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PHYSICS LAB BOOK

SAM PLE

PHYSICS Lab Book

Published by Pearson Education Limited, 80 Strand, London, WC2R 0RL.

www.pearson.com/international-schools

Copies of official specifications for all Pearson Edexcel qualifications may be found on the website: https://qualifications.pearson.com

Text © Pearson Education Limited 2021 Edited by Jim Newall, Jane Read and Rebecca Ramsden Designed by © Pearson Education Limited 2021 Typeset by © SPi Global Original illustrations © Pearson Education Limited 2021 Cover design © Pearson Education Limited 2021

The rights of Gillian Nightingale, Mark Levesley and Penny Johnson to be identified as authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

First published 2021

24 23 22 21 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 978 1 292 39491 6

Copyright notice All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means (including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright owner, except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 5th Floor, Shackleton House, 4 Battlebridge Lane, London, SE1 2HX (www.cla.co.uk). Applications for the copyright owner’s written permission should be addressed to the publisher.

Printed in Slovakia by Neografia

Acknowledgements All artwork © Pearson Education Limited 2021

A note from the publishers: While the Publishers have made every attempt to ensure that advice on the qualification and its assessment is accurate, the official specification and associated assessment guidance materials are the only authoritative source of information and should always be referred to for definitive guidance. Pearson examiners have not contributed to any sections in this resource relevant to examination papers for which they have responsibility. Examiners will not use this resource as a source of material for any assessment set by Pearson.

Neither Pearson, Edexcel nor the authors take responsibility for the safety of any activity. Before doing any practical activity you are legally required to carry out your own risk assessment. In particular, any local rules issued by your employer must be obeyed, regardless of what is recommended in this resource. Where students are required to write their own risk assessments they must always be checked by the teacher and revised, as necessary, to cover any issues the students may have overlooked. The teacher should always have the final control as to how the practical is conducted.

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

9 MEASURING DENSITY 37

11 MAGNETIC FIELDS 44

PRACTICAL SKILLS TABLE 57

2

Part 1: Measuring the average speed of a trolley down a ramp

Introduction

In bobsleighing, the aim of the race is to get to the end of the track as quickly as possible. The acceleration of the bobsleigh is important and the steepness of the hill has a big effect on the acceleration and average speed of the bobsleigh. However, safety is important and so course developers try to make a course that is both safe and fast. In this practical, you are going to use a trolley as a model of a bobsleigh to investigate the effect of the steepness of a hill on the average speed of the bobsleigh.

Your teacher may watch to see if you can:

follow instructions carefully

take careful measurements.

Method

1 Prop up one end of the ramp with the blocks and place a trolley on it. Adjust the slope of the ramp until the trolley just starts to move on its own. Gravity pulling the trolley down the slope is now slightly greater than the friction between the trolley’s wheels and the ramp. This is your starting height. Record the height of the end of the ramp in the table.

2 Stick a piece of card to the top of the trolley using sticky putty. Measure the length of the card and write it down.

3 Set up two light gates, one near the top of the ramp and one near the bottom. Adjust their positions so that the card on the top of the trolley passes through each gate as the trolley runs down the ramp. Measure the distance from the first light gate to the second light gate. Record this distance.

4 Release the trolley from the top of the ramp without pushing it. Write down the time from the datalogger that the trolley takes to travel between the two light gates.

piece of card

5 Repeat step 4 for other heights of the ramp. You will need to decide what heights you will use and how many different heights you will test. Repeat each test three times.

Learning tip

Make sure that you release the trolley from the same place on the ramp each time.

Make sure the trolley does not fall on your feet by placing a box of crumpled newspaper on the floor beneath the end of the ramp.

! Safety notes

card

two clamps and stands

box of crumpled newspaper

To investigate the effect of the height of a ramp on the average speed of a trolley.

