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  • 7/23/2019 Nadzemni vodovi-vezbi

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    .

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    I

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    .

    , - 2 1 400 kV, . 65, 04.11.1988 . , , .

    , : , , , , ,, .

    .1000 V.

    1000 V.

    ,.

    .

    .

    () ,

    , .

    () -. () . , .

    .

    95% (-), 90% . JUS.

    5 ()

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    .

    , , .

    . ()

    , [daN/m] () () , [m].

    . () -

    (), .

    .

    .

    , .

    -.

    , .

    -.

    , .

    , .

    , , .

    - , +40, 5() .

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    .

    ()

    .

    .

    -.

    .

    .

    , , (,, ..).

    .

    (- ) , .

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    I :

    1.

    1.1.

    -: (Cu), (Al), (Fe). , -

    . , .

    1.2.

    . , .

    . -. 16 mm2 80 m.

    .

    1.3.

    , . , , [mm], 1.1.

    1.1, 380 daN.

    1.1.

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    I :

    1.4.

    (-MK..1.302) , 1.2

    1.2 (Al),MK..1.302

    (mm

    2)

    (mm

    2)

    d(mm)

    M[kg/km]

    Fkin[daN]

    r20(/km)

    (A)

    16 15,89 7 1,7 5,1 44 290 1,802 90

    25 24,25 7 2,1 6,3 67 425 1,181 120

    35 34,36 7 2,5 7,5 94 585 0,833 150

    50 49,48 7 3,0 9,0 135 810 0,579 18570 65,82 7 2,1 10,5 181 1150 0,437 225

    95 93,27 19 2,5 12,5 256 1595 0,309 285

    120 117,00 19 2,8 14,0 322 1910 0,246 330

    150 147,10 37 2,25 15,7 406 2570 0,196 380

    185 181,60 37 2,5 17,5 501 3105 0,159 435

    240 242,50 61 2,25 20,2 670 4015 0,119 515

    300 299,40 61 2,5 22,5 827 4850 0,080 600400 400,10 61 2,89 26,0 1105 6190

    500 499,80 61 3,23 29,1 1381 7600

    600 586,00 61 3,5 31,5 1640 /

    700 710,00 61 3,85 34,7 1960 /

    1.5.

    (Al/^), MK..1.351, 1.3.

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    I :

    1.3. Al/^ ,MK..1.351

    (mm

    2)

    (mm

    2)

    Al. .

    . .

    .d(mm)

    M[kg/km]

    Fkin[daN]

    -r20()

    .Id(A)

    16/2,5 15,3/2,6 6 1,80 1 1,80 5,4 62 595 1,879 90

    25/4 23,8/4,0 6 2,25 1 2,25 6,8 97 920 1,203 125

    35/6 34,3/5,7 6 2,70 1 2,70 8,1 140 1265 0,835 145

    50/8 48,3/8,0 6 3,20 1 3,20 9,6 195 1710 0,595 17070/12 69,9/11,4 26 1,85 7 1,44 11,7 284 2680 0,413 235

    95/15 94,4/15,3 26 2,15 7 1,67 13,6 382 3575 0,306 290

    120/20 121,6/19,5 26 2,44 7 1,90 15,5 492 4565 0,237 345

    150/25 148,9/24,2 26 2,70 7 2,10 17,1 601 5525 0,194 400

    185/30 183,8/29,8 26 3,00 7 2,33 19,0 742 6620 0,157 455

    210/35 209,1/34,1 26 3,20 7 2,49 20,3 845 7490 0,138 490

    240/40 243,0/39,5 26 3,45 7 2,68 21,9 987 8640 0,119 530360/57 360,2/57,3 26 4,20 19 1,96 26,6 1483 12745 0,080 675

    490/65 490,3/63,6 54 3,40 7 3,40 30,6 1855 15310 0,059 840

    170/40 171,8/40,1 30 2,70 7 2,70 18,9 790 7675 0,168 435

    240/55 241,3/56,3 30 3,20 7 3,20 22,4 1107 10385 0,119 530

    350/80 349,3/78,9 30 3,85 19 2,30 26,9 1585 14845 0,083 675

    490/110 87,8/111,2 30 4,55 19 2,73 31,7 2221 20800 0,059 840

    50/30 51,2/29,8 12 2,33 7 2,33 11,7 375 4380 0,564

    95/55 96,5/56,3 12 3,20 7 3,20 16,0 708 7935 0,389

    120/70 122,0/71,3 12 3,60 7 3,60 18,0 896 10000 0,299

    75/80 74,8/78,9 18 2,30 19 2,30 16,1 828 10500 0,236

    1.6.

    () p [daN/m,mm2]. () , 1 mm2, .. G [daN/m]A[mm]:

    2

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    I :

    ,1

    Al Al Fe Fe Al Fe

    Al Fe

    p A p A p pp

    A A

    + += =

    + + (1.2)

    =AAl/AFe , pAl pFe ,.

    L, F= A, (Hooke) L:

    ,L F L

    L

    E A E

    = = (1.3)

    L/L:

    .L

    L E

    = (1.4)

    E [daN/mm2] , [daN/mm2].

    E . , , , .

    . (Al), (Cu) (Fe) :

    EAl = 5700 daN/mm2 ,ECu =11000 daN/mm

    2 ,EFe =18000 daN/mm2 ...

    , Al/^AlMg1/^-, A=AAl+AFe -(1.5).

    .1

    Al Al Fe Fe Al Fe

    Al Fe

    A E A E E EE

    A A

    + += =

    + + (1.5)

    L , L. L , ..

    L= L, (1.6)

    :

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    I :

    .( ) ( 1)

    Al Al Al Fe Fe Fe Al Al Fe Fe

    Al Fe

    A E A E E E

    E A A E

    + + = =

    + + (1.8)

    1.4 -.

    1.4.

    .

    p[daN/m, mm

    2]

    E[daN/mm

    2]

    [1/oC]

    Cu / 7 8,90 10.300 17,0.106

    Cu / 19, 37 8,90 10.500 17,0.106

    Al / 7 2,70 6.000 23,0.106

    Al / 19, 37 2,70 5.700 23,0.106

    Al / 61 2,70 5.500 23,0.106

    Fe / 7 7,80 18.000 11,0.106

    Fe /

    19, 37 7,80 17.500 11,0.

    10

    6

    Al/ 6 6/1 3,50 8.100 19,1.106Al/ 6 26/7 3,50 7.700 18,9.106

    Al/ 7,7 54/7 3,36 7.000 19,3.106

    Al/ 4,4 30/7 3,75 8.200 17,8.106Al/ 4,4 30/19 3,64 8.000 18,0.106

    Al/ 1,7 12/7 4,66 10.700 15,3.106

    1.7.

    , . , , , , : ), ) , ) , .

    1.7.1.

    , , . ,

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    I :

    1.7.2.

    FV [daN] v[m/s] S,[m] :

    FV = c.PV.S.sin. (1.9)

    :

    c , -. , :

    c= 1,0 ,

    c= 1,4 ,c= 1,1 ,c= 0,7 , ..

    S;PV , v

    (1.10):

    PV= v

    2

    /16. (1.10) v [m/s] PV[daN/m].

    v-. 20% , 20%. , . , . (Un> 400kV) .. 5%.

    PV -

    , 1.5. , -v , (1.11) PV, () , 1.5.

    1 5

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    I :

    1.7.3.

    () , , 0,5 5. G [daN/m] , . (). () :

    g= 0,18 d [daN/m]. (1.11)

    (1.11) () d, [mm]. g, , [daN/m].

    () Gn , g. , Gn, ., , , 20%.

    , :

    1,0.g; 1,6.g; 2,5.g; 4,0.g. (1.12)

    Gnkn, :

    Gn= kng; ( kn= 1,0; 1,6; 2,5 4,0).

    () Gi , ( 20 ), 20, . , ,

    5%. Gi ki, :

    Gi = kiGn ; ( ki> 2,0).

    -

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    I :

    . M nd, ..:

    M < nd , (1.14)

    nd , .. 5+ 20 , .

    id , .. 5+. () ' /. (' < id).

    1.6 ( ) , [1].

    1.6. [daN/mm2]

    nd[daN/mm2] id[daN/mm

    2]

    Cu 16 30

    Al 6 11

    AlMg1 9 17

    AlMgSiE 10,5 20

    Fe I 14,5 26,5Fe II 26 49

    Fe III 49,5 93

    Fe IV 59,5 111

    6 13 24,5

    7,7 11 21

    Al/ 4,4 14 26

    1,7 22 41

    0,95 27,5 51,5

    6 14,5 27

    7,7 14,5 27

    AlMg1/ 4,4 16,5 30,5

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    II.

    2.

    2.1.

    . (). , . . , .

    . , , .

    () (2.1). f .

    2.2.

    2.1.

    , - (,). p,

    (2 1)

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    II.

    x , y x . :

    const. ; sh ; ' ch .x y

    x x

    c c = = = = (2.3)

    (2.3) 'x= 0, . :

    'min= . (2.4.1)

    '(2.3), :

    maxch .

    2ac

    = (2.4.2)

    (a > 400 m), , ( %). ,, .. ' .

    ch (x/c) , :

    2 2

    2 2

    p ay

    c

    = = , (2.1a)

    (2.2) . . . (2.4) , .. :2

    .8

    p af

    = (2.2a)

    2const ; ( / ); ' 1 ( / ) ,x y

    c x c = = = = + (2.3a)

    2

    min max 2; (1 ) .

    8

    p ap f

    = = + = + (2.4a)

    (2.1) (2.4) 400 m. -

    .

    l (2.5) :

    2 sh ,2

    al c

    c= (2.5)

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    II.

    O

    X

    Y

    f

    xf

    x2

    x1

    y2

    yf

    h/2

    y1

    h

    f

    '

    f

    '

    = o'

    1'

    2'

    2

    1

    1

    '

    a/2a/2ad

    f ~

    y2

    2.2.

    (2.2) ad . . ad

    :

    ( / 2 )sh ,

    2 sh ( / 2 )

    da h c

    c a c

    = = (2.7)

    ad:

    ( )22 Ar sh 2 ln 1 ,da c c = = + + (2.8):

    2 .d

    ha c

    a

    (2.8a)

    (2.2) f:

    ( ch 1),cos 2

    c af

    c= (2.9)

    :2 1

    .8 cos

    p af

    (2.9a)

    = x, , ,

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    II.

    2.3.

    , 0,

    0 , 0p0 , , p, . (p0 , 0 , 0 ) (p, , ) , :

    2 22 2

    002 2

    0

    ( ) .24 24

    op ap a

    E

    = +

    (2.12)

    (2.12) :2

    2

    nm

    + = , (2.13)

    :2 2

    00 02

    0

    ( ) ;24 24

    p a Em E E n p a

    = + = . (2.14)

    (p0 , 0 , 0 ) , ... () :

    1. 5 (), M nd 1.6;

    2. 20 , M.

    M.

    2.4.

    , . ,

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    II.

    a> ak 5 > 20 ,

    a< ak 5 < 20 ,

    a= ak 5 = 20 .

    ak:

    2 2

    360,k Ma

    p p

    =

    (2.15)

    p =p+ p-

    (). (2.15)

    () . 2.

    2.5.

    , . , -

    M (M < nd), . , () , (2.12) (2.13) f ((2.2), (2.2) , p. min max ( p ), = () f =f() , . , = () f=f() , , .

    () . f,

    , ,

    M.

    2.6.

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    II.

    k, fkf40 . , 40,

    = max= 40. , = 5+ . :

    k> 40oC f40< f5 , .. fmax = f5 ;

    k< 40oC f40> f5 , .. fmax =f40 ;

    k= 40oC f40= f5 .

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    II.

    3.

    , . , - . . , ,

    . , .

    , , [1]. , .

    ,, , .

    dS , [cm], , 3.1

    3.1. , [cm]

    kV 10 20 35 110 220 380

    :

    1.(PV= 0) 15 25 35 90 175 2802.

    (PV=0,15Pmax)10 20 30 80 155 270

    3.

    () (PV=Pmax) / 7 10 30 55 90

    ()3.1:

    1 P 0

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    II.

    D> 40min [cm]iz sD k f L d= + + . (3.1)

    (3.1) f40 , -, 40, [cm], ; Liz , [cm]. , , (3.1) Liz = 0. Dmin .. .

    ds(3.1) [cm].

    3.1, 1 (), .

    k(3.1) . -/. , (3.2).

    1.7. (3.2) [o

    ].

    :

    k= 4 + /25, k= 6 (Dmin= 60 cm), :

    k= 2 + /10, k= 7 (Dmin= 70 cm), (3.2)

    :

    k= 4 + /5, k= 7 (Dmin= 140 cm).

    , Dmin [cm], f40 [cm], (3.3) :

    min 403 ,D f= (3.3)

    , [1], -():

    )Dmin> 30 cm 45 m,

    )Dmin> 40 cm 45 m.

    (3.1) - , .

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    II.

    , , . 3.3

    HSDS, [m].

    3.3.

    Un

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    II.

    , () () .

    . , ., , - , , . , .

    . () . , ,

    , 040, .

    [1], 3.1. 30, . , 3.2.

    )

    Fe> f Al ,

    Fe. , Fe Al, Fe.

