PENGANTAR ILMU BIOKIMIA. Oleh H.Mohammad Hanafi,MBBS, dr, MS. Pensiunan Dosen Ilmu Biokimia

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PENGANTAR ILMU BIOKIMIA. Oleh H.Mohammad Hanafi,MBBS, dr, MS. Pensiunan Dosen Ilmu Biokimia FK UAIR. Ilmu Biokimia : mempelajari macam-macam molekul yang ada di dalam sel mahluk hidup dan organisme dan reaksi-reaksi kimia yang terjadi diantara molekul-molekul tersebut. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of PENGANTAR ILMU BIOKIMIA. Oleh H.Mohammad Hanafi,MBBS, dr, MS. Pensiunan Dosen Ilmu Biokimia

  • *PENGANTAR ILMU BIOKIMIA.

    Oleh

    H.Mohammad Hanafi,MBBS, dr, MS.Pensiunan Dosen Ilmu BiokimiaFK UAIR

  • *Ilmu Biokimia :mempelajari macam-macam molekul yang ada di dalam sel mahluk hidup dan organisme dan reaksi-reaksi kimia yang terjadi diantara molekul-molekul tersebut. Ilmu Biokimia dapat perkawinan antara ilmu kimia dan ilmu biologi.

  • *Ilmu yang memperhatikan (concerned) dengan ilmu kimia dasar dari kehidupan (the chemical basis of life)Two notable breakthroughs in the history of biochemistry (1) Discovery of the role of enzymes as catalysts(2) Identification of nucleic acids as information molecules

  • *Manusia organ ( otak, mata, organ-organ pencernaan,paru, jantung, ginjal, organ-organ reproduksi, dan lainnya)Organ jaringan,Jaringan sel

  • *Organism, Organ, CellOrganism

  • *The ER modifies proteins, makes macromolecules, and transfers substances throughout the cell.Ribosome translates mRNA into a polypeptide chain (e.g., a protein).Mitochondrion manufactures adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used as a source of energy.The Cell circa 100 trillion (1014) cells in a human organism 200 different forms of cellsNucleus only in eukaryotic cells. Contains most of the cell's genetic material.

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  • *Fig 1.15 (a) Eukaryotic cell (animal)

  • *Structure of a biological membrane A lipid bilayer with associated proteins

  • *

  • *Di dalam sel ada organel (mitokhondria dll), supra molekul (ribosom, enzim), makromulekul (polisakarida, polipeptida), building block (asam amino, glukosa, asam lemak, deoksinukleotida, ribonukleotida dll) metabolit (asam piruvat, asam sitrat, asetoasetil-KoA, asam urat dll).

  • *Precursor adalah suatu senyawa yang dianggap dapat sebagai tanda adanya kehidupan di suatu planetBahannya yg dianalisa adalah udara (H2O, N2, CO2, NH3 dan O2)

  • *Manusia tersusun atas : bahan organik, protein 15%, lipid 15% dan karbohidrat 5%, (2) bahan anorganik 5% berat badan.(a) kation, Na+, K, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe, Zn2+, Cu2+ dll. (b) anion Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-, H2P2O42- dll.

  • *KarbohidratSenyawa polihidroksi aldehid atau polihidroksi keton.(1). Monosakarida (Cn H2n On ): Jumlah atom CAldehidKetonTriose (3)GliseroseDihidroksi asetonTetrose (4)EritroseEritrulosePentose (5)RiboseRibuloseHeksose (6)GlukoseFruktose

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    EMBED ChemDraw.Document.4.5

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    D-glucose (linear form)

    _1089463288.cdx

    _1089463386.cdx

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  • *Disakarida { Cn (H2O)n-1 }:Sukrose (glukose dan fruktose)Laktose (glukose dan galaktose)Maltose (dua glukose)

  • *(3). Oligosakarida ( 4 10 mono sakarida )(4). Polisakarida:homopolisakarida, amilum, glikogen, innulin, sellulose dan lainnyaheteropolisakarida, chitin, glikoprotein dll.Amilum : Amilose 20 % Amilopektin 80%