Objectives

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

1.5 (1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.10, 1.21)

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 2 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

3

Prediction

You will vary the height of the ramp to see how the steepness of the slope affects the average speed of the trolley. What effect do you think the height of the ramp will have on the average speed? Explain your prediction if you can.

Results

Height of ramp (m)

light gates (m)

Average Speed (m/s)

Mean1 2 3

2 Find the mean time taken for each of the heights.

3 Calculate the average speed using the equation in the box.

You will need to recall and apply this equation in the exam:

average speed = total distance travelled

total time taken

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 3 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

4

Analysis

1 Plot a graph to show your results. Put the height of the ramp on the horizontal axis (x-axis) and the average speed on the vertical axis (y-axis). Draw a line or curve of best fit through your points.

2 a What relationship between average speed and height of the ramp does your graph show?

b How does this compare with your prediction?

Evaluation

1 a How close are the points on your graph to the line of best fit? Are any of your results anomalous? Comment on any of your results that are anomalous.

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 4 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

5

b What does this tell you about the quality of the data you have gathered?

2 How do your results compare with the results obtained by other groups?

3 How certain are you that your conclusion is correct? Explain your answer.

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 5 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

Introduction

When objects fall through the air like a skydiver, they are said to be free-falling. The skydiver experiences an acceleration due to gravity of approximately 10 m/s2. The skydiver continues to accelerate until the air resistance against them matches the force of their weight acting downwards and they reach terminal velocity. In this practical, you are going to use a tennis ball as a model for the skydiver and try to determine the acceleration due to gravity of the tennis ball.

Your teacher may want to see if you can:

take accurate measurements of a falling object

plot and obtain a reliable graph

determine the gradient of a graph.

Method

ball

bench light gate and datalogger

1 Set up the equipment as shown in the diagram (note that it may be necessary to add an extra clamp to the datalogger). The ends of the two metre rules should touch each other.

2 Starting from 1.00 m, release the ball and use the light gate to record the velocity of the ball just before it hits the ground.

3 Repeat step 2 three times and record the results in the table.

4 Calculate the mean velocity of the falling ball.

5 Change the starting height, and repeat steps 2 and 3 for a number of different heights. Record your results in the table.

Ensure that the clamp stand is secured to the bench so that it does not fall over.

! Safety notes

light gate

Objectives

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

1.5 (1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.10, 1.21)

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 6 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

Learning tips

Check that the ball breaks the beam of light in the light gate. This can be tricky, but it is possible.

Remember to load the diameter of the ball into the datalogger before starting so that the datalogger calculates velocity rather than time.

Prediction

How do think the velocity of the ball will vary with the starting height? What forces are acting on the ball? Predict what you think will happen.

Results

Height (m)

1.00

Analysis

1 Calculate (average velocity)2 for each of your height results.

2 Plot a graph of (average velocity)2 (y-axis) against height (x-axis).

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 7 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

Learning tip

Choose scales so that your graph covers at least half of the grid. Also, choose scales where each large square represents a multiple of 1, 2, 4, 5 or 10.

3 Draw a line of best fit.

4 Calculate the gradient of your graph.

5 The velocity and height are connected by the equation: v2 = u2 + 2as.

where v is the velocity and s is the height.

As the ball is starting from rest, u = 0 and so the equation becomes: v2 = 2as.

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 8 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

9

The acceleration, a, is equal to g (gravitational field strength) and can be determined from the gradient of the graph. So g can be calculated using: gradient = 2 × g.

Calculate g.

2 Compare your result with the accepted value of g.

3 Describe two possible ways that there may have been errors in your experiment.

4 Suggest one improvement you could make to your experiment for each of the errors you described in question 3 if you were to repeat the experiment again.

