Text of NATIVE AMERICANS History and Culture. Types of Native American Tribes Southeast Indians ...
NATIVE AMERICANS History and Culture
Types of Native American Tribes Southeast Indians Eastern Woodlands Indians Northwest Indians Great Plains Indians Southwest Indians
Southeast Indians These Native Americans were hunters and gatherers. The main crops grown were the Three little sisters corn, squash and beans. The Southeastern tribes were matriarchal mother was the center of family. Tribes lived in longhouses. Example Tribes: Seminole Cherokee Blackfoot
Southeastern Indians Longhouse
Eastern Woodlands Indians These tribes mostly spoke Iroquoian. The tribes formed the Iroquois League. Most of their homes were log cabins or wigwams. They used wood to make homes, tools, utensils and weapons. Examples of tribes: Mohawk Senaca Cayuga
Eastern Woodlands Wigwam
Northwest Indians The Northwest Indians were the oldest tribes in North America. (App. 16,000 yrs.) They were considered the richest tribes because of their abundance of food and shelter. There main food was crops and fish, but also they had an abundance of wild game. They used Totem Poles to tell their history. Examples of Northwestern Tribes: Nez Perce Chinook Spokane
Northwestern Indians Great House
Plains Indians These tribes were located between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. These tribes were nomadicThey followed the buffalo. The buffalo was the main source for clothing, food, tools, weapons and shelter. They lived in Teepees, the first mobile homes. Examples of tribes: Souix Cheyenne Comanche
Plains Indians Totanka (Buffalo)
Southwestern Indians These tribes were located in Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico. These tribes are most remembered for their art, jewelry and pottery. The greatest skill of the Southwest tribes was basket-weaving. The Southwestern tribes were referred to as Pueblo. These tribes lived in adobe homes called Pueblos. Examples: Hopi Navajo Apache
Southwest Indians - Pueblos
Famous Historical Events Native Americans
Native Americans and Europeans Meet The Taino Tribe (The Bahamas) met Christopher Columbus in 1492. Spanish Conquistador Cortez conquers the Aztecs in 1619 (Central Mexico). Spanish Conquistador Pizarro conquers the Incas in 1621 (Peru). As a result from slavery, war and disease, more than 8 million Native Americans were killed89% of their original population.
Conflicts Between Indians and European Settlers. The struggle for land was at the heart of the conflicts between Native Americans and European Settlers. Whites felt that Indians used the land inefficiently Underutilized. This was the justification for taking their land.
Trail of Tears President Andrew Jackson signed a new law called the Indian Removal Act in 1830. The main reason for this new law was to open Southern lands to white settlers. Southeastern tribes were forced to leave their homes and travel more than 600 miles to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma. More than 2,000 died due to cold, disease and hunger. By 1838, more than 46,000 Native Americans moved from the South.
Massacre at Sand Creek 1864 the Cheyenne were forced onto a barren area of the Colorado Territory known as Sand Creek Reserve. The starving Cheyenne began raiding trails and nearby settlements for food and supplies. The Territorial Governor ordered the militia to attack the Native Raiders. Rather than attack the raiders, the militia attacked the reserve at Sand Creek, killing 200 Cheyenne. Mostly women and chilldren.
Battle of Little Bighorn Miners began to move into the Black Hills of South Dakota to hunt for gold. The Sioux protested. The Army sent Civil War Hero George Custer to investigate. On June 25, 1876, Custer rode out with 700 troops of the 7 th Calvary to face the Sioux. They were expecting between 1,000 and 1,500 warriors. There were actually between 2,500 and 3,000 Sioux Warriors. The Sioux, led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, attacked Custers Army and within 20 minutes they all were killed.
Battle of Wounded Knee Sitting Bull had a vision that the Native American lands were restored, the buffalo returned, & the whites disappeared He promised this would come true if the ritual called the Ghost Dance was performed. The US Army were alarmed by the Ghost DanceSitting Bull was arrested. On December 29, 1890, the 7 th Calvary was sent to disarm the Sioux. At Wounded Knee, the Army opened fire on the Sioux killing more than 300 unarmed Sioux. This event would bring the Indian Wars to an end.