  • *Amilose

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  • *

    EMBED ChemDraw.Document.4.5

    glycogen

    _995972862.cdx

    _995973151.cdx

    _995972609.cdx

  • *Glikogen

  • *LipidaSenyawa yang larut dalam pelarut nonpolar. (A). Lipida sederhana1.triasil gliserol 2.lilin (B). Lipida komplek 1.fosfolipid, lesitin (lechitine) 2.serebrosida, sphingosin 3.lipoprotein(C). Turunan lipid1.asam lemak2.gliserol3.steroid4.keton bodies

  • **Triasil GliserolFosfolipida

  • **SphingosineCeramide

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    Numerical SymbolCommon NameStructure14:0Myristic acidCH3(CH2)12COOH16:0Palmitic acidCH3(CH2)14COOH16:1D9Palmitoleic acidCH3(CH2)5C=C(CH2)7COOH18:0Stearic acidCH3(CH2)16COOH 18:1D9Oleic acidCH3(CH2)7C=C(CH2)7COOH 18:2D9,12Linoleic acidCH3(CH2)4C=CCH2C=C(CH2)7COOH18:3D9,12,15Linolenic acidCH3CH2C=CCH2C=CCH2C=C(CH2)7COOH20:4D5,8,11,14Arachidonic acidCH3(CH2)3(CH2C=C)4(CH2)3COOH

  • *Contoh asam lemak tidak jenuh: 1.asam linoleat ( 6, 18:2; 9, 12 ) 2.asam linolenat ( 3, 18:3; 9, 12,15 ) 3.asam arakhidonat ( 6, 20:4; 5, 8, 11, 14 )

    COOH

    19 12 9

    Asam linoleat (( 6, 18:2, (9,12 )

  • *Asam amino dan ProteinSenyawa yang mengandung gugus asam dan amino : H R-C-N H3+ H3+N-C-COOH COOH | RAsam amino esensial (tikus putih) : Arginine (Arg=R), Histidine (His=H), Isoleucine (Ileu=I), Leucine (Leu=L), Lysine (Lys=K), Phenylalanine (Phe=F), Methionine (Met=M), Threonine (Thr=T), Tryptophan (Try=W) dan Valine (Val=V).

  • *Asam amino yang lain : Glycine (Gly=G), Alanine (Ala=A), Serine (Ser=S), Tyrosine (Tyr=Y), Cysteine (Cys=C), Aspartic acid (Asp=D), Asparagine (Asn=N), Glutamic acid (Glu=E), Glutamine (Gln=Q), dan Proline (Pro=P).

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    Name1-letter codeTripletGlycineGGGT,GGC,GGA,GGGAlanineAGCT,GCC,GCA,GCGValineVGTT,GTC,GTA,GTGLeucineLTTG,TTA,CTT,CTC,CTA,CTGIsoleucineIATT,ATC,ATAHistidineHCAT,CACSerineSTCT,TCC,TCA,TCG,AGT,AGCThreonineTACT,ACC,ACA,ACGCysteineCTGT,TGCMethionineMATGGlutamic AcidEGAA,GAGAspartic AcidDGAT,GAC,AAT,AACLysineKAAA,AAGArginineRCGT,CGC,CGA,CGG,AGA,AGGAsparagineNAAT,AACGlutamineQCAA,CAGPhenylalanineFTTT,TTCTyrosineYTAT,TACTryptophanWTGGProlinePCCT,CCC,CCA,CCGTerminator (Stop)*TAA,TAG,TGA

  • *Asam amino dapat membentuk polipeptida (protein) dengan ikatan peptida. Pembagian protein : (A).Protein sederhana: albumin, globulin, kollagen, histon da protamin(B).Protein terkonyugasi, nukleoprotein, glikoprotein, lipoprotein, metaloprotein, dan lainnya

  • *

  • *

  • *Protein StructurePrimary structure is the sequence of the amino acids in the protein.A change in one amino acid can alter the biochemical behavior of the protein.Secondary structure is the regular arrangement of segments of protein.

