P1.1. Feeding a Billion Plus: the Indian Way

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  • 1.Feeding a Billion Plus:The Indian Way 29 October, 2012

2. India Today > 17% of the worlds human & 11% livestock population and counting 4.2% of the worlds water 2.4% of the worlds area 142 m ha cultivated & 60 m ha net irrigated 138% cropping intensity 52% of population earns livelihood in agriculture 14.0% contribution in GDP 10.5% earning of total exports 3. 2500 India in World Food Basket2000India World mtWorldIndia1500Cereals 2237.6 257.41000Rice455.6104.3 500Wheat 652.693.9 0Coarse1121.3 42.1 MeatCereals Rice Fish SugarWheatMaize OilseedMilk Coarse GrainsGrainsMaize 889.221.5Developed Near EastLatinCountries,na NorthAsia and 19 Africa, 37Americaand the Oilseed 464.7 30 the Caribbean, Pacific, 57853Sub-SaharanSugar 165.7 26 Africa, 239Meat290.6 6.8 Undernourishment in 2010, by region (million)Milk 710127Exports: Rice 10 mmt, Wheat 2 mmt, Sugar 2 mmt, Cotton 2.2 mmt, Fish 0.8 mmtFish149.0 8.4 4. T.E. 1990-91 Livestock, 20%Fisheries, 3%Composition (%) Forestry &Logging, 22% of Output of Horticulture, 16% Cereals, 23% Agriculture & Allied SectorsOther Crops &byproducts, 9%Fibres, 2%Sugars, 4% Oilseeds, 7% Pulses, 4%Fisheries, 5%Forestry &Logging, 9% Livestock, 25%Cereals, 18% Horticulture, 20% T.E. 2011-12 Pulses, 3% Oilseeds, 6%Other Crops &Sugars, 4%Source: CSO byproducts, 7% Fibres, 3% 5. Total Domestic Demand for Various Food Commodities: million tonnesPresent Projected for 2050 Food Items2009-2010 BAUMMUpsideCereals 196.4 311.5358.7406.9Pulses17.835.1 46.3 50.3Foodgrains214.2 346.6405.0457.1Edible Oils 15.729.5 39.0 45.2Vegetables131.8 258.9342.2438.6Fruits71.2231.0305.3183.4Milk111.5 303.7401.4483.6Sugar 22.044.1 58.3 58.2Meat 6.010.4 13.8 18.1Eggs58.2139.2183.9202.5Fish 7.116.9 22.4 27.0 6. Past and Required Growth Rate to Meet Domestic Demand (%/year) Projected for 2050 Items HistoricalBAU MMUpsideCereals 2.250.671.03 1.36Sugar 2.571.392.12 2.11Pulses0.921.842.57 2.79Edible oils 2.812.803.54 3.94Vegetables3.351.632.36 3.01Fruits3.312.903.64 2.29Milk4.392.262.99 3.49Meat4.221.312.04 2.75Eggs5.662.092.83 3.08Fish3.551.722.45 2.94 Total1.922.57 2.82 7. Food Supply Management INPUT SUPPORT MINIMUM FOOD SUPPORTPRODUCTIONPRICEEXPORTBUFFER STOCK PDSBPL 8. Partners in Food Production and DistributionMinistries of Central Government FARMERS/FISHERSMinistry of Food & PublicDepartment of Agricultural & Distribution (MoFPD)Co-operation (DAC) Indian Council Department of Agricultural Ministry of Agriculture of AgriculturalResearch & Education (DARE)Research (ICAR)Ministry of Food Processing Department of Animal Industry (MoFPI) Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries(DAHD&F)Ministry of Commerce(MoC) State GovernmentsMinistry of Rural Financial InstitutionsDevelopment (MoRD)Private SectorMinistry of Environment &Forests(MoEF) Farmers OrganisationsFARMERS/FISHERS 9. Agriculture & Food-related SchemesNational Food Security Mission (NFSM), 2007National Agriculture Development Plan (RKVY),2007National Rural Employment Guarantee Act(MGNREGA), 2006Mid-day Meal Scheme, 2009National Mission for Empowerment of Women,2010National Horticulture Mission (NHM)Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), 1975 10. Indian NARESResearch Institutes: Natural ResourceManagement, Field Crops, Horticulture,98Animal Science, Fisheries, Engineering,Education, Extension63State Agricultural Universities, CAU & DUs630 Farm Science Centres (KVKs)CGIAR ICAR Universities - KVKs 11. AgrInnovateIndiaMaking a Difference in NAIPIndian Agriculture: NATP NARP, NationalThe Journey of ICARGene Bank IVLP King Baudouin AwardLab-to-Land programme DAREFirst KVK at ASRBPuducherry First SAU at Pantnagar Commodity Research Institutes under ICARICARIARI as