5 Suggest one way your graph might show the consequence of these errors when plotted.

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 9 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

SAM PLE

PHYSICS Lab Book

Published by Pearson Education Limited, 80 Strand, London, WC2R 0RL.

www.pearson.com/international-schools

Copies of official specifications for all Pearson Edexcel qualifications may be found on the website: https://qualifications.pearson.com

Text © Pearson Education Limited 2021 Edited by Jim Newall, Jane Read and Rebecca Ramsden Designed by © Pearson Education Limited 2021 Typeset by © SPi Global Original illustrations © Pearson Education Limited 2021 Cover design © Pearson Education Limited 2021

The rights of Gillian Nightingale, Mark Levesley and Penny Johnson to be identified as authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

First published 2021

24 23 22 21 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 978 1 292 39491 6

Copyright notice All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means (including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright owner, except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 5th Floor, Shackleton House, 4 Battlebridge Lane, London, SE1 2HX (www.cla.co.uk). Applications for the copyright owner’s written permission should be addressed to the publisher.

Printed in Slovakia by Neografia

Acknowledgements All artwork © Pearson Education Limited 2021

A note from the publishers: While the Publishers have made every attempt to ensure that advice on the qualification and its assessment is accurate, the official specification and associated assessment guidance materials are the only authoritative source of information and should always be referred to for definitive guidance. Pearson examiners have not contributed to any sections in this resource relevant to examination papers for which they have responsibility. Examiners will not use this resource as a source of material for any assessment set by Pearson.

Neither Pearson, Edexcel nor the authors take responsibility for the safety of any activity. Before doing any practical activity you are legally required to carry out your own risk assessment. In particular, any local rules issued by your employer must be obeyed, regardless of what is recommended in this resource. Where students are required to write their own risk assessments they must always be checked by the teacher and revised, as necessary, to cover any issues the students may have overlooked. The teacher should always have the final control as to how the practical is conducted.

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

9 MEASURING DENSITY 37

11 MAGNETIC FIELDS 44

PRACTICAL SKILLS TABLE 57

2

Part 1: Measuring the average speed of a trolley down a ramp

Introduction

In bobsleighing, the aim of the race is to get to the end of the track as quickly as possible. The acceleration of the bobsleigh is important and the steepness of the hill has a big effect on the acceleration and average speed of the bobsleigh. However, safety is important and so course developers try to make a course that is both safe and fast. In this practical, you are going to use a trolley as a model of a bobsleigh to investigate the effect of the steepness of a hill on the average speed of the bobsleigh.

Your teacher may watch to see if you can:

follow instructions carefully

take careful measurements.

Method

1 Prop up one end of the ramp with the blocks and place a trolley on it. Adjust the slope of the ramp until the trolley just starts to move on its own. Gravity pulling the trolley down the slope is now slightly greater than the friction between the trolley’s wheels and the ramp. This is your starting height. Record the height of the end of the ramp in the table.

2 Stick a piece of card to the top of the trolley using sticky putty. Measure the length of the card and write it down.

3 Set up two light gates, one near the top of the ramp and one near the bottom. Adjust their positions so that the card on the top of the trolley passes through each gate as the trolley runs down the ramp. Measure the distance from the first light gate to the second light gate. Record this distance.

4 Release the trolley from the top of the ramp without pushing it. Write down the time from the datalogger that the trolley takes to travel between the two light gates.

piece of card

5 Repeat step 4 for other heights of the ramp. You will need to decide what heights you will use and how many different heights you will test. Repeat each test three times.

Learning tip

Make sure that you release the trolley from the same place on the ramp each time.

Make sure the trolley does not fall on your feet by placing a box of crumpled newspaper on the floor beneath the end of the ramp.

! Safety notes

card

two clamps and stands

box of crumpled newspaper

To investigate the effect of the height of a ramp on the average speed of a trolley.

Objectives

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

1.5 (1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.10, 1.21)

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 2 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

3

Prediction

You will vary the height of the ramp to see how the steepness of the slope affects the average speed of the trolley. What effect do you think the height of the ramp will have on the average speed? Explain your prediction if you can.