  • *ProteinsProtein StructureOne common secondary structure is the -helix.Hydrogen bonds between N-H bonds and carbonyl groups hold the helix in place.

  • **STRUKTUR SEKUNDER : R | C C N || | | O H H : : : : : : : : H H O | | || N C C | Rikatan Hidrogen* Lain2 : * LIPIT = - PLEATED * KUMPARAN ACAK = RANDOM COILCys SHCys SH* Helix

  • *ProteinsProtein Structure

    Tertiary structure is the three dimensional structure of the protein.Shape of the protein

  • **STRUKTUR TERSIER :Dari satu untai rantai polipeptidamonomer Contoh : MIOGLOBIN (MYOGLOBINE) MONOMER Struktur Tersier : IKATAN HIDROGEN GAYA2 VAN DER WAALSIKATAN2 YG. LEMAH

  • *Structure solved using Xray crystallographyTertiary structure of proteinscatalase enzyme

  • **STRUKTUR KUARTERNER : MONOMER PROTOMER

    DIMER

    TETRAMER

    OLIGOMERPOLIMERsubunitsubunitTERMASUK STRUKTURKUARTERNERT.D. SATU UNTAI RANTAI POLIPEPTIDAHANYA SAMPAI STRUKTUR TERSIER

  • **STRUKTUR KUARTERNER :SATU MOLEKUL T.D. > 1 RANTAI PEPTIDAT.D. 2 SUBUNIT ATAU LEBIH 1 SUBUNIT ~ 1 RANTAI PEPTIDADIIKAT OLEH :IKATAN HIDROGENIKATAN ELEKTROSTATIKKEGUNAAN :SUPAYA MOLEKULNYA LEBIH STABILUNTUK MENDAPAT FUNGSI TERTENTU

    ENZIMIKATAN2 YGLEMAHIkatan non Kovalen

  • *

  • *Nucleic AcidsNucleic acids carry genetic information.DNA (deoxyribonucleic acids) have molecular weights around 6 - 16 106 amu and are found inside the nucleus of the cell.RNA (ribonucleic acids) have molecular weights around 20,000 to 40,000 amu and are found in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus of the cell.

  • *Nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides.There are three important parts to a nucleic acid: phosphoric acid unit, five carbon sugar (e.g. deoxyribose), and nitrogen containing organic base (e.g. adenine).

  • *

  • **Nucleic AcidsOriginally isolated from nucleiTwo typesDeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)Passed from generation to generation Constitute genome/chromosomes/genesContains instructions for making proteinsRibonucleic acid (RNA)Function in the synthesis of proteins coded by DNASeveral distinct typesMake up the genomes of some viruses

  • **Nucleotide structure

  • **Purin

  • **Pirimidin

  • **NUKLEOSIDA

  • **Nukleosida yang lain

  • **Nucleotide

  • **Nukleotida

  • *Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)Nitrogenous base (adenine), sugar (ribose)

  • *Deoxyadenylic AcidFG25_030.JPG

  • *Structure of a Polynucleotide

  • *Nucleic AcidsDNA and RNA have different sugars (dexoyribose vs. ribose).There are only five bases found in DNA and RNA:adenine (A),guanine (G),cytosine (C),thymine (T found in DNA only), anduracil (U found in RNA only).

  • *Nitrogen-Containing Bases

  • *Nucleic AcidsDNA consists of two deoxyribonucleic acid strands wound together in a double helix.The phosphate chains are wrapped around the outside of the DNA molecule.

  • *Complementary base pairs are formed from bases which optimize H-bonding: T and A or C and G. The complementary base pairs are held together by hydrogen bonding. During cell division, the DNA double helix unwinds.

  • *Complementary Base Pairs

  • *A new strand is formed when bases attach to each strand of the unwinding double helix.Because of the optimized hydrogen bonding, there is only one location for each base.

  • *Therefore, the order of bases in the new strand is the same as the order of bases in th