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Phonemic Awareness & Phonics Oglala Lakota College ATE / RFTEN 2006

Phonemic Awareness & Phonics

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Phonemic Awareness & Phonics. ATE / RFTEN 2006. Oglala Lakota College. What it is… Understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds (phonemes) The skill of hearing and producing separate sounds in words The ability to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Phonemic Awareness & Phonics

Oglala Lakota College

ATE / RFTEN 2006

Phonemic Awareness

What it is…

• Understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds (phonemes)

• The skill of hearing and producing separate sounds in words

• The ability to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words

Most Effective when…

• Presented early on

• Explicit instruction is used to focus on one or two phonemic awareness skills

• Small group instruction is utilized

• Letters accompany phonemic awareness instruction

• Connections are made to reading and writing

Phonological Awareness

Phoneme Blending, Segmenting, and ManipulationOnset-Rime

Blending and Segmenting

Syllable Blending and Segmentation

Sentence Segmentation

Rhyme / Alliteration


Activity: Phonological Awareness

The Alphabetic Principle

Alphabetic Principle

• The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words

• Is the key to learning to read in many languages, including English and Lakota

Composed of two parts:

• Alphabetic Understanding• Letter Recognition• Letter-Sound Relationships

• Phonological Recording (Decoding)• Regular word reading• Irregular word reading• Advanced word analysis


“Students who acquire and apply the alphabetic principle early in their reading careers reap long-term benefits.” (Stanovich, 1986)

Letter-Sound Relationships

What it is and Why… • Refers to the common

sounds of letters and letter combinations in written words

• Predicts later reading success

Effective Instruction…

• Explicit and systematic

• Presents initial instruction of the common sounds associated with individual letters

• Progresses to blending sounds together to read words

Activity: First 11 Letter-Sound Correspondences

i, t, p, n, s, a d, l, f, h, g

Sequence for Introducing Letter-Sound Correspondences

• i, t, p, n, s, a, l, d, f, h, g, o, k, c, m, r, b, e, y, j, u, w, v, x, z, qu

• Introduce a few letters at a time• Separate similar shapes and sounds• Connect to reading and writing words

Adapted from: Neuhaus Education Center (1992)

Phonics Instruction

Phonics Instruction

• Teaches children the relationship between the individual sounds of spoken language and the letters of written language

• Progresses from letter-sounds relationships to using spelling patterns and understanding meaningful units in words

• Teaches students to examine words and apply phonics elements and structural analysis to read and spell words

Most Effective when…

• Children receive early and systematic instruction

• Teachers provide explicit directions for learning new letter-sound relationships and phonic elements

• Used in a variety of grouping patterns

• Children have opportunities to apply their new skills in reading and writing

Guidelines for Teaching Decoding

Select words that:

• Consist of previously taught letter-sound correspondences

• Progress from VC and CVC words to longer words

• Are frequently used and represent familiar vocabulary

Sequence instruction:

• Blend individual sounds without stopping between them

• Initially contain “stop” sounds in the final position

• Following sounding out of a word with its “fast” pronunciation

• Move from orally sounding out words to silently “sounding out” words

Word Reading Strategies

• Identifying and blending together all of the letter-sound correspondences in words

• Recognizing high frequency and irregular words

• Using common spelling and syllable patterns

• Using structural clues such as compound words, base words, affixes and inflections

• Using knowledge of syntax (word order) and semantics (context) to support pronunciation and confirm word meaning

Taught concurrently with new letter-sound correspondences.

Spelling Patterns

• Letter sequences of vowel and consonant letters that are learned and produced as a unit

• Also known as phonograms or rimes

• Words containing the same rime for word families (/all/: fall, ball, tall, call, mall)

Syllable Patterns

• Closed: ends in at least one consonant; the vowel is short

• Open: ends in one vowel; the vowel is long

• Vowel-Consonant-e: ends in one vowel, a consonant and a final e; the final e is silent and the vowel is long

• R-Controlled: has an r after the vowel; the vowel makes an unexpected sound

• Vowel Teams: has two adjacent vowels; each vowel combination must be learned individually