    , o< f, Al Fe

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    1.3., -xAlFeFAl

    =FFe=F/2.:

    =F/A= 7,08 daN/mm2;FAl=F/2 = 1000 daN ; Al=FAl/AAl= 3,54 daN/mm2 ;

    Al= .EAl/E+EAl

    .(Al).(xf) ;

    3,54 = 7,08.5700/7420 + 5700.(18,9 23).106.(xf) x= 96,3oC .

    1.4. Al/^ 240/40 mm2, - 1.2. (). :

    ) Al Fe Al Fe = 80C. F Al;

    ) Al Fe = 20C Fe.

    :

    , fAl Fe, F. , > f, Al> Fe,Al (Al < 0), < f, .. Al > 0 Fe< 0 FeAl

    .F= .A,

    AlFe, ,

    (1.2.1) (1.2.2):E

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    , Al, :

    Al= EAl/E+ ( Al) EAl (f) 0 ,:

    = E (Al) (f) = 1,963 daN/mm2 F= A= 1,963282,5 = 555 daN., Al

    , 555 daN.

    b) = 20C .

    (= 20C) AlFe, ..:

    Al= 0 + (18,9 23) 106.5700 (20 15) = 0,812 daN/mm2,

    Fe= 0 + (18,9 11) 106.18000 (20 15) = 4,996 daN/mm2.

    FFe:

    Fe= EFe/E+ (Fe) EFe (f) = 0,:

    =E (Fe) (f) = 2,052 daN/mm2 ,:

    F= A= 2,052282,5 = 580 daN.

    1.5. , :

    A= 50 mm2 , n= 1+6 = 7 , d

    1= 3 mm d= 9 mm .

    :

    kn= 1,0.g (Gn= kng= 1,0g); v= 40 m/s

    :

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    :

    1. , :p= 7,8103daN/m,mm2 ,

    G=pA= 7,849,48 = 0,386 daN/m.

    2. pn Gn, ..:

    3

    2

    1,0 0,18 0,18 9 0,54 daN10,91 10

    49,48 49,48 m,mm

    n nG k g d

    p

    A A A

    = = = = = = .

    3. p , ..:

    p =p+ p= (7,8 + 10,91) 103= 18,71103daN/m,mm2 .

    4. v SFV:

    FV= cPVS,

    L= 1 m, :

    S= dL= (9103) 1 = 9103m2 = 0,009 m2.

    c c= 1, :

    PV= v2

    /16 = 402

    /16 = 100 daN/m2

    . 1.5, ,

    [daN/m2], : 60, 75,90,110 130 daN/m2. ,PV=110 daN/m2. , :

    FV= 11100,009 = 0,99 daN/m .

    :pV=FV/A= 0,99/49,48 = 20103daN/m, mm2 .

    5. () Vp ,

    G F

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    1.6.G(daN/m)-

    Al/^

    95/15 mm2

    , [cm] p [daN/m,mm2], :

    ) kn= 1,0 ;

    ) kn= 2,5 .

    , -, = 0,9 gr/cm3.

    :

    L

    dd

    1.6.1

    AAl= 94,4 mm2;AFe= 15,3 mm2; A =AAl+AFe= 109,7 mm2; d= 13,6 mm; G= 0,375 daN/m.

    :

    , , 1.6.1., V, L, , :2 2( 2 )

    ( ),4 4

    d dV L L d

    += = +

    M:

    M= V; (= 0,9 gr/cm3= 0,9 daN/dm3) .

    ) kn= 1,0.

    1,0, :

    G = kng = 1,0g= 0,18 d = 0,18 13,6 = 0,664 daN/m 6,64 N/m,

    M:

    M= G/g= 6,64/9,81 =0,677 kg/m.

    p GA:

    p= G/A= 0,664/109,7 = 6,053103daN/m,mm2 .

    cm, , L= 100 cm d= 1,36V 3

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    ) kn= 2,5.

    kn = 2,5, G

    , ..:G= 2,50,664 = 1,66 daN/m ,

    :

    p= 2,56,053103= 15,137103daN/m, mm2 .V, .:

    V= 2,5.752 = 1880 cm3 ,

    :.(+ 1,36).100.= 1880 ; 2+ 1,36.d 5,984 = 0 ; = 1,86 cm .

    1.7. ([2]) -n = 10 , -. 1.7.1.

    1.7.1.

    1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964

    vmax, m/s 47,5 43,0 35,0 43,8 38,0 33,3 41,3 41,1 40,1 40,0

    () v20%5-v5% 20. .

    :

    : , , . () , . , , .

    n = 10 ( )

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    1.7.2 , .. ,. , - (LaplaceGauss) , p, , , , m/s. , .. 1.7.1., , , .. .

    1.7.1.

    () .

    , -, , .

    1.7.1. ().

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    , .1.2.1, 20, 5% -, v5%=47 m/s, 138 da/m2. 150 daN/m2. Un= 380 kV -.

    .

    vsr = mv

    v, 1.7.1, 20%, v20%, :

    v20%= mv+ 0,842v,

    20, 5%, v5%,, -:

    v5%= mv+ 1,645v., , m

    v= M(v

    max) ,

    .. vmax, v . vmax,i (i = 1, 10) (1.7.1), :

    max,max,1 max,2 max,10

    v max

    .....M( ) 40,31 m/s

    10

    i

    i

    vv v v

    m vn

    + + += = = =

    ,

    22 2 2max, v

    max,1 v max,2 v max,10 v

    v

    v

    ( )( ) ( ) ..... ( )

    ,10

    191, 253,944m/s.

    10

    i

    i

    v mv m v m v m

    n

    + + +

    = =

    = =

    , 5:

    v20%= 40,31 + 0,8423,944 = 43,63 m/s,

    5:

    v5%= 40,3 + 1,6453,944 = 46,8 m/s.

    , , ( 10)

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    ) G= 1,0.g, .G= 0,664 daN/m (= 1 cm, 1.6, g)

    : G= 0,375 daN/m ; d= 13,6 mm ; A= 109,7 mm2.

    :

    Pv(daN/m2) v[m/s] :

    PV= v2/16 = 402/16 = 100 daN/m2 .

    (= 90; sin=1), :

    FV= cPVS.

    c (c = 1,0 c = 1,2 ), S, ..

    .) Sa aVF

    :aS = dL= (13,6103)1 = 13,6103m2 ;a

    VF = cPVSa= 110013,6103= 1,36 daN/m ,

    ) :

    Sb= (d+2).1 = (13,6+20).103.1 = 33,6.103m2 ;b

    VF = c.PV

    .Sb= 1,2.100.33,6.103= 4,032 daN/m.

    , :

    1,3674, 6 ;

    0,375

    1,3675,5 .

    1,039

    av

    a

    bv

    b

    Farc tg arc tg

    G

    Farc tg arc tg

    G G

    = = =

    = = = +

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    :

    ( ) f:

    2 2 3 2

    2

    3,426 10 333 daN4,55 .

    8 8 8 10, 44 mm

    p a p af

    f

    = = = =

    ) min max

    , ..

    , :min= = 4,55 daN/mm

    2 .

    max ,:

    max= +p.f= 4,55 +3,426 .103.10,44 = 4,584 daN/mm2 .

    (

    ) minmax, . ( , , .) , minmax.

    ) f20

    () 27% :

    ' = 20= 1,2740= 1,27.4,55 = 5,77 daN/mm2 ,

    , , f'=f20:2 3 2

    20

    20

    3, 426 10 3338,23 m.

    8 8 5,77

    p af

    = = =

    .

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    :

    , .

    I)

    O

    X

    Y

    f

    xf

    x2

    x1

    y2

    yf

    y1

    h

    f

    '

    f

    '

    = o

    '

    1'

    2'

    2

    1

    1'

    ad

    f ~

    y2

    aT

    a /2 a /2

    h

    2

    .2.2.1.

    :

    .m11021094,12

    26,143 =

    ==

    pc

    ad:

    ===

    = 1728,0)2204/300(sh

    2204/52

    )2/(sh

    2/

    2sh

    ca

    ch

    c

    ad ,

    .m379)1ln(2)(shAr2 2 =++== ccad

    , aT:aT= a+ ad= 300 + 379 = 679 m ,

    fT:

    m71,52)12

    ( ==c

    achcf TT .

    , O -

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    2)

    ad:

    ad= 2 c (h/a) = 2 110252/300 = 382 m ; aT= a+ ad= 682 m ,

    2 2

    2 2 2

    300cos 0,985 ;

    304,473

    1 1 300 110,36m;

    8 cos 8 cos 8 1102 0,985

    a

    a h

    p a af

    c

    = = =+

    = = = =

    214,26' 14,48 daN/mm ;cos 0,985

    f

    = =

    3 21

    3 22

    ' ( / 2) 14,48 12,94 10 (10,36 26) 14,28 daN/mm ;cos

    ' ( / 2) 14,48 12,94 10 (10,36 26) 14,95 daN/mm .cos

    p f h

    p f h

    = + = + =

    = + + = + + =

    , . , , (, 400 m h), .

    2.3.a= 200 m h= 25 m.f= 3,85 m. ^ III:

    50 mm2 ,

    A= 49,48 mm2 ,

    d= 9 mm .p= 7,8.103daN/m,mm2.

    .

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    2 2 2 2

    300cos 0,992

    300 25

    a

    a h= = =

    + +,

    2

    2

    1 0,0078 300 daN10,2

    0,992 8 3,85 mm

    = =

    :

    3

    10,21309,2m

    7,8 10c

    p

    = = =

    ,

    :

    252 200 2 1309,2 527,3m

    200T d

    ha a a a c

    a

    = + = + = + =

    f :

    2

    10,2 daN10,28

    cos 0,992 m mmf

    = = =

    .

    1 2 :3

    1 2

    daN( ) 10,28 7,8 10 (3,85 12,5) 10,212

    2 mmf

    hp f

    = + = + = ,

    32 2

    daN( ) 10, 28 7,8 10 (3,85 12,5) 10, 407

    2 mmf

    hp f

    = + + = + + = .

    2.4.lfAl/^240/40 mm2a= 1500 m, h= 800m. = 5 G = 0,842 daN/m (p = G/A = 0,842/282,5 = 2,982.103daN/m, mm2) =

    10 daN/mm2. p= 3,426.103daN/m, mm2.:

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    2 1sh sh ,x x

    l cc c

    =

    x1x21 2 . aT.

    2 2

    ( / 2 ) (800 / 2 1561)sh 0,5134 ;

    2 sh ( / 2 ) sh (1500 / 2 1561)

    2 ln( 1) 2 1561 ln(0,5134 0,5134 1) 1540 m ;

    1500 1540 3040 m .

    d

    d

    T d

    a h c

    c a c

    a c

    a a a

    = = = =

    = + + = + + =

    = + = + =

    aT/2 = 1520 m > a, -. , -x1x2:

    x2= aT/2 = 1520 m ; y2=yT= c.[ch(aT/2 c ) 1] = 800,39 m,

    x1=x2 a= 20 m ; y1=y2h= 0,39 m .

    lf(2.2):

    1520 201561 sh sh 1751m;

    1561 1561l

    = =

    1 / 2 20 750 770 m;fx x a= + = + =

    2

    ch ( / ) 193,8 m;

    / 2 206,59 m.

    f f

    f

    y c x c c

    f y h y

    = =

    = =

    2.5.

    = () f = f() Al/^ 240/40 mm2

    ( =18,9.

    106

    1/

    ; =7700daN/mm2;p= 3,426.103daN/m,mm2 ; d = 21,9 mm;A= 282,5 mm2) a= 200 m.M= 8 daN/mm

    2, kn= 1,0 (G= 1,0g= 0,18 d /A= 2,98210

    3daN/m,mm2).

    , -

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    f, 20 +40oC, 10oC.

    , . 5oC+(a> ak), 20oC (a< ak). , :

    1) a> ak; 0= 5oC; p0=p+p; 0= M

    2) a< ak; 0= 20oC; p0=p; 0= M.

    , M

    .

    = () f= f() , , . .

    ak= 121,9 m < a(2), , 0, :

    0= 5oC;p0= p =p+p= (3,426+2,982).103= 6,408.103daN/m, mm2

    0= M= 8 daN/mm2.

    , p = 3,426.103daN/m,mm2, :

    + m= (n/)2 ,:

    2 2

    2( ) ;

    24

    .24

    oo o

    o

    p am E E

    En p a

    = +

    =

    :3

    3, 426 10 200 7700 /24 12, 273 const;n = = = 2 6 2

    6

    2

    6,408 10 2007700 18,9 10 7700 ( 5) 8 ;

    24 8m

    = + +

    :

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    2 2( ) ( ) ( )

    ( 1) ( ) ( ) 2 3( ) ( )

    ( ) /; 0,1, 2, ...

    ( ) 1 2 /

    k k k

    k k k

    k k

    f m nk

    f n

    +

    + = = =

    +

    :

    (0) 5,97;P = =

    2 2

    (1) 2 3

    5,97 1,949 12,273 / 5,97 0,205235,97 5,97 6,055

    2,415821 2 12, 273 / 5,97

    = = =

    + .

    :

    (2)

    0,0024046,055 6,0562,35703

    = = ;

    (3)

    0,0000486,056 6,05602 6,056

    2,35636

    = = ;

    .

    (2) (3), ,

    . , :

    20= 6,056 daN/mm2.

    f20:2 3 2

    20

    20

    3, 426 10 2002,83m

    8 8 6,056

    p af

    = = =

    .