Deemed-to-be University Imperial Council of Agricultural Research IARI, Pusa shifted toNew DelhiImperial Bacteriological Laboratory inPune (shifted to Mukteshwar in 1893) Imperial Agricultural Research Institute 12. ICAR - Global Partnerships No. ofCountriesMOUs 65Work Plans of ICAR signed underthe umbrella MOUs of DST and 12DAC and JCM of MEABilateral/Multilateral Projects50CGIAR Collaborative ProjectsIndo-African FellowshipsIndo-Afghanistan FellowshipsICAR International Scholarships 13. Context and ConcernsMore From Less For MoreStress Agriculture, SecondaryAgriculture, Speciality AgricultureAgriculture-Food-Nutrition-Health-Environment-EmploymentSkill and Youth in AgricultureMarket Access 14. Biodiversity for Pressures on Natural PosterityResource BaseWorld(million ha) DeforestationLand degradation 107.43Estimated Species 10 millionWater erosion 57.15Documented species 1.72 millionDegraded forests 24.90India: Among the 12 Mega bio-diversity Centres Wind erosion10.46India: 3 of the 34 Hot Spots of Salt-affected6.32BiodiversityAcid-affected 12.00 Soil erosion12% of worlds floraOthers 8.607% of worlds fauna Per capita agriculturalNational Bureaus of Plant, land availabilityAnimal, Fish, Microbes and0.34 ha (1950-51)InsectsDesertification 0.17 ha (1999-2000) 0.12 ha (2010-2011) 15. Climate Change and Natural Disasters 16. Agro-ecosystem Specific ApproachRainfed: resource-based, farming systemperspectiveIrrigated: Raising yield potential; 5 agro-ecosystems andresource and input use efficiency;14 production systemsresidue managementCoastal: Agri-horti-fishsystem, managerisk, salinity, nutrientArid: Agri-horti-livestock-pastoralsystem, manage abioticstress, soil fertility and winderosionHill & Mountain: Diversifiedsystem, micro-interventions, cold 17. National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA )Identification of 15-20heat/drought tolerantcrops cultivarsResilience to small andmarginal farmers andreduce production lossesat least by 25-30%Technologydemonstration in 100districts of 27 States18 x OregonIIHR 544 7 6 x KTP4 tolerant to highCapsicum (check) temperature (summer 2007) Comparison of pod size and pod filling 18. Farm Science Centres(KVKs)West Tripura (Tripura)Faridkot (Punjab) Rajkot (Gujarat)Phulwama (J & K)Ropar (Punjab)Senapati (Manipur) Gondia (Maharashtra) 19. National Agricultural Drought Assessment & Monitoring System.Rainfall deviations 300 250 200 % deviation 150 June10050 0-50. -10012/6 19/6 6/6 3/710/7 17/7 24/7 31/7 7/8 14/8 21/8 28/8 4/9 11/9 18/9 25/9 JulySowing progressAugustIntegration with ground dataJuly September September October-0.27 -0.26 0.050.100.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 >0.6 District/ Sub-District Level Drought Monitoring 20. 90Rice varietal development 8180Yield (Q/ha)726770 59 59 60 57 60 5960555155 556952515846 4550 5340 4545 4545 45 42.54330 373835 3520100Molecular Plant Breeding ImprovedPusa Basmati 1 Rice Exports worth US$ 2.5Rice Genome bn annually Total sequence: 15 Mb No. of genes: 2500 Chromosome 11 has 218 disease resistance-like genes (> 20 % of the whole genome) 21. Rice Knowledge Management Portal To create, manage and share scientific, technology-related and market- related information for the benefit of the rice as a sectorInformation System for Services Extension Research Farmers Distance Learning 22. Yield Potential (Q/ha)0 10 20 40507030 60 33.7 3645.5 4646.8 4445.145.745.845.4 35.342.547.1 Variety (Year of Release) 51.361.5 48.96362.961.5 61 Landmark wheat releases in India 64.1 23. Corn45 42Food Feed40Industrial Total3535 Utilization (mt)GR set for Agriculture: 4%302825 22.522Required GR: 4.7% 20.520 16.515 12.5Current GR: 6.4 % 10 7 86.5 910.5 64.5 53.5Current GR > target02011-122015-16 2020-21 2025-26Current production 21.5 mtYear 30.003000 Production (m t) 25.00 Area (m ha)2500 Productivity (kg/ha) 20.002000Area, ProductionYield 15.001500 10.0010005.005000.000 24. Crop Variety ReleasesBreeder Seed Production in000 Quintals Improvement in Seed Replacement Rate (SRR)8070 2004-052005-0660 2006-07 2009 - 102007-085040302010 0 WheatPaddy Gram Moong Arhar Groundnut Rape/mustard Soybean 25. PPP: Crop Varieties: PUSA RH -10 and PUSA-1460 (Rice); HD 2967(Wheat); and PEHM-5, QPM-9, Vivek Hybrid- 9 (Maize)Commercialized to More than 40 Seed Companies 26. Transforming Farmers intoAgripreneurs - Where Farmer GrowsSensitization Training & Capacity BuildingLegal & Commercial Handholding 27. Net Water Productivity of Rice-Fish Farming Systems 7R R-F R-F-HC R-FDF 6 5 25 4 3 65 24 1 6 12 02 48101416US C/m3 R-Rice, R-F- Rice- fish, R-FHC- Rice- fish hort. crops, RFDF- Rice- fish diversified farming system 28. Horticulture Produces (mt)Plantation Spices, 5.35Mushroom, Crops, 12.007 0.041Aromatic, 0.Honey, 0.065 605 Flowers, 70.0 58 Vegetable, 14 Fruits, 74.876.554 8 29. IPM & CBC Partnership Model for control of Papaya mealy bug Agri-Intelligence Surveillance ForecastingPseudleptomastixAcerophagus papayaemexicana 30. Major Gains in Animal Production 281 India leader in250.00 Milk production (MT) 176.00 milk production200.00 Per capita availability (g/day) for a decade 124.00150.00112.00127100.00 Area-based 53.90 50.0021.20 Mineral mixture 17.00 as a major0.00 1950-51 1968-691990-912010-112006-07intervention 65 50.00Egg production (billion nos) 53 40.00Per capita availability (nos/h/yr) 25.00 30.00 21.10 20.0010.00 5.005.30 10.00 1.830.00 1950-51 1968-69 1990-91 2006-07 2010-11 31. ETT Mithun calf born from Indias first Ovum pick upcryopreserved embryo IVF cattle calf Ten Calves producedin a year through ETTNoori Cloning GloryAI in Pig 32. Aquaculture Blue revolution through Carp Culture Improved Rohu thru selection Diversified farming Shrimp as a Dollar earner 33. Cage Farming Fish vendors with insulated boxes FishFestival 34. Farm mechanization Machines demonstrated and found wide adoption in different regions Power TillerRice-wheat mechanisationPaddy transplanter Paddy drum seeder Groundnut shellerPlastic mulchingZero till drill Manual weeder 35. Machinery for Precision FarmingMultispectral cameraCollects reflectance and crop image dataof rice fieldN sensorN-sensor, Multispectral Camera andGPS mounted on paddy vehicle(modified paddy transplanter)Prediction models or patterns(disease, productivity) can be generated. Paddy transplanter mounted with Nsensor, Multispectral camera and GPSPrototype tractor with datasensors tested for stability.Efficiently collects large scaledata in fields.Prototype of High Clearance Tractor 36. Ergonomic/Gender-friendly tools and equipmentHigh Women workforce inagriculture both production andprocessingReducing drudgery andmainstreaming 37. Impact of Mechanization Reduction in costCropYield increase (%) of production (%)Castor 23 45Cotton 22 34Sorghum36 38Groundnut18 20Finger millet35 32Redgram18 35Soybean20 35Maize27 33 38. US Presidents Interaction 6th November, 2010Termed ICAR Tools asAppropriate Technologies 39. Protected CultivationAnnual production: 2,40,000 flowersAv. sale price per flower : US 4 centAv. cost of production/flower: US 2 centNet profit : US $ 4363 per annum = US $ 363 per monthEconomics of 100 sq meter greenhouse 20,000Output per batch seedlingsAverage number of batches per 5yearTotal output per annum1,00,000Average cost of raising one 0.36 centseedlingAverage cost of seedling0.9 centNet return US $ 546 40. Renewable energySolar tunnel drier2-3 days as compared to 10-Drying time12 days in openSavings in energy 6,000 kWh/annum/unitSolid state biogas plant20% as compared toIncrease in gas yieldconventional plantReduction in water80%requirementEconomic