• Final Stable Syllable: has a final consonant –le combination or a non-phonetic, but reliable unit such as -tion

“CLOVER”Handout: Teaching the Six Syllable Types

Structural Analysis

• Compound words

• Inflectional endings: -s, -es, -ing, -ed

• Base words and common affixes• Prefixes: re-, un-, con-, in-, im-, ir-, il-, dis-• Suffixes: -ness, -full, -ion

Multisyllabic Word Identification

Using Syllable Patterns

• S - see the syllable patters

• P – place a line between the syllables

• L – look at each syllable• I – identify the syllable

sounds• T – try to say the word

(adapted from Durkin, 1993)

Using Structural Analysis

• H – highlight the prefix and/or suffix parts

• I – identify the sounds in the base word

• N – name the base word• T – tie the parts together• S – say the word

(adapted from Archer, Gleason & Vaughn, 2000)

Apply the HINTS Strategy to decode these words:











Apply the HINTS Strategy to decode these words:











Apply the SPLIT Strategy to decode these pseudowords:











Apply the SPLIT Strategy to decode these pseudowords:

zim / tle C L

thi / pur O R

ex / op C C

er / pe / tleR O L

roo / gir V R

mik / ner C R

pri / tho O O

re / pote O v-e

seb / shir C R

sar / pyn R C

Multisyllabic chunking

When skilled readers encounter multisyllabic, unfamiliar words, they divide or chunk them into manageable units• Word families of phonograms: -ade, -ick, -ill• Inflectional endings: -s, -es, -ing, -ed• Prefixes and Suffixes: fore-, dis-, -ity, -ency• Known words:

• to read (woman)• to remember spelling (conscience)

Syntax and Context

• Used to:• Support word identification• Confirm word meaning

• Questions students might ask themselves:• “Does that sound right here?”• “Does that make sense?”

Supporting New Words

• Provide multiple opportunities for practicing new words:• Word Walls• Making and Sorting Words• Word and Sentence Dictation• Broad Reading• Writing for a Purpose

A Primary Goal of Reading Instruction

• To prepare student to read stories and informational texts fluently so that they are able to understand what they read

“You can’t read to learn until you first learn to read.” – Rod Paige, US Secretary of Education

Implementing Word Study Instruction Tomorrow

• Work as a group to consider how you might implement word study instruction using a selected story or text

Handout: Instructional Planning Chart

Assessing Alphabetic Principle

• DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)

• A standardized, individually administered test of the alphabetic principle - including letter-sound correspondence and of the ability to blend letters into words in which letters represent their most common sounds.

• Given in Winter (optional) and Spring of Kindergarten, and Fall, Winter, and Spring of First Grade.

• http://dibels.uoregon.edu/measures/nwf.php

Assessing Alphabetic Principle

Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)

• A nationally normed measure of word reading accuracy and fluency

• Provides an efficient means of monitoring the growth of two kinds of word reading skills • the ability to accurately recognize familiar

words as whole units or “sight words” • the ability to “sound out” words quickly

• Ages: 6-0 to 24-11

• http://www.proedinc.com

Assessing Phonics Skills

• The Quick Phonics Screener (QPS)• An ongoing progress monitoring tool to

monitor word study knowledge, identify needs and inform your instruction

• For use in grades K-6

• Author Contact: http://www.jhasbrouck.com/index.html

Materials and Resources

• Word Study for Students with Learning Disabilities and English Language Learners http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/primary_word_study.asp

• Examining Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/primary_phonics.asp

• Word Analysis: Principles for Instruction and Progress Monitoring http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/primary_word_analysis.asp

• Curriculum Maps: Sequencing Alphabetic Principle Skills http://reading.uoregon.edu/au/au_sequence.php

• Guidelines for Examining Phonics & Word Recognition Programshttp://www.tea.state.tx.us/reading/practices/practices.html


• Online Teacher Reading Academies, University of Texas, Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts

• Big Ideas in Beginning Reading, University of Oregon, Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement

• Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Vaughn & Linan-Thompson

• Increasing Student Spelling Achievement: Not Just on Tests, But In Daily Writing Across the Curriculum, Rebecca Sitton