Modeling Users 2 Predicting thoughts and actions in context.

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  • Modeling Users 2Predicting thoughts and actions in context

    CS / Psych 6750

  • AgendaOther cognitive theoriesSituated actionActivity theoryDistributed cognitionUser profiles/models -> implications

    CS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Cognitive/User ModelingRemember the Idea: . . . If we can build a model of how a user works, then we can predict how s/he will interact with the interface (before it is even built)CS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Last TimeMHP, GOMS, CCT, KLM techniqueAll model human as an information processing machine

    Whats missing?CS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • (Social) ContextHuman information processor models all involve unaided individualIn reality, people work with other people and other artifactsOther models of human cognitionSituation actionActivity theoryDistributed cognitionCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Situated ActionStudies situated activity or practiceActivity grows out of the particulars of a situationImprovisation is important

    Basic unit of analysis is the activity of persons acting in a settingCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • ExampleNeed 3/4 of 2/3 of cup of cottage cheeseJust has a simple measuring cup availablePerson solves problem byMeasuring 2/3 cupPouring out into a circleDivide into quadrantsTake away oneOne time solution to one time problemCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Situated Action PrinciplesStructuring of an activity grows out of immediacy of the situationPeople engage in opportunistic, flexible ways to solve problems

    NOT Formulaic plansNOT Rational problem solvingCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Activity TheoryUnit of analysis is an activityComponents:CS / Psych 6750*subject, object, actions, operationsNounHeld by subject,motivates activityobject of gameGoal-directed processestasksHow action is carried out

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Activity Theory PrinciplesKey idea: Notion of mediation by artifacts (objects)Our work is a computer-mediated activityStarring role goes to activityIn regular HCI, stars are person and machine

    Context is not out there. It is generated by people in activitiesCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Distributed CognitionUnit of analysis is cognitive system composed of individuals and the artifacts they use

    Studies the coordination and cooperation between people and artifacts in a distributed processCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Distributed Cog. PrinciplesNOT Individual agents

    Distributed collection of interacting people and artifacts

    Functional system is what matters, not individual thoughts in peoples headsCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Simpler User ModelingHow do attributes of users (in their context) influence the design of user interfaces?

    Are there some design guidelines that we can derive from different attributes?CS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • User ProfilesAttributes:attitude, motivation, reading level, typing skill, education, system experience, task experience, computer literacy, frequency of use, training, color-blindness, handedness, gender,

    Novice, intermediate, expertCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • MotivationUserLow motivation, discretionary useLow motivation, mandatoryHigh motivation, due to fearHigh motivation, due to interestDesign goalEase of learning

    Control, power

    Ease of learning, robustness, controlPower, ease of useCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Knowledge & ExperienceExperience tasksystemlowlow

    highhigh

    lowhigh

    highlow

    Design goalsMany syntactic and semantic promptsEfficient commands, concise syntaxSemantic help facilities

    Lots of syntactic promptingCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750

  • Job & Task ImplicationsFrequency of useHigh - Ease of useLow - Ease of learning & rememberingTask implicationsHigh - Ease of useLow - Ease of learningSystem useMandatory - Ease of usingDiscretionary - Ease of learningCS / Psych 6750*

    CS / Psych 6750