    .,

    . 2.5.1. ,() f(), .. . 2.5.1.

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    2.5.1. Al/^240/40 mm2, a= 200 m

    M= 8 daN/mm2

    [oC] 20 10 0 10 20 30 40

    [daN/mm2] 6,056 5,491 5,019 4,625 4,295 4,015 3,777

    f [m] 2,83 3,12 3,41 3,70 3,99 4,27 4,54

    2.6.Al/^240/40 mm2a= 350 m. :

    0= 5oC ; 0= M= 8 daN/mm2; p0= p =p+ 1,0.g.

    :

    m= 0,14553.0,064 ; n= 21,478 = const.

    .2.6. Al/^240/40 mm2,

    a= 350 m

    M= 8 daN/mm2

    [oC] 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 -5+

    [daN/mm2

    ]4,820 4,669 4,531 4,402 4,284 4,174 4,071 8,000

    f [m] 10,88 11,24 11,58 11,92 12,25 12,57 12,89 12,77

    2.7. Fe III 50 mm2 a =330,8 m. Mz = 26 daN/mm2, kn=1,0.

    :

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    2.8. ^ II 50 mm2 =200 m, h= 25 m ( 2.3) z = 10 daN/mm2, 3,85 m. , = 20.:

    ) f '1, '2'f5+, kn = 1,0. , nd = 26daN/mm2 ;

    ) f '1 , '2 'f 5+,

    ki= 2,0. id= 49,5 daN/mm2 .

    :

    ) 5oC +

    p, ,

    :p= 0,18 d /A= 0,18 9/49,48 = 10,9103daN/m, mm2

    :

    p =p+ p= (7,8+10,9)103= 18,7103daN/m, mm2 .

    , = 20. :

    o= 20o

    C ; o= 10 daN/mm2

    ; po=p= 7,8103

    daN/m, mm2

    .5., mn,

    E, Ecos:

    E.cos= 180000,992 = 17856 daN/mm2 ,

    3 1785618,7 10 200 102 const.;

    24

    n = = =

    2 6 26

    2

    7,8 10 20017856 11 10 17856 ( 5 20) 10 3.195.

    24 10m

    = + =

    5 :

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    ) 5oC +

    )

    p p= 2 0, , :23 mmdaN/m,8,21109,100,2/18,00,20,2 ==== Adpp ,

    p :

    p =p+ p = (7,8 + 21,8) 103= 29,6103daN/m, mm2 .

    5+:

    o= 5oC ; o= 20,82 daN/mm2; po= p = 18,7103daN/m, mm2 ,

    :

    ?;C5;mmdaN/m,106,29 523 =====

    pp .

    :

    n= =

    29 6 10 17856 24 161 483

    , / , ;200

    2 6 26 2

    2

    18,72 10 20017856 11 10 17856 ( 5 5) 20,82 3,239daN/mm

    24 20,82

    m

    = + + =

    .

    25 5 5 2

    daN3,239 (161, 48/ ) 28,61

    mm + = = .

    5 , 5f , 'f ,

    '1 '2 , . :

    f5 = 29,61032002/(828,610,992) = 5,21 m, 'f= 28,61/0,992 = 28,84 daN/mm2'1= 28,84 + 29,6103(5,19 12,5) = 28,62 daN/mm2 < 49,5 daN/mm

    2,

    '2= 28,84 + 29,6103(5,19 + 12,5) = 29,36 daN/mm2 < 49,5 daN/mm2.

    2.9. Al/^ 240/40 mm2 a= 300 m h= 50 m. = 2020= 3 daN/mm2. .. , =5+.

    1 0 9 d N/d 3

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    :

    0,9 1,002 0,902daN/mG p V = = = ;

    p= G

    /

    A = 0,902

    /

    282,5 = 3,193

    .

    103daN/m,

    mm2;p =p+ p= (3,426 + 3,193).103= 6,619.103daN/m, mm2.

    5 5+. ():

    0= 20oC ; 0= 3 daN/mm2; p0=p= 3,42610

    3daN/m, mm

    2 ;

    cos= cos(arctg (h

    /

    a)) = 0,986 ; E.cos= 7592,2 daN/mm2 ;

    ;5,30=3)205(2,592109,18+2,7592324

    30010426,3=

    ;317,35=24/2,759230010619,6=

    6

    2

    262

    3

    m

    n

    55 52

    5

    daN5,854 ; 884,4 m

    mmc

    p

    = = =

    -, aT :

    -5= 2 / = 2 884,4 50/300 = 294,8 m ; = + = 594,8 m;d T da c h a a a a

    2 1 1

    2 21 2

    1 2 2 1

    -5 -5

    = /2 = 297,4 m ; = = 2,6 m ;

    = 0; = 50 m, ( = + = 50 m).

    2 2

    Tx a x x a

    x xy y y y h

    c c

    ili

    2.10. 2.10.1 = 150 m h= 9,6 m. . Al/^ 240/40 mm2 (p =3,426.10

    3daN/m, mm

    2).

    . , (2.10).

    2 10

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    :

    2.10.

    )1

    , :ad= a= 150 m .

    :2

    3

    2

    a= 2 = = 1171,88 m ;

    2

    daN3,426 10 1171,88 4,014 .

    mm

    d

    ha c a c

    a h

    p c

    = = =

    , 2.10 , 1 :

    1

    4, 070 4, 01440 10 44,3 C

    4,07 3,94

    = + =

    .

    ) 2= 20oC.2.10.1 202= 20:

    20= 5,06 daN / mm2.:

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    (aT / 2 > a) 1 2.10, 1y . (), < 1= 44,3.

    :

    1x= = 5,06 daN/mm2 ; 1y=

    .sh(x1/c) = 5,06

    .19,5/1476,9 = 0,0669 daN/mm2

    :

    2 2 2 2 2 .1 1x 1= = 5,06 + 0,0669 = 5,0604 daN/mmy +

    ) 3= 80oC

    = 3= 80:

    80= 3,6 daN / mm2.

    :3

    8080

    3,6 101050,8 m.

    3,426c

    p

    = = =

    :

    80= 2 / = 134,5 m;

    = 150 + 134,5 = 284,5 m;

    /2 = 142,25 m .

    d

    T

    T

    a c h a

    a

    a

    1 2,). :

    x1= 7,75 m; y1= 0,029 m;

    x2= 142,25 m; y2= 9,628 m.

    / 2 < a, -

    , x1= 7,75 m.

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    : ( = 93,27 mm2; d = 10,5 mm; p = 7,8.103 daN/m, mm2 ; p =

    13,93.103daN/m,mm2= 17500 daN/mm2; = 11.1061/oC.

    :

    (p0, 0, 0) () , ak:

    6

    2 2 2 62

    360 360 11 1019,5 106,32 m

    (11,93 7,8 ) 10k Ma

    p p

    = = =

    .

    a = 300 m ak, 5oC +, .: 0= 5oC ; 0= = 19,5 daN/mm

    2,p0= p = 13,93.103

    daN/m,mm2.

    . :

    37,8 10 300 17500 / 24 63,187 const .n = = = 2 6 2

    6

    2

    13,93 10 30017500 11 10 17500 ( 5) 19,5 0,1925 14,9515.

    24 19,5m

    = + + = +

    , , min max,2.11

    2.11.1. II 95 mm2, = 300 m, M= 5 = 19,5 daN/mm2

    (oC) 20 0 20 40 5+

    (daN/mm2) 12,90 12,14 11,48 10,91 19,5

    f(m) 6,80 7,23 7,64 8,04 8,03

    )

    f= 40 = 5 + . , k. :

    5 19,5 7,8(1 ) 5 (1 ) 5 39 6 Cp

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    )20oC

    v = 33,3 m/s,

    PV:2 2233,3

    69,3 daN/m16 16

    V

    vP = = = .

    SL= 1 m :

    3 21 10,5 10 0,0105mS L d = = =

    FV:FV= c.PV.S= 169,30,0105 = 0,728 daN/m,

    () :pV=FV/A= 0,728/93,27 = 7,81.103daN/m, mm2.

    p'V :

    2 2 2 2 3 2

    7,8 7,81 11,035 10 daN/m, mmV Vp p p

    = + = + = .

    20V=20oC . , , , = 20oC, , . :

    0= 20oC ; 0= 20= 12,9 daN/mm2; p0=p= 7,8.103daN/m,mm2 ;

    -3

    2 6 26

    2

    2 220 20 20

    17.500= 11,035 10 300 = 89,4;

    24 24

    7,8 10 300= 17500 11 10 17500 ( 20 20) 12,9 11,093 ;

    24 12,9

    11,093 (89,4 / ) 16,9 daN/mm .

    V

    V V V

    En p a

    m

    =

    + + =

    + = =

    , 31% (-20 = 12,9 daN/mm

    220V= 16,9 daN/mm2). , *, , f20 = 6,80 m, f20V,:

    2 3 211 035 10 300

    0 7 7 81 5 47 103 d N/ 2

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    pV= 0,77,81 = 5,47103daN/m,mm2.

    :

    2 2 2 2 3 2) / 9,53 10 daN/m,mmV V Vp G F A p p = + = + =

    70%:

    70% arc tg ( / ) arc tg (0,51/ 0,7275) 35VF G = = = .

    :

    70% 20 70%cos 7,35 cos 35 6,02 m.Vf f = = =

    70%

    (G = p A)G

    G

    FVF

    V,70%

    F70% F

    1

    23

    G

    *) /, , /, .

    2.12: 110 kV , 2.12. : a = 570 m;h= 242 m. (P) b= 160 m . 2 d= 105 m 2.

    '22 . Al/^ 240/40 mm2, :

    = 8 daN/mm2;

    kn= 1,0;

    ki= 2,0.

    :

    MKS N C1 351 240/40 Al/^ d

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    MKS.N.C1.351240/40Al/^: d= 21,9 mm; p = 3,426.103 daN/m,mm2; p = 6,408.103 daN/m,mm2 ( kn = 1,0) ; E =7700 daN/mm2; = 18,9.1061/oC.

    M 8 daN/mm2. ,

    ak .

    .m9,12110)426,3408,6(

    109,183608

    360622

    6

    22 =

    =

    =

    pp

    a Mk

    ak < a, 5+, ,

    :o= 5oC ; 5 = M= 8 daN/mm2;po= p = 6,408 daN/m,mm2.

    ( ), , E,

    E*

    =E.cos

    . :cos= cos [arctg(h/a)] = 0,9205 ;E*=E.cos= 7088 daN/mm2 .

    . , k:

    65 8 10 3, 426(1 ) 5 (1 ) 5 22,8 C .

    7088 18,9 6, 408k

    p

    E p

    = = =

    k< 40C, = 40C. , +40, () 5+, :

    o= 5oC ; o= 8 daN/mm2;po= p = 6,408.103daN/m,mm2 .

    m40 n

    . : m40= 59,592 n= 33,559. :40+ 59,592 = (33,559/40)

    240 = 4,202 daN/mm2 ;

    c= c40= 40/p= 1226,5 m ; 2c= 2453 m.

    adaT :

    h :

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    , hP:

    hP=yByP= 163,75 156,24 = 7,51 m.

    [1], HS = 7 m (3.2), hP>HS, .. .

    5+

    ,

    2 2 id, Al/^240/40 mm2id= 24,5daN/mm2 (2.5).

    , p c 5+. 5oC+, .. :

    0 0 05C; ; Mp p = = = .

    3 2

    3 2

    2 2,982 10 daN/m,mm ;

    9,39 10 daN/m,mm

    i i np p k p

    p p p

    = = =

    = + =

    * 70889,39 0,57 91,981;

    24 24

    En p a= = =

    2 2

    2

    2 2

    * * ( 5 5) 53,564 ;24

    53,564 (91,981/ ) 11,411daN/mm ;

    p a

    m E E

    = + + =

    + = =

    311, 411 101215, 2 m ; 2 2430, 4 m

    9,39c c

    p

    = = = = .

    ad a

    aT:/ 2 242 / 2430,4

    0,42069sh( / 2 ) sh(570 / 2430, 4)

    h c

    a c

    = = = ;

    22 Ar sh ( ) 2 ln ( 1) 994,5mda c c = = + + =

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    2.1. hP = yB yP

    2.12 (6.42) [2]. (: hP= 12,73m).

    2.2.hP2.12 = 80oC.

    2.13. Al/^240/40 mm2 a= 200 m

    = 20

    . M= 8 daN/mm2, kn=1,0 (p= 3,426.103daN/m, mm2; p = 6,408.103daN/m, mm2),

    Ff.

    f'F'20% . 'M.

    2.6.

    :

    ak = 120 m, (2.12), a, =5+.

    2.6.:

    = 20oC ; 20= 4,295 daN/mm2;f20= 3,99 m .

    :

    2 3 23 426 10 200p a

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    20

    20

    3,426 10 2003,32 m

    8 8 5,154

    p af

    = = =

    'M, = 5+, M= 8 daN/mm2.'M, , :

    2 3 20 0 20 020 ; 5,154 daN/mm ; 3, 426 10 daN/m, mmC p p

    = = = = = ;

    36, 408 10 200 7700 / 24 22,96n = = ;

    2 6 2 6

    2

    3, 426 10 200 7700 18,9 10 7700 ( 5 20) 5,154 3,12224 5,154

    m = + =

    ;

    2 23,122 (22,96 / ) 9,264daN/mm .M M M = =

    , 20%, 16%.

