in me, Ill believe in you. Is that a bargain?~Lewis Carroll, Alices Adventures in WonderlandMythological AnalysisPass out self test as a pre activity to the introduction of mythological analysis. After the students have completed the test, then have students copy the notes. Once the notes are completed, have students compare their answers on the self test to what they learned about mythological analysis.18HeroThe innocentThe tricksterThe warriorThe teacher/prophetWise fool/saintJourneyInnocenceInitiationChaosResolution
Mythological Archetypes*Have students brainstorm a list of incidents wherein they had acted heroically.
19The InnocentPossess an innate understanding that has little basis in wisdom or knowledgeChild/ChildlikeThe TricksterDeception and playfulnessYoung teen/challenges the status quoCharms but teaches us
Hero*Innocent-Jack and Beanstalk*Trickster-The Simpsons20The WarriorFaces the system straight onAcknowledges the rules and matches his strength against established boundariesThe Teacher/ProphetMatured HeroUses experience and wisdom to guide others