Multilingualism for all: How to implement European Language Policy Developments through Universities and Teacher Training Alex RIEMERSMA Ljouwert / Leeuwarden,

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  • Multilingualism for all: How to implement European Language Policy Developments through Universities and Teacher Training

    Alex RIEMERSMALjouwert / Leeuwarden, November 18, 2010

    Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language

  • Overview of presentation

    Scope of European Language PoliciesResearch Agenda:- mother tongue- Language Vitality- Language Programmes- Teacher Training

  • Linguistic DiversityGlobe: 6,000 languagesCouncil of Europe (47 member states): 6 working languages hundreds of languagesEuropean Union (27 member states): 23 official languages > 60 RMLs

  • EU Language PolicyEU shall respect linguistic diversityMother tongue + 2Linguistic diversity: all languages are equal and equally treatedEuropean Charter RMLs entry exam for new EU member states (2004)Doctrine of subsidiarity

  • Unesco Language Vitality Index

  • Language Vitality factors (6)Intergenerational transmissionAbsolute number of speakersProportion of speakers within total populationTrends in existing domainsResponse to new domains & mediaMarerials for Education and Literacy

  • Language Vitality factors (3)Governmental and Institutional Language Attitudes & PoliticsCommunity Members Attitudes towards their own languagesDocumentation (& corpus planning)

  • Language Vitality (additional)Attractiveness for second language acquisitionHolistic approach regarding Language Programmes, including:- language learning- teaching materials- language nests

  • Relative Position FrisianUnesco Language Vitality scale (2003): unsafe, but not threatened by extinction Euromosac (1996): nr. 14 out of 48Intergenerational language transmission - decline of 10% per generationLanguage policy: - attitude & use

  • Domains of Frisian language useStrong oral language, weak in writingStrong community languageMedia: radio full day service; tv 2 hours per day (with re-run)Culture: amateur theatre & choir singingSocial & economic life: strong oral (= informal) use

  • Legal position FrisianNo mention in Netherlands constitution Covenant Frisiqan Language and Culture (2001-2010) between Dutch governement and province of Frysln Announcement of Frisian Language Act: equal footing of Dutch & Frisian

  • Research AgendaMother tongue > father tongue; language of birthMother tongue + 2 other languages >>> 2 first tongues + 2 other languagesMedia >>> Social mediaLiteracy Visibility + linguistic landscape

  • Application of instrumentsCommon European Framework of Reference (CEFR)European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML)

  • Implementation of CharterProgrammatic versus static approach: - key words to protect & to promote Development of Minimum Standards Application of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)

  • Minimum Standards EducationReport Minimum Standards in Education of & in RMLs (2007) Analysis & Recommendations: - Educational goals - Teaching time (subject & medium) - Teaching materials - Teacher training - Inspectorate

  • Teacher TrainingSubject & mediumContinuity from pre-school to primary & from primary to secondary schooling Schools as centres of excellenceMaster on Multilingualism and multilingual education

  • Research themesResearch into school- and teacher characteristicsMonitoring longitudinal language proficiency in all three target languages: in accordance with the 6 levels of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)

  • Eskerrik asko Mange Takk Diolch TankewolTrugarez Grazia Graciis Dankscheen Merc plan Kiitos Dz'akuju so Ksznm Hvala MultumescMerci

    In 2002 and 2003, UNESCO asked an international group of linguists to develop a framework for determining the vitality of a language in order to assist in policy development, identification of needs and appropriate safeguarding measures. This Ad Hoc Expert Group on Endangered Languages elaborated a landmark concept paper entitled Language Vitality and Endangerment, which established the following nine criteria No single factor is sufficient to assess the state of a communitys language. However, taken together, these nine factors can determine the viability of a language, its function in society and the type of measures required for its maintenance or revitalization.

    Of these nine criteria for the conference theme of today three are relevant. Next slideI would like to ask your attention for a couple of good examples in each of these three sectors of language planning.But first of all I want to touch upon the oposition between the traditional approach of language planning versus the reality of language use by younger people. Traditional theories on language planning and promotion activities and capaigns are focused on one language (with some dialectal varieties permitted) which is determined the mother tongue or birth language of the target group.However, for youngsters living in the modern world without real distances in time and space, which can be characterised by a surplus of mobility and contact possibilities there is no real opoosition between the mother tongue and other languages. Students of mine are equally fluent in Frisian, Dutch and English, they shift easily between those languages and a great numbner of them would tick both languages Dutch and Frisian as their mother tongue provided the questionnair of Eurobarometer would provide such a tick box.