Results

Height of ramp (m)

light gates (m)

Average Speed (m/s)

Mean1 2 3

2 Find the mean time taken for each of the heights.

3 Calculate the average speed using the equation in the box.

You will need to recall and apply this equation in the exam:

average speed = total distance travelled

total time taken

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 3 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

4

Analysis

1 Plot a graph to show your results. Put the height of the ramp on the horizontal axis (x-axis) and the average speed on the vertical axis (y-axis). Draw a line or curve of best fit through your points.

2 a What relationship between average speed and height of the ramp does your graph show?

b How does this compare with your prediction?

Evaluation

1 a How close are the points on your graph to the line of best fit? Are any of your results anomalous? Comment on any of your results that are anomalous.

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 4 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

5

b What does this tell you about the quality of the data you have gathered?

2 How do your results compare with the results obtained by other groups?

3 How certain are you that your conclusion is correct? Explain your answer.

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 5 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

Introduction

When objects fall through the air like a skydiver, they are said to be free-falling. The skydiver experiences an acceleration due to gravity of approximately 10 m/s2. The skydiver continues to accelerate until the air resistance against them matches the force of their weight acting downwards and they reach terminal velocity. In this practical, you are going to use a tennis ball as a model for the skydiver and try to determine the acceleration due to gravity of the tennis ball.

Your teacher may want to see if you can:

take accurate measurements of a falling object

plot and obtain a reliable graph

determine the gradient of a graph.

Method

ball

bench light gate and datalogger

1 Set up the equipment as shown in the diagram (note that it may be necessary to add an extra clamp to the datalogger). The ends of the two metre rules should touch each other.

2 Starting from 1.00 m, release the ball and use the light gate to record the velocity of the ball just before it hits the ground.

3 Repeat step 2 three times and record the results in the table.

4 Calculate the mean velocity of the falling ball.

5 Change the starting height, and repeat steps 2 and 3 for a number of different heights. Record your results in the table.

Ensure that the clamp stand is secured to the bench so that it does not fall over.

! Safety notes

light gate

Objectives

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

1.5 (1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.10, 1.21)

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 6 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

Learning tips

Check that the ball breaks the beam of light in the light gate. This can be tricky, but it is possible.

Remember to load the diameter of the ball into the datalogger before starting so that the datalogger calculates velocity rather than time.

Prediction

How do think the velocity of the ball will vary with the starting height? What forces are acting on the ball? Predict what you think will happen.

Results

Height (m)

1.00

Analysis

1 Calculate (average velocity)2 for each of your height results.

2 Plot a graph of (average velocity)2 (y-axis) against height (x-axis).

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 7 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

Learning tip

Choose scales so that your graph covers at least half of the grid. Also, choose scales where each large square represents a multiple of 1, 2, 4, 5 or 10.

3 Draw a line of best fit.

4 Calculate the gradient of your graph.

5 The velocity and height are connected by the equation: v2 = u2 + 2as.

where v is the velocity and s is the height.

As the ball is starting from rest, u = 0 and so the equation becomes: v2 = 2as.

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 8 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.

9

The acceleration, a, is equal to g (gravitational field strength) and can be determined from the gradient of the graph. So g can be calculated using: gradient = 2 × g.

Calculate g.

2 Compare your result with the accepted value of g.

3 Describe two possible ways that there may have been errors in your experiment.

4 Suggest one improvement you could make to your experiment for each of the errors you described in question 3 if you were to repeat the experiment again.

5 Suggest one way your graph might show the consequence of these errors when plotted.

CORE PRACTICAL 1: MOTION INVESTIGATING THE MOTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS 1.5

SPECIFICATION REFERENCE

M01 iG Physics Lab Book SB2 Global 94916.indd 9 16/04/21 11:22 AM

Sa m

pl e

m at

er ia

l. N

ot fo

r re

sa le

, c ir

cu la

tio n

or d

is tr

ib ut

io n

in w

ho le

o r

in p

ar t.