Multilingualism for all: European Language Policy Developments & Challenges

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Multilingualism for all: European Language Policy Developments & Challenges. “Language(s) as Cultural Asset” University of Applied Sciences, Campus Urstein Salzburg / Austria – Österreich, March 17, 2011 Alex RIEMERSMA Mercator European Research Centre on - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Multilingualism for all: European Language Policy Developments & Challenges

  • Multilingualism for all: European Language Policy Developments & Challenges

    Language(s) as Cultural AssetUniversity of Applied Sciences, Campus Urstein

    Salzburg / Austria sterreich, March 17, 2011

    Alex RIEMERSMAMercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learningwww.mercator-research.eu

  • Overview of presentation

    Scope of European Language Policies- Language Vitality- Language Programmes- Teacher Training

  • Linguistic DiversityGlobe: 6,000 languagesCouncil of Europe (47 member states): 6 working languages hundreds of state, cross border / minority languagesEuropean Union (27 member states): 23 official languages > 60 Regional and Minority Languages

  • Kaart fan NOS

  • RML citizens in EU10% of EU population = 45 50 million plurilingual people Present in all member states = Multilingual societies >>> Co-responsibility for language planningof EU/CoE, national and regional level

  • Charter for Regional and Minority Languages (CoE / 1998)To protect and to promoteNon-discriminationDomains: education / justice / public services / media / culture / social life However:25 ratifications (< 47 CoE member states)13 ratifications (< 27 EU member states)

  • EU Language PolicyEU shall respect linguistic diversityLinguistic diversity: all languages are equal and equally treatedLisbon (2002): Mother tongue + 2 Maalouf (2008): Adoptive languageEuropean Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of CoE (1998) entry exam for new EU member states (2004)

  • EU Language PolicyHowever:Mother tongue = state languagePrinciple of subsidiarity Process of mainstreaming prevents EU Language Policy & discourages vitality of RMLs

  • Unesco Language Vitality (2003)

  • Language Vitality factors (6)Intergenerational transmissionAbsolute number of speakersProportion of speakers within total populationTrends in existing domainsResponse to new domains & mediaMaterials for Education and Literacy

  • Language Vitality factors (3)Governmental and Institutional Language Attitudes & Politics Community Members Attitudes towards their own languagesDocumentation (& corpus planning)

  • Language Vitality PlanningBalance of community language will and infrastructure / programmes on: Corpus planning / standardisationStatus planning / legislationLanguage transmission / learning

  • Frisian Language VitalityLanguage command of all 640.00 inhabitants province of Frysln:94 % Understanding74 % Speaking65 % Reading26 % Writing -------------------------------------------------54 % Frisian Mother tongue (350.000)

  • Language Planning AustraliaNational Survey 2005: 250 known indigenous languages; 145 still in use of which 110 endangered; 18 strong enough to surviveNational Action Programme 2009:- language learning centres & nests - language documentation and research

  • EU Parliament Resolutions1981 Arf > EBLUL 1982 20061983 Jaak Vandenmeulenbroecke) > earmarked budget line 1,2 million1987 Willy Kuijpers > Mercator project (1987-2006) 3 partners (80 % funding)2004 Michael Ebner > EU Agency on Linguistic Diversity (failed)

  • EU Commission Actions Budget line for EBLUL 1982 2006;Budget line for Mercator project (1987-2006) 3 partnersAction Programme (2004-2006) 2001: European Year of Languages2005: Feasibility Study > Networks

  • EU Commission Actions 2007: High Level Group Multilingualism + on line consultation2008: EU Communication2008: Amin Maalouf Report A Rewarding Challenge (adoptive language)2011: Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism

  • EU funded Networks 2008-2011: Network to Promote Linguistic Diversity (NPLD): 11 regional authorities & 16 NGOs2009-2011: Mercator Network2009-2011: RML2future2010-2012: European Network of Universities on Multilingualism (EUNoM)

  • Coherent EU Language PolicyLegal base / treaty partner to European Charter for RML Vitality & empowerment of all languagesCo-responsibility in stead of subsidiarity Incentive to inclusiveness of RML / IMLPartnership to permanent networks of stakeholders for regular strategic review

  • EU fitting ProgrammesLinguistic Diversity as a priorityLowering of thresholds for grants for smaller language communitiesNational EU Agencies to raise awareness and assist endangered language communities to apply

  • Research AgendaEurobarometer on Languages to include: Mother tongue + father tongue / Language of preference Multilingual education: continuity Media >>> Social mediaPlurilingual Literacy Electronic dictionaries

  • Application of CoE instrumentsCommon European Framework of Reference (CEFR): - can do statements for L1, L2, Lf - parallel assessments of L1, L2, LfEuropean Language Portfolio: - electronic - plurilingual approach

  • Common Standards Education Mercator Analysis & Recommendations (2007): - Informed choice & guaranteed access - Educational goals - Teaching time (subject & medium) - Teaching materials - Teacher training - Inspectorate

  • Plurilingual Teacher TrainingSubject & mediumContinuity of teaching & learningSchool as centres of excellencePlurilingual language pedagogyMaster on Multilingualism and multilingual education

  • Eskerrik asko Mange Takk Diolch TankewolTrugarez Grazia Graciis Dankscheen Merc plan Kiitos Dz'akuju so Ksznm Hvala MultumescMerci

    In 2002 and 2003, UNESCO asked an international group of linguists to develop a framework for determining the vitality of a language in order to assist in policy development, identification of needs and appropriate safeguarding measures. This Ad Hoc Expert Group on Endangered Languages elaborated a landmark concept paper entitled Language Vitality and Endangerment, which established the following nine criteria No single factor is sufficient to assess the state of a communitys language. However, taken together, these nine factors can determine the viability of a language, its function in society and the type of measures required for its maintenance or revitalization.

    Of these nine criteria for the conference theme of today three are relevant. Next slideI would like to ask your attention for a couple of good examples in each of these three sectors of language planning.But first of all I want to touch upon the oposition between the traditional approach of language planning versus the reality of language use by younger people. Traditional theories on language planning and promotion activities and capaigns are focused on one language (with some dialectal varieties permitted) which is determined the mother tongue or birth language of the target group.However, for youngsters living in the modern world without real distances in time and space, which can be characterised by a surplus of mobility and contact possibilities there is no real opoosition between the mother tongue and other languages. Students of mine are equally fluent in Frisian, Dutch and English, they shift easily between those languages and a great numbner of them would tick both languages Dutch and Frisian as their mother tongue provided the questionnair of Eurobarometer would provide such a tick box.

    EBLUL: Has been of great value for the awareness raising of the RMLs among themselves, knowing each other and creating a stronghold within the EPDurk Gorter (Fryske Akademy, now Ikerbasque) one of the founding fathers.I have been functioning member of the Board of Directors and later on vice-president. EBLUL: Has been of great value for the awareness raising of the RMLs among themselves, knowing each other and creating a stronghold within the EPDurk Gorter (Fryske Akademy, now Ikerbasque) one of the founding fathers.I have been functioning member of the Board of Directors and later on vice-president. EBLUL: Has been of great value for the awareness raising of the RMLs among themselves, knowing each other and creating a stronghold within the EPDurk Gorter (Fryske Akademy, now Ikerbasque) one of the founding fathers.I have been functioning member of the Board of Directors and later on vice-president.