    2.14.35 kV :a1 = 337 m; a2= 242 m; a3= 216 m; a4= 254 m a5= 250 m. -Al/^70/12 mm2. :

    ) ;

    ) ,

    = 30;) ;) . .Al/^70/12 mm2 :

    E= 7700 daN/mm2 ; d= 11,7 mm;A= 81,3 mm2; p= 3,427.103daN/m, mm2;

    = 18,9.10

    6

    1/o

    C ;p= 1,0.g/A= 7,426.103 daN/m, mm2; p = 10,853.103daN/m, mm2;

    : M= 8 daN/mm2.

    :

    = 5+. ,

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    , :

    0 = 5oC ; 0= 8 daN/mm2;p0= p = 10,853.103daN/m, mm2 .

    F= 30, , , 30= 30oC:

    -3

    2 6 26

    2

    = 3,427 10 267,4 7700/24 = 16,414 ;

    10,853 10 267,47700 18,9 10 7700 (30 5) 8 40,465 ;

    24 8

    n

    m

    = + + =

    2 230 30 3040, 465 (16,414 / ) 2,50daN/mm + = = .

    F-= 30:

    F= 30.A= 2,50.81,3 = 206,5 daN .

    )

    aifi. ,= 30oC, :

    2 3 2

    30

    3, 427 10 267, 412,25m

    8 8 2,50

    ii

    p af

    = = =

    .

    :22

    11 2

    33712, 25 19, 46m267,4

    i

    i

    af fa

    = = =

    ;

    222

    2 2

    24212, 25 10,03m

    267,4i

    i

    af f

    a

    = = =

    ;

    223

    3 2

    12612,25 2,72m

    267,4

    i

    i

    af f

    a

    = = =

    ;

    224

    4 2

    25412,25 11,05m

    267,4i

    i

    af f

    a

    = = =

    22

    5 8 3,427(1 ) 5 1 5 32 6 Cp

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    5

    6

    ,(1 ) 5 1 5 32,6 C.

    10,8537700 18,9 10k

    p

    E p

    = = =

    k< 40, = 40= 5+.f1.max, ,

    , 40 = 40. :

    40+ 40,769 = (16,414/40)2 40= 2,495 daN/mm2.

    , , :2 3 2

    ,40 ,max

    40

    3, 427 10 267, 4 12,26m8 8 2,495

    ii i p af f

    = = = = ,

    f1,max:2 21

    1, max ,max 2 2

    33712,26 19, 47 m.

    267,4i

    i

    af f

    a= = =

    2.15. 2.15 , ai= 330 m. Al/^240/40 mm2. M= 9 daN/mm2.

    40. Hk.

    5+.: a= 300 m; xA= 0;yA= 20 m;xB= 40;yB= 20 m;xC= 200;yC= 0 m;xD

    = 300;yD= 0 m;H4=H5= 14,8 m;Liz= 1,45 m.

    : kn= 1,0 ; ki= 2,0 .

    : A= 282,5 mm2; d= 21,9 mm; G= 0,968

    daN/m; E= 7700 daN/mm2; = 18,9.1061/oC; p= 3,426103daN/m, mm2 ; p = 6,408103

    daN/m,mm2; p = 9,39103daN/m,mm2(2.6).

    :

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    ak

    :

    2 2 2 2

    360 360 18,99 137 m

    6, 408 3, 426k Ma

    p p

    = = =

    .

    ai> , 5+, .:

    0= 5oC ; 0= M= 9 daN/mm2;p0 = p =6,408.103daN/m,mm2.

    ,

    40= 40oC.40+ 15,261 = (20,251/40)2 40= 4,55 daN/mm2 ;

    4040 1328 m.c

    p

    = =

    , 5+, :2

    5 5 512,11daN/mm ; / 1306 mc p = = = .

    40:

    40

    40

    40

    202 300 2328 477 m;

    300

    / 2ch 1 21,42 m.

    T d

    TT

    ha a a a c

    a

    af c

    c

    = + = + = + =

    = =

    O (2.15), T (xT,yT):

    4238,5m; ( ) ;2

    (20 14,8 1, 45) 21, 42 11, 93m.

    TT T A iz T

    T

    ax y y H L f

    y

    = = = +

    = + =

    ,

    , :

    ch 1TTx x

    y y cc

    =

    .

    BC. , (xk ,

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    yk) y', :

    C B

    C B

    0 20

    tg 0,125200 40

    y y

    y x x

    = = = = .

    :

    ch ,TTx x

    y y c cc

    =

    :

    sh ;Txdy

    y cdx c

    = =

    x=x+ c.Ar sh(y') =x+ c.ln (y'+ y '2

    1+ )

    , xk y'= 0,125, :

    2

    = 238,5 + 1326 ln ( 0,125+ 0,125 1) = 73,2 mkx - + ., K(xk,yk), :

    xk= 73,2 m ; yk=yT+ c.ch(xkxT)/c) c= 11,93 + 10,32 = 22,25 m .

    P K, :

    xP=xk= 73,2 m ; yP=yB+ tg

    (xPxB) = 20 0,125.(73,2 40) = 15,85 m,

    K :

    H=ykyP= 22,25 15,85 = 6,4 m. 6,4 m < 11,93 m, K,

    BC, xk= 73,2 m . 4, .

    3.1. 35 kV , 3 1 1

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    , 3.1.1.

    :

    : Al/95/15 mm2; (A= 109,7 mm2; d= 13,6mm;p= 3,416.103daN/m,mm2; E = 7700daN/mm2;

    = 18,9.1061/oC)

    :M= 8 daN/ mm2;

    a= 150 m; . : kn= 1,0;

    PV= 60 daN/mm2 ;

    : 2xK170/280;Liz= 54 cm; Giz=17,3 daN.

    (cm): a= 140; b = 160;

    c= 180; d= 200; e= 150; f= 150; g= 40; h= ag=100.

    Z

    A

    B

    C

    a

    b

    c

    d

    e

    f

    g

    3.1.1

    :

    )

    , A ( 3.1.1.) a = 1,6 m.

    3 :1. , -35 kV (3.1) d

    S1

    = 35 cm.

    x1= h= 100 cm > 35 cm; y1 =Liz= 54 cm > 35 cm.2. P'V = 0,15.Pmax=9 daN/m

    2

    , asr = agr , F G :

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    FizGiz, :

    arc tg arc tgV VF P d

    G G

    = .

    , :3

    max(0,15 ) 1 1,0 9 13,6 10 0,122 daN/m;V VF P S P d = = = =

    33, 416 10 109, 7 0, 375daN/m;G p A = = =

    0,122arctg arctg 18,1

    0,375

    VF

    G

    = = = ;

    y2=Liz.cos'= 54.cos(18,1) = 51,3 cm > 30 cm ;

    x2= hLiz.sin'= 100 54.sin(18,1) = 83,2 cm > 30 cm .3. -

    PV=Pmax, dS3= 10 cm.3

    max 60 13,6 10 0,816 daN/mVF P S = = = ;

    0,816arctg arctg 65,3 ;0,375

    VFG

    = = =

    y3=Liz.cos= 54.cos(65,3) = 22,5 cm > 10 cm ;

    x3= hLiz.sin= 100 54.sin(65,3) = 50,9 cm > 10 cm .

    )

    30 [1], D 40oC , [cm], :

    min 40 iz SD k f L d= + + .

    = 40, . f40, ,.

    :

    p = pn = 1,0.g/A = 1,0.(0,18.13,6)/109 = 6,051.103 daN/m, mm2 ;

    Dmin[cm]

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    k,

    () Pmax. ,k:

    k= 2 + /10 = 2 + 65,3/10 = 8,53 .

    , 35 kV -dSdS= 35 cm. , :

    min = 8,53 353 + 54 + 35 = 207 cm 2,07cmD = .

    () 2,07 m.

    DAC, A C. () :

    2 2 2 2( ) ( ) (1,8 1,4) (1,5 1,5) 3,03 m 2,07 m .ACD c a e f= + + = + + = >

    DAZ , :

    2 2(2 0,54) 1,4 2,9m 2,07m,AZD = + + = >

    2 2 2 2( ) 1, 4 (2 0,54) 2,9 m 2,07 mAZ izD a d L= + + = + + = > ,

    -.

    , (Al/95/15;M= 8 daN/mm

    2; a= 150 m, kn= 1;PV= 60 daN/m2),

    .

    +15 10% DAZ

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    .

    ) Mz

    , akz< a, .. 5.Mz z = .

    (3.1.1):

    a= 260 cm; b= 260 cm; c= 335 cm; d= 300 cm; e= 295 cm; f= 185 cm;g= 60 cm.

    :

    Al/360/57 mm2 III 50 mm2

    M= 1,483 kg/m Mz= 0,384 kg/md= 26,6 mm dz= 9 mm

    A= 360,2+57,3 = 417,5 mm2 Az= 48,36 mm2

    p= 3,483.103daN/m, mm2 pz= 7,8.103daN/m, mm2

    E= 7700 daN/mm2 Ez= 18000 daN/mm2

    = 18,9.1061/oC z= 11.1061/oC

    :

    ) :

    -, . :

    G= 0,981.M= 1,454 daN/m Gz= 0,981.Mz= 0,377 daN/m

    p= G/A= 3,483.103daN/m, mm2 pz= Gz/Az= 7,8.103daN/m, mm2

    g= 0,18.d= 0,928 daN/m gz= 0,18.dz= 0,54 daN/m

    p= 1,0.g/A= 2,23.103daN/m, mm2 pnz=1,0.gz/Az= 11,166.103daN/m, mm23 2

    5,713 10 daN/m,mmn np p p p

    = = + = 3 2

    18,966 10 daN/m,mmz nz z nzp p p p

    = = + =

    2 2

    360164mk M

    aa a

    p p

    = = Dmin.

    ) Dz. min

    A, , DAZ=DZA= 589 cm. Dz, :

    .min 40, 8,5 953 90 352cmz z z SD k f d= + = + = .

    DZADz.min, , ,

    . .

    , .

    Dvv , Dvv=DAC= 378cm, DzvDzv=DZA= 589 cm. f40 ,

    (8.6), :2 2

    40 2 2

    ( ) (378 90)145 1194cm 11.94m.

    7,87

    v v siz

    D df L

    k

    = = = =

    40+40, ,

    (8.17), :240+A

    .240B= 0.

    AB, :23 (45 ) 2 0746p E

    . :

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    22 2

    40, 2

    2 240, 40, 40,

    (589-90)

    = = 589 cm; = ( - ) / 3446 cm = 34,46 m ;8,5

    1,1314 106,767 0 10,914 daN/mm ;

    z v ZA z z v s

    z z z

    D D f D d k

    = =

    + = =

    40, 40,

    ,

    8621m.

    z z

    el z

    z

    fa

    p

    = =

    :

    ael= min{375; 621} = 375 m.

    a(a .

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    4.12. , 5 (. 5)5oC+(ki= 3).

    :

    p :3 3 2

    3 2

    3 3 4,771 10 14,313 10 daN/m,mm ;

    17,379 10 daN/m,mm .

    p p

    p p p

    = = =

    = + =

    5oC+

    . :

    : 5oC+;3 2 2 o8,197 10 daN/m,mm ; 9daN/mm ; 5 C;o o op p

    = = = =

    : 5oC+; 3 217,939 10 daN/m,mm ; ;p p = = = = ?

    mn:2 2

    2/ 24 101,676 ; 18,252

    24

    oo

    o

    p an p a E m E

    = = = =

    ,

    2 218,252 (101,676 / ) 17,1 daN/mm . + = =

    5oC+:

    ch2

    Tac

    =

    , c :

    4.13. 4.? id= 24,5 daN/mm

    2.

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    :

    224,5daN/mmid = = , -

    , ,.. , , :

    2/ ch 24,5 /1,063 23,048daN/mm .2

    Ta

    c = = =

    , , _5oC+(, :

    3 2 20 08,197 10 daN/m,mm ; 9 daN/mmp p

    = = = o= 5o C )

    _5oC+, , = 5oC, ,:

    mp a

    E E n p a Eo

    o

    o o=

    + = = =

    2 2

    22418 253 24

    ( ) , ; / ?daN / mm2

    2 2/ 23,048 23,048 18,253 148,119m n n m + = = + = + =

    3 2

    /( / 24) 25,842 10 daN/m,mmp n a E

    = = 3 3 2(25,842 3, 426) 10 22, 416 10 daN/m,mmp p p = = =

    4,7 p. .

    3 2222,416 10 daN/m,mmp = :2/ 892 ; 654,5m; ch( / 2 ) 23,048 1,068 24,62daN/mm

    T T

    c p m a a c = = = = = = .

    964 m,,. 1,063

    4.9. x4.13 1.

    :

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    2 2320/ 2 2 853,3m

    2 2 60T d

    h aa a a a c a c

    a h

    = = = = = =

    ;

    3 23, 426 10 853, 3 2, 924daN/mmp c = = = 2 219,637; ( ) ? ; ( / ) ; ( / ) 42,194xn m m m n m n = = = + = = =

    2 2o

    2 ( 20) 21,892 0,14553 ( 20) 159,5 C24x x x

    p a

    m E a E

    = + = + =

    4.14. . 4.13? -DAB, DACDBC

    20oC. , , A= 150oC, .

