MESLEKİ GELİŞİM ÇEVRE KORUMA

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  • T.C.

    MLL ETM BAKANLII

    MESLEK GELM

    EVRE KORUMA

    Ankara, 2014

  • i

    Bu modl, mesleki ve teknik eitim okul/kurumlarnda uygulanan ereve

    retim Programlarnda yer alan yeterlikleri kazandrmaya ynelik olarak

    rencilere rehberlik etmek amacyla hazrlanm bireysel renme

    materyalidir.

    Mill Eitim Bakanlnca cretsiz olarak verilmitir.

    PARA LE SATILMAZ.

  • ii

    AIKLAMALAR .................................................................................................................... v GR ....................................................................................................................................... 1 RENME FAALYET-1 ..................................................................................................... 3 1. EVRE ................................................................................................................................. 3

    1.1. evre Sorunlar ............................................................................................................. 4 1.2. evreye likin Tanmlar .............................................................................................. 5

    1.2.1.Alc Ortamlar ......................................................................................................... 5 1.2.2. Atk ........................................................................................................................ 5 1.2.3. Geri Kazanm (Geri Dnm) ............................................................................. 5 1.2.4. evre Hakk ........................................................................................................... 6 1.2.5.evre Kirlilii ......................................................................................................... 6 1.2.6. Ekoloji ................................................................................................................... 7 1.2.7. Doa ...................................................................................................................... 7 1.2.8. Yaam Kalitesi ....................................................................................................... 7 1.2.9. evre Koruma ........................................................................................................ 7

    1.3. evreyi Koruma Tedbirler ............................................................................................ 7 1.4. Sektrel Sorunlardan Kaynaklanan Sorunlar ................................................................ 8 UYGULAMA FAALYET .............................................................................................. 12 LME VE DEERLENDRME .................................................................................... 13

    RENME FAALYET-2 ................................................................................................... 15 2. DOA KRLL ............................................................................................................. 15

    2.1. Hava, Su ve Toprak Kavramlar.................................................................................. 15 2.2. Hava Kirliliinin Sebepleri ......................................................................................... 16

    2.2.1. ehirleme ve Konutlarn Istlmas ..................................................................... 17 2.2.2. Endstrileme ...................................................................................................... 18 2.2.3. Motorlu Tatlar ................................................................................................... 18 2.2.4. Atmosferik zellikler .......................................................................................... 19

    2.3. Hava Kirliliinin nsan ve evreye Etkileri ................................................................ 19 2.3.1. nsan Salna Etkileri ....................................................................................... 19 2.3.2. Tabiata Etkileri .................................................................................................... 20

    2.4. Hava Kirliliini nleme almalar .......................................................................... 21 2.5. Su Kirliliinin Tanm ve Su Kirliliinin Nedenleri ................................................... 21

    2.5.1. Tarmsal Faaliyetlerin Neden Olduu Kirlilik ..................................................... 21 2.5.2. Sanayi Faaliyetlerinin Neden Olduu Kirlilik ..................................................... 22 2.5.3. Yerleim Yerlerindeki Atklarn Neden Olduu Kirlilik ..................................... 23

    2.6. Su Kirliliinin evresel Etkileri.................................................................................. 23 2.6.1. nsan Salna Etkisi .......................................................................................... 24 2.6.2. Doaya Etkisi ...................................................................................................... 24

    2.7. Su Kirliliinin nlenmesi ........................................................................................... 24 2.8. Toprak Kirliliinin Nedenleri ..................................................................................... 26

    2.8.1. Endstriyel Kirlilik .............................................................................................. 26 2.9. Toprak Kirliliinin nlenmesi .................................................................................... 26 2.10. Toprak Kirliliinin nsan ve evreye Etkileri ........................................................ 26

    NDEKLER

  • iii

    2.10.1. Erozyonun Etkileri ............................................................................................. 26 2.10.2.Yalk ve orakln Etkileri .............................................................................. 27 2.10.3.Talk ve Kayaln Etkileri ................................................................................ 27 2.10.4. Gbre ve Gbrelemenin Etkileri ........................................................................ 27

    UYGULAMA FAALYET .............................................................................................. 29 LME VE DEERLENDRME .................................................................................... 31

    RENME FAALYET-3 ................................................................................................... 34 3. GRLT ......................................................................................................................... 34

    3.1. Grltnn Kaynaklar ............................................................................................... 35 3.1.1. Yap i Grltler ............................................................................................... 35 3.1.2. Yap D evre Grltleri................................................................................. 37 3.1.3. Doal Grltler .................................................................................................. 37 3.1.4. Elektromanyetik Kirlilik ...................................................................................... 38

    3.2. Grltnn nsan ve evresine Etkileri ...................................................................... 39 3.2.1. itme Sistemine Etkisi ........................................................................................ 40 3.2.2. Fizyolojik Etki ..................................................................................................... 40 3.2.3. Psikolojik Etki ..................................................................................................... 41

    3.3. Grlt Kirliliinin nlenmesi ................................................................................... 42 3.4. Grlt Kirliliiyle lgili Yasal Hak ve Sorumluluklar ............................................. 43 UYGULAMA FAALYET .............................................................................................. 45 LME VE DEERLENDRME .................................................................................... 47

    RENME FAALYET-4 ................................................................................................... 49 4. ENERJ ............................................................................................................................... 49

    4.1. Enerji Kaynaklar ........................................................................................................ 49 4.1.1 Yenilenemez Enerji Kaynaklar ............................................................................ 50 4.1.2. Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynaklar ........................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2. Jeotermal Enerji ................................................................................................ 53 4.1.2.3. Gne Enerjisi ................................................................................................... 54 4.1.2.5.Nkler Enerji ..................................................................................................... 57

    4.2. Enerji Kaynaklarn Ekonomik ve Verimli Kullanma Yollar .................................... 58 4.3. evreyi ve nsan Saln Tehdit Edici Enerji Kaynaklarna Kar nlemler .......... 59 4.4. Yeni ve Temiz Enerji Kaynaklar ............................................................................... 59 UYGULAMA FAALYET .............................................................................................. 61 LME VE DEERLENDRME .................................................................................... 62

    RENME FAALYET-5 ................................................................................................... 64 5. SRAF.............