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    AW101OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

    AND HEALTH 1Chapter 1:

    Introduction To OSHA

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    COURSE OBJECTIVES

    Define the concept of occupational safetyand health.

    Explain the history of occupational safetyand health.

    Explain the importance of safety in theworkplace.

    Describe the major safety terminologies.

    Classify types of accident.

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    INTRODUCTION

    Occupational

    safety and health

    (OSH) is a basichuman right for

    safety at

    workplace

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    WARNINGDONT WATCH THIS IF YOU HAVE

    A WEAK HEART!

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    But Some accident is just our ownfault

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    CONCEPTS OF OCCUPATIONALSAFETY AND HEALTH

    Accident prevention is an essential part of good

    management and workmanship

    Management and workers must cooperate

    Top management must take the lead

    A define and known safety and health policy

    Organization and resources to achieve policy

    Best available knowledge and methods

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    HISTORY OF OCCUPATIONALSAFETY AND HEALTH

    Until 1970, there were no national laws for safety

    and health hazards

    Several tragedies had occurred

    The 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire in New York

    City killed 146 of 500 employees

    Production for World War I caused a crisis in workplace

    safety and health conditions.

    By the 1960s, 14,000 workers died every year and morethan 2.2 million workers were not able to work from

    injuries and illnesses

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    HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENTOF OSHA IN MALAYSIA

    The Era of Boiler Safety- Before 1914

    Around 1890s Perak state government

    elected a personnel expertise in steam boiler

    and was given a license as boiler surveyor

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    HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENTOF OSHA IN MALAYSIA

    The era of machinery safety- 1914 to

    1962

    On 1 January 1914, all the steam boilerenactments was replaced with Machinery

    Enactment.

    The inspector inspects the steam boiler and any

    other machinery such as internal combustionengine, water turbine and any other auxiliary

    installation involved

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    HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENTOF OSHA IN MALAYSIA

    The era of industrial safety- 1953 to 1967

    All the machinery enactment used before

    1953 was then replaced with Ordinal 1953.

    The role of an inspector has expanded from

    only inspecting the steam boiler to the safety

    of workers in factories that uses machinery.

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    HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENTOF OSHA IN MALAYSIA

    The era of industrial safety and health-

    1970 to 1994

    Akta Kilang dan Jentera (Factories andMachinery Act ) 1970was approved by the

    parliaments.

    To solve all the shortcoming of the Machine

    Ordinal 1953, as the workers in a workplacewithout machine previously are now being

    protected under the new Acts.

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    HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENTOF OSHA IN MALAYSIA

    The era of occupational safety and

    health- 1994 onwards

    Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) wasenacted in 1994

    FMA 1967 emphasis on safety while OSHA 1994

    emphasis on addressing health hazards in the

    workplace

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    IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY IN THEWORKPLACE

    Employees can remain motivated if they

    feel safe and happy

    Formation and implementation of safetyprograms that are meant to teach the

    employees to handle risks

    Violence at workplace

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    MAJOR SAFETYTERMINOLOGIES

    Accident- An unplanned unexpected eventwhich may result in loss, injury or damage

    Code of Practice- A body of rules for Practical

    Guidance only and not having the force of lawalthough failure to comply may be used inevidence in legal proceedings.

    Ergonomics- The study of relationship betweenworkers and their occupation, equipment and

    environment and particularly, the application ofanatomical, physiological and psychologicalknowledge to the problems arising there from.

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    MAJOR SAFETYTERMINOLOGIES

    Fire Precautions- The measures taken and the fireprotection features provided in a building (e.g. design,systems, equipment and procedures) to minimize the riskto the occupants from and outbreak of fire.

    Fire Prevention- The concept of preventing outbreaks offire, of reducing the risk of fire spreading and avoidingdanger to persons and property from fire.

    First Aid- The skilled application of accepted principles oftreatment on the occurrence of an accident or in the case

    of sudden illness, using facilities or materials available atthe time.

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    MAJOR SAFETYTERMINOLOGIES

    Hazard- The exposed danger, a condition or practice withpotential for loss. A situation that may give rise to personalinjury or asset damage or both.

    Manual Handling- Any means of transporting or

    supporting a load manually. Lift, putting down, pushing,pulling, carrying or moving by hand of bodily force.

    Means of Escape- Structural means whereby a safe routeis provided for persons to travel unaided from any point in abuilding to a place of safety

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    MAJOR SAFETYTERMINOLOGIES

    Near Miss- An incident, which does not show a visibleresult, but had the potential to do so.

    Policy- A statement of corporate intent, which will beadopted and pursued as advantageous or expedient.

    Qualified Worker- One who is accepted as having thenecessary physical attributes, who possesses the requiredintelligence, training and education, and has acquired thenecessary skill and knowledge to carry out the work inhand to satisfactory standards of safety, quantity and

    quality.

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    MAJOR SAFETYTERMINOLOGIES

    Reasonably Practicable- A computation made in whichthe quantum of risk is placed on one scale, and thedisadvantages involved in the measure necessary ofaverting the risk is placed upon the other. A balancebetween: risk and cost, inconvenience, effect onproduction.

    Risk Assessment- A process where hazards are identifiedand risks evaluated, with the objective of eliminating orreducing the risks as low as reasonably practicable.

    Safety Audit- Monitoring of the implementation of a safety

    policy by subjecting each area of an activity to a systematiccritical examination with the purpose of minimizing loss,and providing a quantified assessment of performance

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    MAJOR SAFETYTERMINOLOGIES

    Safety Inspection- Systematic assessment of

    safety standards for plant, place of work,

    working. Carried out by a manager and not a

    safety adviser/engineer.

    Safety Monitoring- Periodic checks on

    observance of corporate safety standards and

    procedures.

    Workplace- The workplace may be described

    as any place where people are at work

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    TYPES OF ACCIDENT

    Accident happens

    mostly due by two

    major causes: Unsafe condition at the

    workplace

    Unsafe act done by a

    person or a group

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    Thank

    you forbeing

    SAFE

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