    :

    ,

    , . . , . 4, :

    2 2

    2 2

    2 2

    ( ) 5,76m;

    ( ) ( ) 4,56m;

    ( ) 6, 45m

    AB

    AC

    BC

    D a b e

    D c a e f

    D b c f

    = + + =

    = + + == + + =

    c=335 cm

    b=270 cm

    a=260 cm

    f=225 cm

    d=455 cm

    e=225 cm

    2 2150 150 150

    2150

    19,637; 40,81; 40,81 19,637 /

    2,968daN/mm

    n m m

    = = = + =

    =.

    2 3 2

    3 426 10 320 15 03 15 03 11 53 3 5f f

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    150

    150

    3,426 10 320 15,03m; 15,03 11,53 3,5m8 cos 8 2,968 0,983

    p af f

    = = = = = .

    , :

    2 2 2 2m( ) ( ) (2,6 2,7) (2, 25 3,5) 5, 45 ;ABD a b e f = + + = + + =

    2 2 2 2( ) ( ) (3,35 2,6) (4,5 3,5) 1, 25m;ACD c a e f f = + + = + =

    2 2( ) 6, 45m.BC BCD b c f D = + + = =

    . 4.15. .4.15 110 kV , : a1 = 300 m, a2= 320 m a3= 280 m.

    Al/^240/40 mm2. Liz= 1,8 m Giz= 58,4 daN. .4.15 . HS () .

    a1

    300= m a2 320= m a3 280= m1

    2 3 4

    y =24 m

    X= 0X

    .4.15

    .4.15

    ) 2. 2 PV= 75 daN/m2= 40oC.

    :

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    )

    3 3 3 3 61 2 3

    1 2 3

    81,72 10301,33 m

    900

    j

    i

    j

    a a a aa

    a a a a

    + + = = =

    + +

    () hj (j = 1,2,3) cj(j= 1,2,3) :

    1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1( ) ( ) (21,8 1,8) (24 16 0) 20 mS iz S iz h h h H L y H L = = + = + + = ,

    2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2( ) ( ) (21,8 1,8) (21,8 1,8) 0 mS iz S iz h h h H L y H L = = + = = ,

    3 4 3 4 4 3 3 3( ) ( ) (18 0) (21,8 1,8) 2 mS iz S iz h h h H L y H L = = + = = .

    11 1 1 1 1

    1

    arctg 4,38 cos 0,998 / cos 300,666m,h

    c aa

    = = = = =

    :2 2 2 3 3 3 30 320m 0, 455 / cos 280,007m.c a c a = = = = = =i

    :3 2 3 6

    2 2

    / 902, 002 81, 72 10301,324 m.

    / / 901,348 901,348

    j j j

    i

    j j j j

    c a aa

    c a c a

    = = =

    . 4.16. .4.16 35 kV ,Al/Fe 95/15 mm2. a= 250 m, h = y2 y1 = (yD+HS2) HS1 = 15 m. : PV= 75 dN/m

    2; kn

    = 1,6. , , .4.16.1.

    .4.16.1. , .4.16.1.

    O 1 A B C D 2

    x m 0 0 150 215 250 250 250

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    x, m 0 0 150 215 250 250 250y, m 0 15 0 25 0 20 40

    =40

    oC, 4040= 2,661 daN/mm

    2. :

    ) ;

    ) adaT;

    ) , .. hT, .. x1x2;

    ) hB(B);) l

    ;) f;) FH, V= 40

    m/s, ;

    ) 1 2 1 2 ;

    ) 5 ()

    5C + ;) 5 ()

    1 2 5C + . ki=3,.. .hB.

    : : Al/ 95/15; G = 0,375 daN/m; d = 13,3 mm;A= 109,8mm2.

    :

    :- :

    G = 103

    (0,1Mg) = 103

    (0,981382) = 0,375 daN/m;

    - :

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    - :

    2

    3 daN

    mmm

    0,3753,413 10

    109,8

    Gp

    A

    = = =

    2.5 [1], = 6 26/7, :

    - a: E= 7700 daN/mm2;

    - : = 18,9106

    1/oC.

    ) adaT

    :

    2,661779,7 m

    0,003413c

    p

    = = = ; 2c= 1559,4 m.

    (6.31):/ 2 25 /1559, 4

    0,099573sh ( / 2 ) sh (250 /1559, 4)

    h c

    a c

    = = =

    , ja(6.32) :

    22 ln ( 1 ) 155m.da c = + + = .

    ad,

    :250 155 405 m.T da a a= + = + =

    ad (6.34):

    252 1559,4 155,9 m

    250d

    ha c

    a

    = =

    250 155,9 405,9 m.T da a a= + + =

    ) hT

    ()(x1,y1) (x2,y2) 1 2 :

    2 1 2/ 2 202,5 m; 202,5 250 47,5 mTx a x x a= = = = =

    y1 y2 (6.23)

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    y y (6.23)

    1 11

    47,5ch ch 1,001856; ch 1 1,45 m;

    779,7

    x xy c

    c c

    = = = =

    2 22

    202,5ch ch 1,033921; ch 1 26,45 m.

    779,7

    x xy c

    c c

    = = = =

    ,

    .4.16.2:

    2 1 26,45 1,45 25 m .y h = =

    , 1 (.4.16.1):

    1 1 15 mSh H= =

    hT:

    1 1 15 1,45 15,55 mT Sh H y= = = .

    :

    y1,y2yT, (6.27) y(x) . :

    2 21

    1 1

    47,547,5 ; 1,446 1,45m;

    2 1559, 4

    xx m y

    c= = = =

    2 22

    2 2

    202,5202,5 ; 26,299 26,3m

    2 1559,4

    xx m y

    c= = = =

    1 1 15 1,45 15,55 mT Sh H y= = = .

    ) hB(B);

    1) .

    xB yB B , .4.16.1, :

    2) .

    , yBB , (6.27):

    2 2167,535 167 5 m; 17 99 18 mBxx x x y = = = = = =

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    ' 2 '67,535 167,5 m; 17,99 18 m.

    2 1559, 4B B B

    xx x x yc

    = = = = = =

    , B ,, (.4.16.1):

    18 6,45 11,55 mB B Bh y y= = = ,

    0,6 m ( 5% ).

    ) l

    , (6.50), :2

    1

    2 1sh sh

    x

    x

    x xl dl c c

    c c= =

    202,5 47,51559,4 sh sh ;

    1559,4 1559,4

    1559,4 (0,26265 0,06096) 252,314 m.

    l

    l

    =

    = + =

    :

    3252,314 250 9,255 10 (0,93%)250

    l a

    a

    = = = .

    , 0,93% .

    ) f ;

    1) .

    .4.16.2, f:

    2 2( / 2) ( / 2)f fy f h y f y y h+ + = = .

    xf yf

    2 21 1

    8 cos 8 cos

    a p af

    c

    = =

    :

    2 2 2 2cos / 250 / 250 25 0 995a a h + + ;

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    cos / 250 / 250 25 0,995a a h = + = + = ;

    21 25010,07 m.

    0,995 779,7f = =

    (0,2%).

    ) . FH (V=40 m/s)

    FV:

    sinV VF c P S = ,

    :c . ( c=1)

    PV . (6.3) :

    PV= v2/16 = 100 daN/m

    2;

    S (.. ). :

    S= 1d = 113,6103= 13,610

    3m2;

    . = 90, .. sin

    = 1.: FV=PVS= 1,36daN/m.

    FH:

    ( sin )H V VF F a c P S a= = ,

    :

    1, 36 250 340 daN.HF = =

    ) 1 2 1 2 ;

    1 2cos 2 cos 2

    h hp f p f

    = + = + +

    i

    3

    1 2

    2,661 daN

    3, 429 10 (10,09 12,5) 2,666 ;cos 2 0,995 mm

    h

    p f

    = + = + =

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    32 2

    2,661 daN3, 429 10 (10,09 12,5) 2,751 .

    cos 2 0,995 mm

    hp f

    + + = + + = + + =

    ) 5

    5C + ;

    . (. 1) = 40oC, 40 = 2,661 daN/mm

    2 p= 3,413103daN/m,mm2,

    p1=p= 3,413103

    daN/m,mm2; 1= 40= 2,661 daN/mm

    21= 40

    oC,

    (.2) 5C+, ..

    2p p p p= = + ; 2 5 = = ? 2= 5oC.

    p , :

    (): 1,6;nk =

    g:

    0,18 0,18 13,6 0,65645 daN/m;g d= = = 2( / ) 1, 6 0, 65645 /109,8 0,009566 daN/m,mmnp k g A = = =

    3 3 2(3, 413 9,566) 10 12,979 10 daN/m,mm .p p p = + = + =

    (6.85) . 1 . 2:

    2 2 2 22 1 2 1

    2 12 22 1 ( )24 24

    p a p a

    E

    = + .

    2 5

    . 2 5oC+.

    2

    5 52 25

    58,118 daN23,777 10 .

    mm

    + = =

    ) 5oC+

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    , .. 5 , 1 2 -hB, , -, ,

    5 . . 2 5oC+, ..

    2 ip p p k p= = + ; 2 5 = = ? 2= 5o

    C.. 1 , , +40oC, ..

    p1=p= 3,413103

    daN/m,mm2; 1= 40= 2,661 daN/mm

    21= 40

    oC.

    :3 -3 2

    2 (3, 413 3 9,566) 10 32,11 10 daN/m,mmip p p k p = = + = + =

    23,777 143,787m n= = .(6.87) :

    2

    5 52 25

    143,787 daN23,777 21,394 .

    mm

    + = =

    5f :2 3 2

    55

    1 1 32,11 10 250 11,78 m.cos 8 0,995 8 21,394

    p af

    = = =

    :

    51 5 2

    52 5

    2

    daN21,479 ;

    cos 2 mm

    daN22,281 .

    cos 2 mm

    hp f

    hp f

    = + =

    = + + =

    hB (6.42) b2:

    2

    ( )4b

    b a bf f

    a

    .

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    a

    (. .4.16.1 .4.16.3):

    535 m; 215 m; 11,78 mb a b f f = = = = .

    2

    35 2154 11,78 5,68 m

    250bf

    = = .

    1.3 :;

    3525 3,5 m;

    250

    y h btg y h

    b a a

    y

    = = =

    = =

    2

    2

    ;

    b B S

    B S b

    y f h H

    h H f y

    + + =

    =

    20 5,68 3,5 10,82 m.Bh = =

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    III

    1. .

    1. IPO 13 395 6/10 kV . : l= 5 km; z= (r+jx) = (0,19+j0,08)/km; b= 30 S/km. -

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    : Un= 10 kV; PP =4 MW; cos P = 0,95. , h= 0,7 m = 20oC -= 100 Kcm/W = 1Km/W. :) ;

    ) U(V) u% P(kW) p%.:

    ) 5.8 34: IdT= 255 A. (, Cu 95 mm

    2).

    (): 1 255 255 A. ( 1).d dTI f I f= = = =

    , 5.1 : dT= max= 65

    oC. : dT= dT 20 = 45

    oC.

    Up= Un= 10 kV (-, , ) IP:

    3 3 ;3 3 cos

    4000243,1A. (243,1A < 255A).

    3 10 0,95

    P P

    P P P n P Pn n P

    P P d

    S P

    S U I U I I U U

    I I I

    = = = =

    = = <

    , , .

    ) :

    0,19 5 0,95 ; 0,08 5 0, 4 ; 30 5 150S; /2=75S.R r l X x l B b l B= = = = = = = = = () QC:2 2 6 230 10 5 10000 15.000 var 15 kvar.C n nQ B U b l U

    = = = = =

    4000 0, 95 1315 0, 4433 V 0, 433 kV.

    10

    P P P P

    n

    P R Q X P R Q XU

    U U

    + + + = = = =

    0,433% 100 100 4,33%.

    10n

    Uu

    U

    = = =

    P :

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    P:2 2 2 2

    2

    2 2 2.

    4210,533 0,95 168 421 W 168,421 kW.

    10

    P P PP

    n n

    P Q SP R I R R

    U U

    + = = = = = =

    , %, p% :

    3

    168,421% 100 100 4,2% ( 95,8%).

    4 10P

    Pp

    P

    = = = =

    2. , , , =15 cm .

    :

    , :

    1 2 3; .d TI f I f f f f= =

    f1f21 (= n= 100 Kcm/W = 20oC). -

    , f35.14 (. 37):

    3 0,86; 1 1 0,86 0,86.f f= = =

    0,86 255 219 A.d TI f I= = =

    (.. ) :

    243,1 A 219 A,P dI I I= = > = 11%

    Id. . .() :

    ( ) 65 20 45 C.odT dT a = = =

    11%

    3.Id-2 , = 5oC.

    :

    f1= 1; f2= 1 (5.13 . 37) f3= 0,86.

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    f= 0,86, ..:

    Id=fIdT= 0,86255 = 219 A.

    4. . 1, (h= 0,7 m = 20oC = 100 Kcm/W = 1 Km/W), PP= 3 MW, cosP= 0,8 UP= Un= 10 kV.

    :

    , -

    25% IdT, 5.8(. 34). , , :

    0.75 0,75 255 191 A.d dTI I= = =

    IP:

    3000216 A.

    3 3 cos 3 10 0,8

    P PP

    n n P

    S PI

    U U = = = =

    IP>Id (216 A > 191 A), .

