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Prof. Ing. Giulio ROMEO, E. Cestino, F. Danzi, M. Cassaro, G. Frulla, F. Borello, G. Correa, G. Corsino, M. Pacino, Politecnico di Torino Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Eng. HELIPLAT®: Detail Design & Manufacturing of a Scaled Prototype for High Altitude Very-Long Endurance Solar-Powered RPAS DIMEAS [email protected] All information on Heliplat and VESPAS project contained in this document is property of Prof. G. Romeo, Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Eng. - Politecnico Torino. All rights reserved.

Nessun titolo diapositiva...VSAERO software, obtaining very high efficiency. • Showed feasibility of very light CFRP structural elements. • Good correspondence between experimental

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  • Prof. Ing. Giulio ROMEO, E. Cestino, F. Danzi, M. Cassaro, G. Frulla, F. Borello, G. Correa, G. Corsino, M. Pacino,

    Politecnico di Torino

    Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Eng.

    HELIPLAT®:

    Detail Design & Manufacturing of a Scaled Prototype for High

    Altitude Very-Long Endurance Solar-Powered RPAS

    DIMEAS

    [email protected]

    All information on Heliplat and VESPAS project contained in this document is property of Prof. G.

    Romeo, Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Eng. - Politecnico Torino. All rights reserved.

  • 2

    A.S.I. (1995-2000) EC: 5FP (2000-03)- 6FP (2002-05)

    •High Altitude (15-20km) Very-long Endurance Solar Powered Autonomous Stratospheric RPAS (VESPAS) flying for long period of time (4-6 months) by solar-power & fuel cells system. Easily recovered for maintenance.

    •Pseudo satellites, with advantage of being much cheaper, closeness to the ground (more detailed land vision), more flexible, with continuous spatial resolution than a real satellite.

    • 8-9 HeliPlat would continuously monitor Med Sea from Turkey to Spain. An area with 300km diameter can be monitored.

    • Many other applications can be foreseen by such platforms.

    NETwork of HELIplat RPAS HELIPLAT

    G. Romeo G. Romeo

    DIMEAS

  • 3

    Borders Patrol, actually, is made by piloted airplanes or helicopters (several personal) or from military ships, increasing the cost tremendously.

    Costs sustained by Italian Coast Guard for their ATR-42 airplane equipped for border surveillance (7 crew minimum), is around 7.500-8.000 €/hour of fly.

    By UAV flying at 15-18 km altitude and with proper sensors, is possible to detect boat or people and with Total Life Cycle Cost of around 2.000€/hour fly

    Homeland Security – Airborne or Ground Sensors

    HELIPLAT

    IAI Predator B

    Typically, satellite sensors may bring a good accuracy - but such high accuracy data remain quite expansive today.

    Several satellites system used for earth observation are useless for a continuously real-time border surveillance due to their limited spatial resolution.

    Satellite Earth Observation

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

  • 4

    Homeland Security – DARPA Boeing $100 million contract

    HELIPLAT DIMEAS

    Facebook & Google: Solara Titan Aerospace

    AIRBUS D&S – Qinetiq Zephir 7

    14days @ 70,740ft

    TOGW 100kg, Pl: 5kg

    Solar Impulse 2

  • A

    A

    A

    A

    A

    A

    A

    A

    CRITICAL ASPECT: ENDURANCE & STATION KEEPING

    HELIPLAT

    • Main requirement: Avoid interference with civil transport traffic

    • Main advantage of the VESPAS-RPA: less climb and descend events; important for interference with the aviation traffic.

    • Any other high-altitude RPA configuration for border surveillance has a very limited endurance (24-36 hours) that would drastically increase any potential collision risk with civil aviation traffic.

    • At least a double number of RPAs would be requested to continuously guarantee the surveillance service, highly increasing the System Total Life Cycle Cost.

    • At least 4 MALE RPAs are requested to cover continuously the same area covered by HALE, since the covered area is decreasing with the square value of the flying altitude. Total Life Cycle Cost of MALE system shall tremendously increase.

    • Main Advantage with respect to Aerostatic RPA: high station keeping also with strong jet stream

    Copyright by G. Romeo

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

  • 6

    HELIPLAT

    Very Long Endurance Solar-Powered Autonomous Aircraft

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

  • 7

    SOLAR CELLS • Maximum available Solar cell efficiency: 85%. To-date obtained eff.: 36%.

    • High efficiency (25%) thin (150 microns) mono-crystalline silicon cells are to-day available at low-medium price (about 2000 €/m2) .