BenefitUS $ 73/plant/annum 41. Primary Agriculture toSecondary Agriculture 42. Before feeding After feedingParameterssorghumsorghumAge (yrs)45.5 5.1145.5 5.11Fasting Glucose149.9 48.51 135.7 61.41(mg/dl)HbA1C (%) 7.6 1.40 7.3 1.49Insulin (U/ml) 23.7 17.25 22.6 16.47Creatinine0.9 0.200.9 0.18(mg/dl)Cholesterol210.3 58.04 183.2 41.99(mg/dl)Triglycerides130.4 69.45 113.5 89.67(mg/dl) 43. Wine & EthanolLitchi WineProduction: 450,000 t Wine from Jamun, Karonda and SorghumYield: 11.5% Pomegrenate (8-12%)Ethanol: 1100 l /ha 44. Value Chain in FlowersIdentified nativespecies, standardizeddyeingtechniques, developedproducts and their Garlands packaging technologyHair adornment products Exporting about 1600t/year valued at about US$ 1.73 million 45. Value Chain on Banana Pseudostem India: 27 mt fruit yield45 mt pseudostem wasteAbout 10,000 kg of fibreextracted with 20 raspadorunits installedTotal net income earned byfarmers: US$ 6,000Employment generated (mandays): 2,960Income earned by laborers:US$ 4,000 46. Agricultural R&DGroundnutSugarcaneNARS: strategicSoybeanMoongWheatBarley CottonMaize JowarBajra R&M GramRiceJutepartnership of with other0.0scientific organizationsand international system -0.5-0.4 Self-sufficiency in food production and surplus in -1.0-0.8-1.0 -1.0 some commodities -1.1 -1.1-1.3 TFP share up to 70% in-1.5 output growth; recent IRR -1.6-1.7 46%-1.9 -2.0 -2.0 Annual decrease (%) in Reduction in real cost of-2.1 -2.1real cost of production 1-2% annually -2.3production, 1975-2005 -2.5 47. AUs: Students Intake & Placement in Agriculture 60 45 50Universities Students x100035Universities 40 Students25 3015 20 10 50 -51940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1995 2010 2%12%Years1% 5%Ph.D., 20003% 7%50%Masters, 8000UG, 20% 25000in Govt. Departmentsin Private Sectoras Teachers in Researchin Banksin NGOsSelf Employed in Others Placement 48. Niche Areas of Excellence Experiential Learning 30 Units245 UnitsRCTsInland saline soils for Agro-processingVermi-compostingMedicinal and aquacultureBio-fertilizerBakery andaromatic plants Functional fermentedconfectionary productsdairy products with MushroomArsenic toxicityValue addition insynbioticsApiaryTemperate fruitsAonla, Mango, TomatoBiofuelsPoultry and Kagzi limeFish production 49. A Framework For Technology Development And Delivery SystemACTIVITIESINSTITUTIONSOUTPUTBasic & StrategicNational: ICAR Institutes and UniversitiesPrinciples, Processes andResearch National / Region-Specific Strategic MethodologiesResearch: SAUs, AICRPs, Private Sector KNOWLEDGESAUs / AICRPsTechnologies & Products Applied & AdaptiveResearch Private SectorProprietary ProductsTechnologyLocation, Situation, SAssessment, Refinement KVKs, ZRSsystem specificICTs, Massand DemonstrationTechnologies Media etcATMAsSAUs (District Level)Co-Line DepartmentsBlock Ops, NGOs, PRI sPanchayat & Village FarmersOutcomeEnhanced Profitability, Productivity, Sustainability, Livelihood, Security, Employment generation, Competitiveness and Food, Nutrition & Environmental SecurityBasic District Level Interactive Extension Model (BDLIEM) 50. Reaching the Unreached 51. m-Krishi Fisheriese-CoursesAdvisory Service Degree Programs Covered B.Sc. (Agri.), B.V.Sc. & AH, B.Sc. (Hort.), B.F.Sc., B. Sc. (Home Sci.), B. Tech (Dairy Tech), B. Tech (Agril. Engg.) 52. Network of Indian Agri-Business Incubators (10 BPDUs) 53. Global Conference on Women in Agriculture 13-15 March, 2012, New Delhi, India 54. Farm Innovators:Partners inRainbowRevolution 55. IPR and Technology CommercializationPatents (2012)Applications filed 50Cumulative 726Granted Patents137Foreign Patent Applications3 PCT + A few National PhasePlant VarietiesApplications Filed 842Published Applications 503Registered / prot...

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