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New England Roofing Industry Partnership Materials Handling, Rigging, & Cranes

Materials Handling, Rigging, & Cranes

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Page 1: Materials Handling, Rigging, & Cranes

New England

Roofing Industry

Partnership

Materials Handling, Rigging, & Cranes

Page 2: Materials Handling, Rigging, & Cranes

Training Objectives After completing this unit, you will:

– Know the basic OSHA requirements for the storage and disposal of materials.

– Know hazards in both mechanical and manual material handling.

– Understand hazards of rigging and crane operations and how to minimize them.

– Be aware of proper lifting techniques.

Materials Handling, Rigging & CranesSUBPARTS

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References 29 CFR 1926.250; Subpart H, Materials

Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal 29CFR1926.500, Subpart N – Cranes,

Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors

29CFR1926.600, Subpart O – Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations

ANSI and ASME Standards

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Materials Handling Dangers Unsafe storage and materials movement can lead to:

– Back injuries (the number one cause of worker compensation claims).

– Struck-by or crushed by falling loads due to rigging failures.

– Electrocutions due to power line contact.– Injury from falling materials.– Injury from slipping, tripping and falling.

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Moving Materials by Hand: Back Facts

8 out of 10 Americans will have a back injury during their life.

Approximately 1 out of 3 injuries at work are back injuries.

Personal pain and inconvenience can not be measured.

Back injuries cost employers an estimated 10 billion dollars each year!

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Preventing Back Injuries You can avoid back injuries by:

– Using mechanical aids.– Using proper lifting techniques.– Keeping in lifting shape.– Working as a team when lifting.– Knowing the truth about back belts.

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Proper Lifting Technique Basic moves of a proper lift:

– Plan your lift.– Use a wide-balanced stance.– Get close to the load and keep it close to your

body.– Tighten your stomach muscles.– Keep your back straight and use your legs.– Turn with with your feet don’t twist your back.– Avoid lifting above shoulder height.

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A Proper Lift

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Keeping in Lifting Shape Keeping your stomach and back

muscles strong can help prevent back injuries.

Even if you don’t work out in a gym, you can prevent back injuries.

Strength and flexibility exercises should be done at least every other day.

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For Strength and Flexibility

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Mechanical Aids Use hand trucks,

dollies, carts, wheel barrows, and wagons whenever possible.

Encourage management to include mechanical aids whenever possible.

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Mechanical AidsMaterials Handling, Rigging & Cranes

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Slab carrying righere has eliminated bending over and has provided securenon-abrasive hand-holds.

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Team Lifting

Use team lifting for:– Loads too heavy for one person.– Loads too bulky for one person.– Long loads such as pipes and rolls of

material. Talk to your team-mate! Coordinate your lift!

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What About Back Belts? The National Institute for Occupational

Safety and Health (NIOSH) says:– Back belts may not reduce stress on the

back.– May increase blood pressure and heart rate.– May make you think you can lift heavier

loads with a belt on and you could get hurt trying to.

If you want to wear a belt; don’t wear it too tight and don’t lift more than you usually would.

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Material Storage Five basic rules for safe storage:

– Keep total weight within the safe loading limits of the building’s floors.

– Keep passageways clear.

– Control materials so they do not slide, fall, or collapse.

– Provide cribbing for heavy loads on unstable surfaces.

– Store materials away from traffic.

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What Does OSHA Require? Basic requirements:

– Don’t put materials within 10 feet of roof edge.

– Don’t store materials on scaffolds or runways.

– Keep materials at least 6 feet from floor openings and hoistways.

– Keep aisles clear.– Keep work area free from tripping, fire,

explosion, pest and vegetation hazards.

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OSHA Also Requires Specific requirements:

– Stack bagged materials by stepping back the layers and cross-keying the bags at least every 10 bags high.

– Stack bricks no higher than 7 feet.

– Taper masonry blocks back one-half block per tier for stacks above 6 feet.

– Stack lumber on sills and on level solid ground - never exceed 16 feet high and always remove nails!

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Setting Materials on the Deck

What could happen to these stacked materials?

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Disposal of Waste Material OSHA requirements:

– Scrap lumber, waste and trash must be regularly removed from the work area.

– Burning must meet local regulations.

– Materials dropped more than 20 feet require a chute.

– Solvent waste, oily rags, and flammables must be kept in fire resistant containers until removed.

– If the waste is considered hazardous, your employer will have to follow federal, state, and local regulations.

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Debris Chutes

Objectives in using a chute: material control, dust control and protection of workers and bystanders – note the differences here….

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Mechanical Materials Handling Depending on the job, you might use

or work around:– Buggies– Roof Hoists– Conveyors– Skid-steers (“Bobcats”)– Rough Terrain Forklifts (“Lulls”) – Cranes

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Buggies

What are the safety concerns while moving materials with these?

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Mechanical Equipment on Flat Roofs Will the deck support the weight of the

equipment? Has the equipment been inspected? Are all equipment guards in place? Is the operator trained?

– See Subpart C - .20(b)(4) Are all aware that the equipment is not to be

operated outside warning lines due to the fall hazard? – See Subpart M - Fall Protection -.502– Closest approach is 6 feet parallel and 10 feet

perpendicular to direction of travel.