    • Higher efficiencies (up to 30-35%) very thin (50 microns) single-crystal silicon or GaAs cells are also available, at higher price (about 30-100 k€/m2) .

    HELIPLAT

    GaAs CELL: 30% Cost: 30 k€/m2

    G. Romeo

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    Cost: 100 k€/m2

    efficiency > 25%

    Triple-junction

    CELL: 32%

    Si mono-crystalline

    25% Efficiency

  • 8

    HELIPLAT® (HELIos PLATform) WT=850kg; Wpl=130kg; Preq=6.5kW; Ppl=1.5kW; Vc=71km/h (TAS); Solar cell effic. 21%; Fuel cell effic. 60%

    Sw=176.5m2; b=73m; ARw=30.2; S ht=28m2; b=17.5m;

    ® Trademark:POLITECNICO DI TORINO, DIASP, Giulio Romeo

    EC – 5FP

    Jet-stream up to 150 km/h G. Romeo

    DIMEAS

    Multi-disciplinary optimisation program: 1) Solar radiation change over year; 2) Altitude; 3) Wind speed; 4) Structural mass. 5-6) Mass and efficiency of solar cells and of fuel cells; 7) Aerodynamic performances;

  • 9

    Cl-Alpha HPF118 profile - Re=500000

    0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    1.2

    1.4

    1.6

    1.8

    -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

    Alfa

    CL

    Xfoil

    Stuttgart

    HELIPLAT® Aerodynamic Design

    New high performances airfoils developed to reduce the power required for the flight.

    HELIPLAT

    VSAERO CFD

    G. Romeo

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

  • 10

    Scaled Prototype Design & Manufacturing HELIPLAT

    POLITO

    G. Romeo

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    EASA CS-VLA n= 3.8

    HM CFRP material: very light - high stiffened structure.

  • 11

    Scaled Prototype Manufacturing and Testing

    HELIPLAT

    HELIPLAT

    Wing span: 24m G. Romeo

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    Shear/Bending Static Failure Test N=7.5g

  • 12

    3 HALE UAVs WP Leader: Prof. G. Romeo

    SHAMPO

    (Solar Hale Aircraft Multi Payload & Operation)

    IAI - POLITO

    POLITO

    MTOW ---> 950 kg; Payload weight ---> 150 kg Ceiling ---> 17-20 km; Payload Power ---> 1.5 kW Endurance ---> months; Wing Span ---> 73 m

    MTOW ----> 7700 kg; Payload weight ---> 500 kg Propulsion ----> 559 kg; Wing Span ---> 32 m Ceiling ----> 20 km; Endurance ---> 24 hrs Fuel weight ----> 3400 Kg; Max Airspeed ---> 340 Kt

    G. Romeo

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    HELIPLAT

  • 13

    HELIPLAT

    SESA FLIGHT MODEL

    G. Romeo

    G. Romeo

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    EASA VLA n=3.8g

    WOURLD AIR GAMES – Turin 2009

    Planned Flight Mission Traiettoria in AP

    4,52E+01

    4,52E+01

    4,52E+01

    4,52E+01

    4,52E+01

    4,52E+01

    4,52E+01

    4,52E+01

    4,52E+01

    4,52E+01

    7,680 7,682 7,684 7,686 7,688 7,690 7,692 7,694 7,696 7,698 7,700 7,702

    Longitudine

    Lati

    tud

    ine

    Experimental Recorded Mission

    Autopilot/Manual Hardware

  • 14

    HELIPLAT TANGO Demo Mission Architecture Flight Test Site: Tarquinia Lido

    G. Romeo

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    -25

    0

    25

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    75

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    125

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    213500 213700 213900 214100 214300 214500 214700 214900 215100

    AutoPilot Data

    IRIDIUM data

    G. Romeo

  • 15

    DIASP

    ENvironmentally Friendly Inter City Aircraft powered by Fuel Cell

    © 2010 by Prof. G. Romeo.

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    Electric-motor airplane powered by fuel cells validated by flight-test.