    5. -(cosP= 0,8) .

    [: PP= 2,647 kW ].

    IPO13 S 3x120 mm26/10 kV IdT = 290 . ( 3.8). , 10% 0.9;

    24 / (

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    24 /( ) 25% 0.75;

    a

    . f1f2.

    1 0,69 1,04 0,712f A B= = = (5.11 5.12);

    f2= 0,94 (5.13).

    :

    1 20,9 0,75 0,9 0,75 0,712 0,94 290 131 A.d dTI f f I= = =

    , 131 A, I =290A .

    7.110/10 kV IPO13AS 3240 mm26/10 kV. :

    1) ();

    2) , , 15 cm. 20C, 100oCcm/W;

    3) () , 5. . 35C..

    , ().

    , IPO13 AS 3x240 mm2 6/10 kV IdT = 320 A (5.9). ( = 35oC > 30oC) f4= 0 94 ( 5 15) 5

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    f4 0,94 (5.15). , 5, , , , f5 =0,73(5.16). :

    4 50,75 0,75 0,94 0,73 320 165A.d dTI f f I= = =

    .

    , . () , .. : Id= 165 A.

    8. 5.1 (IPO 13 3x150 6/10 kV;IdT= 325 A; dT= 65

    oC), .

    65oC. :

    )

    IKV = 10 kA, tisk= 0,5 s.) tisk. gr= ?

    , .. d.max= 165

    oC (5.1).

    ) t'isk. gr, ..

    1= a= 20o

    C. (. 5.8, 47).

    :

    tisk= 0,5 s, j0,5s:

    20,5 1 / 0,5 122 / 0,5 172 A/mms sj j= = = ,

    , , 5.19. , IKV.doz -

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    d.max=165

    oC ((5.1) :

    .doz 0,5 0,5 172 150 25800 A 25,8 kA.KV s sI I j S= = = = =

    IKV = 10 kA < 25,8 kA, (IKV < IKV.doz) . , , 0,5 s.

    ) tisk. grA= I2KVtisk. gr1 s, I1s,..:

    2 2 2 2. 1 . 11. ( / ) (18,3/10) 3,35 s.KV isk gr s isk gr s KVI t I t I I = = = = .

    ) 1= a= 20

    oC, . 47 ( 5.8). (), :

    j1s= 148 A/mm2 d.max= 160

    oC;

    j1s= 156 A/mm2

    d.max= 170o

    C;., d.max = 165

    oC

    :

    j'1s= 153 A/mm2.

    I1s:I'1s= 153150 = 22.950 A = 22,95 kA.

    :

    2 2. 1' ( ' / ) (22,95 /10) 5,27 s.isk gr s KV t I I= = =

    ckI, , dT, Id . tk/ () tk

    /. (5.25):

    ( )1/ 2

    /tI

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    ( )/

    /1 .ktkd

    Ic e

    I

    = =

    : tk=5 min; =20 min; tk/= 5/20 = 0,25; Id=IdT= 325A; ck=2,126.

    , -

    :I= 2,126325 = 542 A.

    10. (IPO 13 3x150 6/10 kV;IdT= 325 A; dT= 65

    oC; = 20 min), . (PP = 7,5 MW, cosP=0,8;IP= 542 A) tk= 5 min, IP= 542 A, , 1 . a=20

    oC.

    60 , t = 0 -

    . dT= 65o

    C ?

    :

    , (0 < t < 5 min) (5.13). 0 = a = 20

    oC,

    IP= 542 A, :2 2( ) ( / ) 45 (542 /325) 203,3 C;a dT P dT I I = = = =

    20 203,3 223,3 C.a = + = + =

    ( ) /( ) /0 0( ) ( ) (1 ) ( ) ( ) .

    k

    k

    t t

    t tt tka a a a a at e e e

    = + + = +

    "" , .. (5.13) t " " t' = t tk, , , t' = 0 ( t = tk), .. (t = 0)

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    ( ), ( ) tk.

    , , 0, t' = 0, t= tk= 5 min. 10.1 0= 65

    oC.

    (t) t> tk. 10.1, 10.1

    10.1.

    (t)

    t(min)

    (t)oC

    t(min)

    (t)oC

    t(min)

    (t)oC

    t(min)

    (t)oC

    t(min)

    (t)oC

    t(min)

    (t)oC

    0 20.0 10 55.0 20 41.3 30 32.9 40 27.8 50 24.51 29.9 11 53.3 21 40.2 31 32.3 41 27.4 51 24.3

    2 39.4 12 51.7 22 39.2 32 31.7 42 27.1 52 24.1

    3 48.3 13 50.2 23 38.3 33 31.1 43 26.7 53 23.9

    4 56.9 14 48.7 24 37.4 34 30.6 44 26.4 54 23.7

    5 65.0 15 47.3 25 36.6 35 30.0 45 26.1 55 23.5

    6 62.8 16 46.0 26 35.7 36 29.6 46 25.8 56 23.3

    7 60.7 17 44.7 27 35.0 37 29.1 47 25.5 57 23.28 58.7 18 43.5 28 34.2 38 28.6 48 25.2 58 23.0

    9 56.8 19 42.3 29 33.6 39 28.2 49 25.0 59 22.9

    40

    45

    50

    55

    60

    65

    oC(t)

    11. 5t= tk= 5 min, .. , , I0 = 120 A, 0= 30

    oC.

    :: 5= (t=5 min) = 75oC.

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    12. () PP00 A 4X 0,6/1 kV (. 12.1).

    , , h = 0,7 m. = 100 Kcm/W. , , () a= 10

    oC.

    - 100 m - - 100 m - - 100 m -

    A 1 2 3

    TS10/0,4 kV,630 kVA

    PP 00 A 3x95 0,6/1 kV

    P1, Q1 P2, Q2P3, Q3

    P1=40 kW

    Q1=10 kvar

    P2=40 kW

    Q2=10 kvar

    P3=40 kW

    Q3=10 kvar

    12.1. ()

    () 40 kW,cos = 0,97 (tg = 0,25), 120 kW; cos= 0,97. :

    ) -();

    ) U< Udoz, () Udoz= 5%;

    ) IK3= ? .

    1 1 2 3

    1 1 2 3

    2 2 2 21 1 1

    1 1

    40 40 40 120 kW;

    10 10 10 30 kvar.

    120 30 123,7 kVA;

    /( 3 ) 123,7 /(1,732 0,4) 178,6 A.n

    P P P P

    Q Q Q Q

    S P Q

    I S U

    = + + = + + =

    = + + = + + =

    = + = + =

    = = =

    h = 0 7 m

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    h= 0,7 m, = n= 100 Kcm/, a= 10

    oC - (aaT= 20

    oC), . 5.13 () : k= k2= 1,1.

    , 5.2 . 28 (PVC-, ), 4-

    , := 50 mm2; IdT= 145 A; Id= 1,1IdT= 159,5 A,

    = 70 mm2; IdT= 175 A; Id= 1,1IdT= 192,5 A,

    = 95 mm2; IdT= 215 A; Id= 1,1IdT= 239,5 A.

    (IP IP = 178,6 A. .rx(-

    x= 0,08 /km):1000 1000 31,25

    0,45 ;32 70 70 km

    0,08 ; ( ) (0,45 0,08) .km. km

    Al

    rA

    x z r jx j

    = = = =

    = = + = +

    ) ( -)

    , , .. U (. 3)Udoz.

    I ()

    PiQi (i= 1, 2, 3) i () :

    1 :R1=rl1= 0,045 ; X1=xl1= 0,008 ;

    n

    P R Q XU

    U

    +

    , 12.1

    :1 1 1 1

    1 1 1 1

    120 0, 045 30 0, 00813,7 V; ;

    0 4A A

    P R Q XU U U U U U

    U

    + + = = = = =

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    0,4nU

    2 2 2 22 1 2 2 1 2 1 29,13 V; ;A

    n

    P R Q XU U U U U U U U U

    U

    + = = = = =

    3 3 3 33 2 3 3 2 3 1 2 34,57 V; .A

    n

    P R Q XU U U U U U U U U U

    U

    + = = = = =

    U ():

    3 1 2 3 13,7 9,13 4,57 27,4 VAU U U U U U = = + + = + + = ,

    :

    27,4% .100 100 6,85%.

    400n

    Uu

    U

    = = =

    U< Udoz, . S= 95mm2. :

    1000 1000215A; 239,5A; 0,33 ;

    32 95 km

    0,08 ; ( ) (0,33 0,08) .km. km

    dT d

    Al

    I I rA

    x z r jx j

    = = = = =

    = + = +

    :

    1 2 3 10,5 7,0 3,5 20 V; ( % 5%).U U U U u = + + = + + = =

    -.

    )

    5.19 (. 45) PVC- :

    2.

    ().

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    (). , , , . , .

    ()

    .

    , . .

    ,

    . . .

    , ,

    . , .. . , dT. :

    [ ] ( )exp ( ) dTdTa

    a e

    = = . (1)

    ea, dT ( 5.1) .

    ..

    83 80

    0,562 2 1,41.

    = = =

    , 41%.

    , = 83oC 1,41 .

    ( )8083

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    ( )41.122 2

    16

    8083

    0 ===

    , , dT,

    . , , t= 77oC, :

    0,577 80 262 0,71.

    == =

    t0,71t.

    n : t1, t2, tj, ..tn, T= ti , :

    1 1 2 2

    1 2 3

    . . . . ..

    . . .

    j

    jn nek

    n j

    j

    tt t t

    t t t t t

    + + +

    = = + + + +

    (3)

    j (j = 1, n), tj.

    jj-(1) j . : a, dT = a+dT ( 5.1), Ij IdT(5.9), :

    ( )2

    / .j a j a dT j dTI I = + = + (4)

    13.IPO 13 395 6/10 kV, 10 . IdT= 255 A (5.8), dT = 65

    oC.

    a =15oC.

    10 .

    270250 250300

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    220 220

    270

    190 190 190 190 190

    250 250

    050

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    I(A)

    :

    dT :

    dT= dT aT= 65 20 = 45oC. j (j=1, 10)

    (4). :

    ( )2 2

    1 1 1 / 15 45 (220 / 255) 48,5 C.a a dT dT I I = + = + = + = ; 2= 1= 48,5oC.

    , (j=3) :

    ( )

    2 2

    3 3 3

    / 15 45 (270 / 255) 65,5 C.a a dT dT

    I I = + = + = + =

    , :

    ( )2 2

    4 5 8 4 4. . . . / 15 45 (190 / 255) 40,0 C.a a dT dT I I = = = + = + = + =

    ( )2 2

    9 10 9 9 / 15 45 (250 / 255) 58,3 C.a a dT dT I I = = + = + = + =

    j j- (j = 1, 10) (2). :

    48,5 65 65,5 65

    6 61 2 3

    40 65 58,3 65

    2 0,149; 2 1,059;

    = = = = =

    14.10 'ek=? a= 25

    oC ?

    (: 'ek.10=0,813. 3,175 ).

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    15. 12.

    , 15.1. 15.2, .

    15.1. 15.2.

    :

    (PP00 A 4x95 0,6/1 kV) (12):

    IdT= 215 A; Id= 1,1IdT= 239,5 A; dT= 70oC; aT= 20

    oC; a= 10oC;IP=I1= 178,6 A.

    , : 1) 001800h; 2) 8011800h 3) 18012400h.:

    1) t1= 8 h; I

    1= 0,2I

    P= 35,7 A;

    l=

    a+

    1=

    a+ (

    dT

    aT)(I

    1/I

    dT)2= 10+1,4 = 11,4oC;

    2) t2 = 10 h; I2 = 1,0IP= 178,6 A; 2 = a+2= a+ (dTaT)(I2/IdT)2= 10+34,5 = 45,5oC;

    3) t3= 6 h; I3= 0,3IP= 53,6 A; 3= a+3= a+ (dTaT)(I3/IdT)2= 10+3,1 = 13,1oC.

    16. Imax 15 , .. ek= 1.

    :

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    . 8 18 10 93% , 14 7% .

    , ..:

    1 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 2

    1 2 3 1 2 3

    10

    24ek

    t t t t

    t t t t t t

    + + = =

    + + + + .

    , ek= 1, :

    2 2, 4 2,4.ek = =

    :2

    262 2 2,4; ln 2 ln 2,4

    6

    dT

    dT

    = = ,

    2 , .. :

    2

    ln 2, 4 ln 2, 46 70 6 77,6 C.

    ln 2 ln 2dT = + = + =

    Imax :

    2 2

    max max 22

    77, 6 10( ) 1,352;

    70 20

    aa dT aT

    dT dT dT aT

    I I

    I I

    = + = = =

    max 1,352 215 1,163 250 A.dTI I= = =

    18.. 1 (IPO 13 3x95 6/10 kV; IdT= 255 A; dT = 65oC)

    , (a = 20oC; Id = IdT = 255 A).

    , , tr = 15 min, PP = 4,16 MW;

    cosP= 0,8, tp= 30 min.(min, max)

    .

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    .

    :

    tr:3

    4,16 10 0,3 kA 300 A.3 cos 3 10 0,8

    PP

    n P

    PIU

    = = = =

    I=IP>IdT, . " " dT= 65

    oC, .

    18.1.

    , , min. max= maxamin= min a, :

    ( )/ /max min/

    min max

    1

    .

    r r

    p

    t t

    t

    e e

    e

    = +

    =

    i

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    min max

    min, :/

    max ( ) /

    1

    1

    r

    r p

    t

    t t

    e

    e

    +

    =

    .

    :tr= 15 min; tp= 30 mion; = 20 min; a= 20

    oC;

    15/ 20

    max max max45/ 20

    162,3 62,3 0,59 36,8 C; 56,8 C.

    1a

    e

    e

    = = = = + =

    30/20

    min min min36,8 8,2 C; 28,2 C.ae = = = + =

    : 28,2oC < < 56,8oC. IP

    IdT(300 A > 255 A), , , .

    19. I = IP = ? : max= dT= 65

    oC ?

    :

    Id , dT . max

    trtc, ..:

    r r

    c r p

    t t

    t t t= =

    +,

    .tr,

    0 , ci

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    :

    1ci

    r

    tc

    t .

    :IdT= 255 A; = 20 min; tr= 15 min; tp= 30 min; tc= 45 min; = 15/45 = 0,333;

    / 45/ 20

    max/ 15 / 20

    1 11,302; 1,302 255 332 A.

    11

    c

    c

    t

    i i dT t

    e ec I c I

    ee

    = = = = = =

    332 A, 30% ,

    .

    3.

    I1: (II 1992). IPO 13 A 3x150 6/10 kV P=2,5 MW i cos=0,8 U=10 kV. , , , , .

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    . () =25.

    I2: (II 1993). IPO 13 A 3x150 6/10 kVP= 2,5 MW cos = 0,8 U= Un= 10 kV. , , , , .

    -

    . () -= 25oC.

    I3.(II , 1999-). 10/0,4 kV/kV 4 PP00 A 4x95 0,6/1 kV. (. 1). 1, 2, 3 4, . I 4 . II . 1 2 ,dm= 7 cm. III . 1 , -. . 2, , P2 , 5 , , . . . 12.

    I II III IV ,

    . 1, 2, 3 4 . 1 2 . 1 . 2 + 5

    : PP00 A 495 0,6/1 kV: Id= 215 A

    I : f = f1.f2.f3; f1=A.B = 1.1=1; f2=1,1 (=10oC); f3 = 0,63 (4 ,); f1= 1.1,1.0,63 = 0,693; Id.I= 0,693.215 = 149 A.

    II : f= f1.f2.f3; f1= A.B = 0,64.1 = 0,64; f2= 1,1 ( = 10o

    C); f3= 0,85(2 , dm= 7 cm); fII= 0,64.1,1.0,85 = 0,5984; Id.II= 0,5984.215 = 129 A.

    III :f=f4.f5; f44=1,12 ( = 20oC); f55= 0,95 ; fIII= 1,12

    .0,95 = 1,064; Id.III

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    = 1,064.215 = 229 A.

    IV :f=f4.f5; f4=1 (=30oC); f5= 0,68 (6 ); fIV= 1.0,68 = 0,68;Id.IV= 0,68.215 = 164 A.

    , . 1 . 2, , Id.II: Id.I=Id.II= 129 A.

    I4.(II , 1999-).PP00 A4x95 0,6/1 kV, = 15 min. 70 cm. () a = 10oC I= 120 A

    . :) = ?

    ) -, 0= a= 10oC. -I= 400 A.

    :

    PP00 A 4x95 0,6/1 kV: IdT= 215 A dT= 70 oC = 15 min. a= 10oC 0= 10oC.

    ) 20 70 20 50 C;dT dT = = =

    2 2120 A; ( / ) 50 (120 / 215) 15,6 C;dT dT I I I = = = =

    10 15,6 25,6 C.a = + = + =

    ) 2 o o400A 50 (400 / 215) 173,1 C; 183,1 CaI = = = = + =

    / o /( ) ( ) (1 ) 70 C 1 0 653 6 38mint t at e e t

    = + = = =

    I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX

    1. , m 50 100 50 60 200 45 25 50 20

    2.

    3. . 1 8 1,2,3 2,3 3 4,5,6,7,8 4,5 6,7,8 6,7 6

    4.

    D= 7 cm D= 15 cm D= 15 cm

    ,ds=0D= 7 cm D= 15 cm

    1

    2

    3

    5. , oC 25 25 20 35 20 30 25 25 30

    6. . . 100 200 300 / 300 300 / / /

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    I

    II

    III IV

    V VI

    VII VIII IX

    1 23

    6

    78

    4

    5

    I

    Slika 2

    TS

    110/10

    :

    1) . . ds= 2 cm dm= d.

    2) . . ds= 5 cm dm= 2d.

    3) , .. , (ds 2 cm).

    2. I6.(II . 2001). PP00 A 4x150 0,6/1kV, = 30 min. 70 cm. () a= 15oC I = 200 A . :

    ) = ?)

    , 0= a= 15oC. I= 400 A.

    3. ., , 2. = 40oC.

    .

    5 cm

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    ... ...... ...

    70 cm

    10 cm

    7 7 7

    2

    ...

    70 cm

    10 cm

    7 7

    2

    .

    .

    .

    50 cm

    50 cm

    2

    I8. (II 2003). XHP 48 A 1x150/25 12/20kV . h = 70 cm = 100 oC cm/W

    a= 20o

    C.PM

    = 8 MW U= Un= 20 kV cos= 0,9. :

    a) ;

    ) = 300 oC cm/W;

    ) ) , a= 10oC;

    ) , (= 100 oCcm/W a= 20

    oC). tk= 10 min., , a = 20

    oC.

    . = 15 min.

    1. . , - h = 0,7 m d = 7 cm, 3. = 70oC cm/W,

    1= 20

    o

    C.2. . . 2 , . 3. 2=20oC

    70 cm

    7

    10 cm

    3 3

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    20 C.

    Id1Id2.

    I10.(II 2005-). PP 41 A 3x240 6/10 kV -h= 70 cm = 100 oC cm/W a= 20

    oC.

    PM= 4,5 MW U= Un= 10 kV cos= 0,95. :

    ) ;

    ) = 300 oC cm/W;

    ) ) , a= 10

    oC;

    ) , (= 100 oC cm/Wa= 20

    oC). - tk = 10 min., ,

    a= 20oC.

    . = 15min.

    :

    Ip:

    4,5 273,5 A.3 3 cos 3 10 0,95

    p

    n n

    S PIU U

    = = = =

    5 2 ( 28)

    2. Id = Imax = 315 A. ck:

    / 10/151/ 1 1/ 1 1, 434.kt

    k

    c e e = = =

    1,434 Id , ..I'p= ckId= 1,434315 = 451,6 A.

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    . -

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    .

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    ., 1

    ,

    G, Gz[daN/m] ();

    G, Gz[daN/m] . ();

    G Gz, [ ]/daN m ();

    A,Az[mm2] ();

    d d [ ] ( )

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    d, dz[mm] ();

    p,pz[daN/m,mm2] ();

    g[daN/m] (g= 0,18 d );

    kn ();ki .();

    p, pz[daN/m,mm2] , -

    , ;

    zpp , [daN/m,mm2] , -

    ();

    , zp p [daN/m,mm2] ()

    ;

    , zp p [daN/m,mm2] ( )

    ;

    PV[daN/m2] ;

    pV[daN/m,mm2] ;

    p'V[daN/m,mm2] , ,

    ;

    [oC] ;

    , z[daN/mm2] ();

    , 'z[daN/mm2] ( )

    ;

    M, Mz[daN/mm2] , ;

    , z[daN/mm2] , , ;

    , z [daN/mm2] , ,

    ;

    z, [daN/mm2] , ,

    ;

    kin[daN/mm2] ;

    ., 2

    ad[m] ;

    aT[m] ;

    h[m] .. ;

    f, fz[cm] () ();

    f, fz[cm] () ;ai [m] ;

    ak[m] ;

    k ;

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    agr[m] ;

    asr[m] ;

    ael[m] ;

    agrn[m] ;'k, k ;

    ;

    z ;

    []

    ;

    [] ;

    VX,ZX[daN] () X;VY,ZY[daN] () Y;

    VZ,ZZ[daN] () Z;

    SX[daN/m2] X;

    SY[daN/m2] Y;

    abs(x) x, abs (x) = abs(x);

    v (vodi~);

    z ;V .

    NV nadzemen vod

    ..

    ;

    ;

    ;

    ., 3

    I

    , :

    ;

    ;

    ;

    ;

    . :

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    , , :

    M ;

    Mz;

    ; ( ,

    PV, kn, ki.); , ..

    , (,

    , , ), .

    ,

    .

    1.

    p.

    / (L= 1 m), 1 mm2:

    2

    daN.

    mm

    Gp

    A

    = (1.1)

    ,

    5C, G [daN/m] , .

    () ,

    , g, ,

    :

    g d= 0 18, [ ] .daN / m (1.2)

    , , :

    G= kn.g [daN/m] (1.3)

    kn: 1,0; 1,6; 2,5 4.

    , :

    nk gGp

    = = [daN/m mm2] (1 4)

    ., 4

    2 2 2[daN/m,mm ].V Vp p p = + (1.8)

    M

    = 5C+= 20C .

    nd

    , .. = 5C+, ,

    =min = 20C,

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    . nd .

    id

    , . = 5C+, /.

    , ,

    : 'M nd id i .

    2.

    ,

    ,

    2 [2].

    1.

    3.

    , ,

    .

    .

    2.

    4.

    ,

    .

    .

    -

    . , , (),

    , ,

    . 3 35 kV 110 kV

    ., 5

    , (Y) . ,

    . (,

    ),

    .

    . ,

    , ,

    , , .

    () - ()

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    () -() .

    , ..

    . , -

    ,

    , , . , - ,

    -, , -

    .

    ,

    , ,

    .

    , . ,

    , .

    X, .. . ( ), ,

    .

    ,

    .

    , / , ..

    , .. Y.

    . / ,

    .

    , .. X, XY, ...

    ., 6

    "B", ,

    :

    VZ(A) = G = (G+ G)agr (5.1)

    VZ(B) = Gagr (5.2)

    , . agr

    . ,

    .

    .

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    ,

    . ,

    .

    .

    , -

    VZ(A)dozVZ(B)doz"A" "B",

    [1]:

    .1

    ( ) izZ dozgr

    V A Ga

    p A

    =

    , (5.3)

    ,

    .2

    ( )Z doz izgr

    V B G

    a p A

    = , (5.3) ,

    [1]:

    .3

    ( )Z dozgr

    zz

    Z Aa

    p A=

    , (5.4)

    .4

    ( )Z dozgr

    z z

    Z Ba

    A

    =

    . (5.4)

    agr.doz

    , ..

    { }. .1 .2 .3 .4( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

    min , , , min , , ,izZ doz Z doz iz Z doz Z doz

    gr doz gr gr gr grz zzz

    V A G V B G Z A Z Ba a a a a

    p A p Ap A p A

    = =

    . (5.5)

    , , (5.3) (5.4) VZ(A)doz, VZ(B) doz,ZZ(A)dozZZ(B)doz

    "A" "B". , .

    5 3 ()

    ., 7

    asr.doz-

    VX (B)doz"B", : [1]

    ,1

    ( )X dozsr

    V

    V Ba

    P d=

    , -, (5.7)

    ,

    ,1

    ( ) 2 (2 / 3) sin( / 2)X doz Msr

    V

    V B Aa

    P d

    =

    , -. (5.7)

    ,

    .

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    .

    , 2

    ( )X dozsr

    V z

    Z Ba

    P d=

    -, (5.8)

    , 2

    ( ) 2 (2 / 3) sin( / 2)X Mz zsr

    V z

    Z B Aa

    P d

    =

    , -. (5.8)

    asr.doz:

    . .1sr doz sra a= , (5.9)

    , ..:

    { }. .1 .2min ,sr doz sr sra a a= , (5.10)

    5.4.

    , ,

    ,

    , .

    dS ,[cm],

    [1], 5.1.

    5.1. [cm]

    ( k V ) 10 20 35 110 220 400

    1. (PV = 0) 15 25 35 90 175 280

    2. (PV = 0,15Pmax) 10 20 30 80 155 270

    3. 50 Hz (PV = Pmax) / 7 10 30 55 90

    , [1]

    Dv-v,Dv-z, . , Dz-v.

    ., 8

    kv kz (5.11) (5.11)

    . ,

    :

    )

    20 kV, :

    k= 4 + /25, k= 6 Dmin> 60 cm; (5.12)

    ) :

    k= 2 + /10, k= 7 Dmin> 70 cm; (5.13)

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    ) :

    k= 4 + /5, k= 14 Dmin>140 cm. (5.14)

    , v, , z,

    PV, :

    arc tg ; arc tgV V zv zz

    P d P d

    G G

    = = (5.15)

    dS(5.11) (5.11) [cm].

    5.1 1 ( ) ,

    .

    Dv-v,

    Dv-z, , , ()

    . Dmin,

    (5.11).

    Dz-v

    () .

    Dmin.z, (5.11).

    , +40

    , .. .

    7.3 [2]. -

    , /

    , , .

    5.5. agrn

    () 5C + id.

    ( 6 [1])

    ., 9

    6.

    6.1.

    ,

    , .

    (+40

    oC 5oC+) .

    c, ..

    , ,

    . ,

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    .

    .

    6.2.