    Rapid 200-Fuel cell

    V top =160 km/h V max av 1run =142 km/h V max av 2run =135 km/h V max av 4run =133 km/h Endurance: 49 min

    FAI World Speed Record FAI World Endurance Rec

    FAI Class C Aeroplane

    G. Romeo

  • 16

    HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    DIMEAS

    Preliminary Design

    Research Contract n.606/2014, Sept. 2014 with:

    SHENYANG AEROSPACE UNIVERSITY, CHINA

    “Detail Design of a Scaled Prototype for 1 month Flight

    Endurance High Altitude Long Endurance Solar-Powered UAV”

    The SAU technical requirements include:

    1) Payload weight: 10-15kg; 2) endurance: 1 month; 3) Flight altitude and latitude;

    The POLITO technical files shall include:

    (1)Technical drawings of 3D model including whole structure;

    (2)Analysis files of FEM model and results including whole structure;

    (3)Aerodynamic performance data;

    (4)Technical files for processing and manufacturing.

    (5)Technical files and drawings for solar power system include solar power panel system, battery

    system, electric motors and controllers.

    (6)Flight Dynamic law and Design of flight control system.

  • 17

    HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    DIMEAS

    SHENYANG AEROSPACE UNIVERSITY, CHINA

    Faku airfield

    UAV FC

    Liaoning General Aviation Academy (LGAA)

    http://www.uasvision.com/2012/08/21/first-flight-of-fuel-cell-powered-uas-in-china/china2-2/

  • 18

    HELIPLAT

    Very Long Endurance Solar-Powered Autonomous RPA

    DIMEAS

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    VESPA must have amount of rechargeable batteries to fulfill the energy requirement during night-time. Batteries' weight greatly affects the operational envelope of such aircraft.

  • 19

    HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    DIMEAS

    Preliminary Sizing Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Aerodynamics

    Weight estimation Power balance

    Flight Mechanics Structural requirements

    Main Outcomes • High aspect-ratio wing to achieve high

    efficiency and power index • Very low gross weight • more than 30% battery

    Constraints • 1 month of continuous flight @

    42°N latitude – 17 km altitude • 15 kg payload • solar cells efficiency 25% • battery energy density 260 W/kg

  • 20

    HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    DIMEAS

    Preliminary Design

    Best Configuration Design

    G. Romeo

    G. Romeo

  • 21

    HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    DIMEAS

    Gross weight breakdown

    Weight breakdown

    Overall weight 2056 N

    Structural weight breakdown

    Structural Analysis • 2 counter posed C-spars made by

    carbon-epoxy composite • upper and lower panels made by

    carbon epoxy composite • Equal-spaced multi ribs

    G. Romeo

  • 22

    HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    DIMEAS

    Structural Analysis - Wing Box

    G. Romeo

  • 23

    HELIPLAT DIMEAS

    Wing deflection at n=1, n=3, n=4.5

    0,95 m

    2,85 m

    4,28 m

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    Structural Analysis - Wing Box

    G. Romeo

  • 24

    HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    DIMEAS

    Structural Analysis

    Horizontal Tail

    Vertical Tail

    Booms

    G. Romeo

  • 25

    Flight Simulator HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    DIMEAS

    Automatic Flight Control System

  • 26

    HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

    Optimum Propeller design process Propeller On-design study: parametric analysis for HELIPLAT

    INPUT DATA • Flight Speed: V= 20 m/s; • Blade radius: R= 0.5÷2 m; • Thrust: T= 26 N; • Altitude: z= 17000 m;

    OUTPUT DATA • Propeller Efficiency, η; • Propeller adimensional coefficients • Power absorbed at shaft, Pa [W]; • Torque absorbed at shaft, Ca [Nm]

    DIMEAS

    E. Cestino

  • 27

    CONCLUSION

    • Possible realisation of HAVE-UAV at least for low latitude sites in Europe and for 4-6 months. •Airfoils with high Lift coeff. and small Drag coeff. and at low Reynolds numbers were obtained. • The aerodynamic performances of HELIPLAT were implemented by VSAERO software, obtaining very high efficiency. • Showed feasibility of very light CFRP structural elements. • Good correspondence between experimental analytical and FEM analysis was verified. • The experimental flight tests validated several critical technologies for high altitude very long endurance flight: high efficiency solar cells, electric brushless motor, controllers, video and thermo camera image transmission, telemetry system • Flight Tests of Fuel cell Powered Aircraft showed the feasibility of long endurance UAV • The 30 days endurance flight, planned for next year, should be a great step in direction of a new solar powered RPAS

    DIASP HELIPLAT

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]

  • 28

    DIMEAS

    Grazie per la vostra gentile attenzione G. Romeo, Polito, DIMEAS: partner di progetti EC – ESA

    HELIPLAT

    S STRAT www.polito.it/grupporomeo www.enfica-fc.polito.it

    POLITO, DIMEAS, [email protected]