    ,

    . , ,

    , .. :

    , ,

    . , ,

    [1], .. :

    () ;

    ( );

    ;

    ;

    srg = 15 ;

    ;

    +40.

    7.

    HS

    .

    +40(+60),

    5+, .

    , ,

    .

    [1] .

    ,

    [ ]

    ., 10

    id. 6 7 [1]

    :

    ) (

    , 157 199,

    ),

    ) 2 2V Vp p p = + ,

    .

    () x

    , p p'V.

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    V

    [2]:

    ch ch2 2

    TTx x

    x

    p aa

    c

    = =

    IDT (8.1)

    c= x /p, p p p'V.

    8.2.

    , ,

    (

    , , .)

    (

    , ).

    EDS (Every Day

    Stress) .. '15 /

    srg= 15oC. 18%

    kin, ..

    '15< 0,18.kin (8.2)

    15

    , '15

    :

    151515

    2ch'

    c

    aT= . (8.3)

    9.

    ,

    .

    [1] (5.1),

    ., 11

    dv

    3

    2

    1

    Liz

    gh = a - g

    k

    'kdv'

    'dh

    dh

    1 , -

    ,

    "1", "2" "3".

    'k, "2", k,

    "3", 7.1

    [2] (7.2). ,

    :

    < k

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    1. agr asr,

    :

    0,5arctg0,5

    V iz

    V iz

    F F

    G G + =

    + , (9.2)

    :

    FV= kPmaxdasr /;

    Fiz=PmaxSiz ;

    GV=pAagr /;

    Siz ,

    0,1.Liz, 0,2.Liz;

    k k=0,15

    "2", k=1 "3".

    (9.1) (9.2)

    agr.min

    :

    .min

    0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5V iz iz k V sr iz iz k gr

    k k

    F F G tg k P d a F G tga

    p A tg p A tg

    + + =

    . (9.3)

    (9.3) ,

    () :

    .min

    0,5 0,5V iz iz k gr

    k

    F F G tgT p A a

    tg

    + , (9.4)

    :

    .min

    0,5( 0,5 )sr V V iz gr iz

    k

    k a P d P AT p A a G

    tg

    + + . (9.5)

    25 kg.

    () ,

    ., 12

    , . , ()

    .

    .

    .

    / , /.

    ,

    , [1]:

    ) ( )

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    ) - ()

    Sizv dLfkD ++= 40min - , (10.1)

    sdfkD += z40zmin.z - , (10.2)

    ) - (-)

    Sizvv dLfkD ++= 40(N) - -, (10.3)

    SvAv dfkD ++= 040Z)( - - , (10.4)

    ,2/)( )(N)(min AZvv DDD += - , (10.5)

    SdfkD += z40zz - . (10.6)

    ) -(-)

    Sv dfkD ++= 040min - (10.7)

    min. 40zz z SD k f d= + - . (10.8)

    dS , 5.1, .1 (), .. dS= dS1. 110 kV ,

    , dS= 90 cm.

    [1]:

    ) -. , Dv-v

    (

    , ). , .. { }min , ,v v AB AC BC D D D D = .

    v z z vD D=

    ., 13

    240

    21221 )2

    ()2

    ( fLyyxx

    D izvz +++

    ++

    = , (10.10)

    1 , 2,

    .

    ) -. -, Dv-v

    ,

    -(

    X).

    D

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    Dz-v

    :

    2

    4021

    2

    2122

    )2/(cos

    +

    +++

    += f

    LyyxxD izvz

    , (10.11)

    1 , 2

    -.

    ) -. - ,

    Dv-v Dz-v

    .

    .

    /

    , (10.1)

    (10.8).

    11.

    , [1], -, .

    ,

    .

    () .

    , , .

    )

    , [1], 4 ,

    A, B, C D:

    A:

    ., 14

    2/3 , .

    C:

    , :

    , , ;

    ,;

    2/3 , .

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    D:()

    , ,

    :

    , , ;

    2/3 ,;

    )

    E()

    , , :

    , , ;

    , , . ;

    1/2 ( 1/4 ,

    .

    F: ( - ,

    5)

    , :

    , , ;

    , , . ;

    , ,

    , -

    , .

    ., 15

    12.

    ,

    , ( 6.2.8 [2]),

    , f .

    ai, , F=.A fi (min max). = () f= f() , (

    2.5. [3]). ,

    aj. , ,

    [1]:

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    ,2

    )2

    ch2

    ch(h

    c

    aa

    c

    acf

    TjjTj

    j

    = (12.1)

    :

    a a ch

    aTj j

    j

    = + 2

    . (12.2)

    , .. f/a 0,06,

    h, |(h/a)| < 0,05, ( [4]), ,

    :

    cos8)1

    2ch(

    cos

    2

    = c

    a

    c

    acf jjj . (12.3)

    ()

    . f F

    ,

    M.

    13.

    [1] -

    1 kV 400 kV. , . 65/1988, . 1618-1643.

    [2] . , , -, 1995.

    [3] Zajednica Jugoslovenske elektroprivrede. Standardi i tehni~ki normativi GSE 44/80: "NADZEMNIVODOVI", ZJE - Beograd, 1980.

    [4] . , , . , 1974.

    [5] M. Plaper, Principi optimalnosti u mreama za prenos i distribuciju elektrine energije, ZJE-Beograd,1981.

    [6] F. Majdani, "Niskonaponske mree u elektroprivredi, Ni{ 1983.

    ., 16

    ( )

    k

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    , 110 kV

    :

    1. ;

    2. ;

    3. ;

    4. ;

    5. ;

    6. ;

    7. ;

    8. ;

    9. .

    :

    - 110 kV

    - : JUS N.C1.351-240/40-Al/^

    - : JUS N.C1.702 ^ III 50

    - 9 daN/mm2

    - 26 daN/mm2

    - HS= 6 m.

    :

    - PV= 75 daN/m

    - kn= 1,0

    - ki= 2,0

    - 20oC- +40oC

    - +15oC

    ., 17

    :

    [m]

    [m]

    1 0 120 /

    2 120 120 /

    3 400 100 /

    4 500 100 /

    5 600 110 /

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    6 800 110 /

    7 1000 120 /

    8 1640 120 /

    87

    65

    43

    21

    ., 18

    2.

    :

    2.1.

    JUS: JUS.N.C1.351-240/40-Al/^: A= 243,0 + 39,5 = 282,5 mm2

    : d= 21,9 mm

    : G= 0,968 daN/m (0,987 kg/m)

    : E= 7.700 daN/mm2

    : = 18,9110-61/oC

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    ,

    : Fkin= 8640 daN

    : nd = 13 daN/mm2

    : id= 24,5 daN/mm2

    : g= 0,18 d= 0,842 daN/m

    : G= 1,0g= 0,842 daN/m

    : daN/m684,10,2 == GG

    : p= 1,0G/A= 2,982103daN/m,mm2

    : p p= =

    2 0 5 964 103

    , , daN / m,mm2

    : p= G/A= 3,426103

    daN/m, mm2

    : p p p= + =

    6 408 103

    , daN / m,mm2

    : 23 mmdaN/m,10390,9 =+= ppp

    2.2.

    JUS: JUS.N.C1.702-^ III 50

    : Az= 49,48 mm2

    : dz= 9 mm: Gz= 0,386 daN/m (0,393 kg/m)

    : Ez=18.000 daN/mm2

    : z= 11,0.10-61/oC

    : Fkin.z= 6036 daN

    : nd.z= 49,5 daN/mm2

    : id.z= 93 daN/mm2

    : gz= 0,18dz= 0,54 daN/m: Gz= 1,0gz= 0,54 daN/m

    : G Gz z= =

    2 0 1 080 103

    , , daN / m,mm2

    ., 19

    3.1 110 kV , -

    .

    [kg]

    [daN]

    [kg]

    .

    [daN]

    .

    .

    [m]

    EN 6 48,7 47,8 58,4 57,3 1,45

    ENP 7 55,4 54,3 66,5 65,2 1,62DNP 2x7 113,3 111,1 136,0 133,4 1,72

    EZ 6 48,2 47,3 57,8 57,8 1,82

    EZP 7 54,9 53,9 65,9 65,9 1,99

    DZP 2x7 111,8 109,7 134,2 64,6 2,11

    EN -

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    EN,

    EZ.

    4.

    -

    110 kV S, SL, A150 A120, -.

    (), - () .

    () 3.2.

    , , 4 .

    4.1. 110 kV

    "S", "SL", A150 "A120", -

    a b c d e f g

    [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm]

    S 260 260 335 300 185 185 60

    SL 260 260 335 300 295 185 60

    A150 260 270 335 455 225 225 80

    A120 270 270 345 470 225 225 80

    5.

    5.1. "S"

    "S" :

    VZ(A)doz= 1542 daN ; ZZ(A)doz= 704 daN ; VX(B)doz= 575 daN

    VZ(B)doz= 882 daN ; ZZ(B)doz= 290 daN ; ZX(B)doz= 237 daN

    5.1.1.

    ( ) 1542 57 3iV A G

    ., 20

    5.1.2.

    m3500219,075

    575)(1. =

    =

    =dP

    BVa

    v

    dozXsr ; m351

    009,075

    237)(2. =

    =

    =zv

    dozXsr

    dP

    BZa .

    asr.doz= 350 m

    5.1.3.

    "S" -DAC-

    . :

    D f( ) ( )2 2

    3 78 378

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    D c a e fAC = + + = =( ) ( ) , ,2 2

    3 78 378m cm

    "A" "C" . ,

    :

    v= arctg(Pv. d/G) = arctg(75.21,9/968) = 59,5o

    , = 40oC ,

    , , ,

    :

    min 40 [cm]v v v iz S D D k f L d = + + .

    Dv-v=Dmin=DAC. :

    kv= 2 + v/10 = 7,95; SizvAC dLfkD ++= 40 ,

    :

    2 2

    40 2 2

    ( ) (378 90)1167 cm 11, 67 m

    7,95

    AC Siz

    v

    D df L

    k

    = = = = .

    f40 = 40 1167 cm,

    , 30 ,

    . , .

    :

    Ap E

    p p E f

    M M

    M

    =

    + =

    =

    3 45

    3

    2 0406

    4 52240 45123

    2

    2 2

    40

    ( ) ,

    ,, ;

    Bp E f

    p p E f

    M

    M

    =

    + = =

    2 2

    40

    2 2

    403

    85 432

    4 522418 891

    ,

    ,, ,

    40

    24

    24 578=

    + +=

    A A B, ;daN / mm

    2

    ., 21

    5.4.

    ,

    , :

    5.1

    agr.doz asr.doz ael

    S 750 350 353

    SL 750 500 505

    A150 750 350 500

    A120 750 350 500

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    5.5

    . xagr:

    2( / ) 9 (9,39 /6,408) 13,040 daN/mmx M p p = = = ;

    2 2

    2 3 2

    2 2 13,04 24,5 24,5ln 1 ln 1 3455m

    13,049,39 10 13,04

    x id idgr

    x x

    ap

    = + = + =

    .

    x agr:

    n p a E mp a

    Egrgr

    M

    M= = = =/ , ; , ;24 581 1

    241932 492

    2 2

    2

    2 2 21932,492 581, 2 / 13,174 daN/mmx x x + = = .

    :

    agr =

    +

    L

    N

    MM

    O

    Q

    PP

    =

    2 13 174

    9 39 10

    24 5

    13 174

    24 5

    13 1741 3456 6

    3

    2

    2

    ,

    ,ln

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,, .m

    (), :

    x= 13,17405 daN/mm2 ; agr= 3456,64 m .

    , .. .

    5.6.

    .

    , :

    x,z= 41,1142 daN/mm2 ; agrz= 4045 m .

    6

    ., 22

    - ,

    ;

    - ;

    - ;

    - .

    ,

    . (),

    , , ,

    ,

    . ()

    %. , (), -

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    .

    . , , , ,

    ,

    .

    , :

    1. ;

    2. ;

    3. ;

    4. ;

    5. () ;

    6. ;

    7. .

    6.1.

    ak:

    ap p

    k M=

    =

    = 360 9 360 18 9

    6 408 3 426137 1

    2 2 2 2

    ,

    , ,, .m

    110 kV 300 m , ,

    , -5+, ..:

    -5= M= 9 daN/mm2 .

    , .. k

    fk 5f =5oC+, :

    5

    6

    9 3, 426(1 ) 5 (1 ) 5 23,8 C

    6,4087700 18,9 10k

    p

    E p

    = = =

    .

    ., 23

    . n= 4

    S.

    , :

    ai= 330 m.

    , -5+, :

    3 2 20 0 05 C ; 6,408 10 daN/m,mm ; 9 daN/mmMp p

    = = = = = ,

    40c40:

    40= 4,55 daN/mm2; c40= 40/p= 1328 m .

    , :

    )1h(x

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    ,)1ch( =c

    cy

    c = c40 = 1328 m, 6.1, , .. y(x) , , Rx =

    1:2000 Ry= 1:500.

    6.1. Al/^ 240/40 mm2

    x[m] 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

    y [m] 0,94 3,77 8,48 15,09 23,60 34,03 46,39 60,70 76,97 95,24

    6.2.

    6,

    ,

    .

    , , ,

    3.3 - 3.6.

    ,

    5.4, .. , .

    , ..

    .

    () 5() .

    .

    6, (-),