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Roof Hoists

What are the manufacturer’sinstructions for set up & use?

What does OSHA say?

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Roof Hoist Safety Concerns .552(a)(1) Compliance with manufacturer’s

specifications and limitations. .552(a)(2) Load capacity, hazard warnings and

instructions must be posted. .552(a)(3)(i-iv) Wire rope replacement criteria. .552(a)(4) Hoist rope is to be installed in

accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. .501(b)(3) Fall Protection (Subpart M) in hoist area.

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Is the Hoist Operator Protected?Materials Handling, Rigging & CranesH, N, O

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Using Conveyors to Move MaterialsMaterials Handling, Rigging & CranesH, N, O

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Safety Concerns In Conveyor Use Set up and used in accordance with the

manufacturer’s instructions?

Guards in place on pinch points?

Power line clearances maintained?

Maintenance program in place?

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Safety Concerns In Conveyor Use No riders on conveyor!

.555(a) Means for stopping motor at operator’s station and start up warning.

.555(a)(5) Protection for workers below against falling objects.

.555(a)(7) Lockout/Tagout for maintenance.

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Using Conveyors to Move MaterialsMaterials Handling, Rigging & CranesH, N, O 29

Power line clearance?

Back up alarm orsignal person?

Fall protection for roof workers?

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Using Skid Steers If on the roof – will it take the load? Is the operator qualified?

– .20(b)(4) – Again! Training is available from some manufacturers.

– Skid Steers are powerful, work in close quarters with people and are very quick, with large areas where the operator cannot see (the “no-zone”).

Is the work area adequately barricaded?

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Skid Steer Loader

What do weneed to know about this operator?

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Eye level 5 ft - 5 in above ground level

6’ 1”

11’ 7”

6’ 3”

Operator sight distancesfrom eye level to ground

Vehicle:S-44 Bobcat

3’ 1”

4’ 10”

11’ 5”

21’ 8”

The “NO-ZONE”

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Using Forklifts to Move Materials What do we need to know?

– Is the operator trained?• See .602(d)

– Has the machine been inspected and properly maintained?

– Is the backup alarm audible?– Are ground personnel protected?– Is the balanced load within capacity?– Are workers on roof protected from falls?

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Getting Materials to the Roof

How can we protect against falls in these situations?

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Using Forklifts

What precautions need to be taken around the machine’s operating area?

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Eye level 7 ft - 3 in aboveground level

39’ 0”

21’ 2”

Operator sight distancesfrom eye level to ground

Vehicle: R-14793 High Reach Fork Lift

10’ 9”7’ 9”

3’ 0”

85’ 0”

14’ 10”

18’ 2”

The “NO-Zone”

N, OTS

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Platforms on Forklifts If you work off of some attachment it must:

(1) Be secured to forks. (2) Have a guardrail.

(3) Have a Personal Fall Arrest System tie-off.

(4) Used only while the operator is in the seat.

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Rigging and Crane Safety

Rigging is the lines or cables used to lift and move materials by hoisting with a crane.

A rigger is a skilled mechanic who prepares heavy equipment or loads of material for movement.

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Examples of Rigging

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The Hazards of Rigging

Possible contact with power lines. Rigging failures due to overloaded,

improper, or defective rigging. Out of control loads. Being struck by the crane’s swing

radius.

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Can Anyone Rig or Lift Loads?

Rigging must be done under the supervision of a Competent Person.

The crane operator must be highly qualified and certified.

Improper rigging or unqualified operators can be deadly!

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The Rigger’s Duties

The rigger selects the rigging.

The rigger sets-up the rigging.

The rigger directs the lift.

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OSHA Rigging Requirements All slings and hardware must be manufactured

to meet demanding specifications which include safety factors.

All web or alloy chain slings must be clearly stamped, marked, or labeled, for capacity.

OSHA prohibits job made: slings, hooks, links, and fasteners formed from bolts.

Before each use all components must be inspected by a Competent Person.

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Safe Working Load (SWL) The maximum load allowed on rigging is

the Safe Working Load (SWL). The sling may actually be able to hold 5

times the SWL. A safety factor is the ratio of the ultimate

strength to the SWL. If a rigger exceeds the SWL, then they lose

some of the safety factor.

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Knowing Safe Working LoadsMaterials Handling, Rigging & CranesH, N, O

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Sling Angle The safest sling angles are greater than 450 from the horizontal.

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Rigging the Load

Balanced load; sling angle >600

Sling angles <450, loadunstable, worker notprotected.

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Working Safely Around Rigging General safety practices:

– Keep at least ten feet away from power lines up to 50 kV.

– Increase power line clearance distance by .4” per kV >50kV

– Never hoist loads over workers.– Never stand too close or under a load.– Never ride a load.

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Working Safely Around Rigging2

General safety practices:– Use tag lines to control loads while

lifting.– Test lift the rigging.– Use proper equipment, make sure it is

marked, not home-made, and in good shape.

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Crane Hand Signals

Only a qualified rigger will give hand signals.

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Basic Crane Safety Do we have the right crane for the job? Is the operator qualified on that crane? Has the crane been inspected? Is the crane set up on solid ground?

– Full outriggers with cribbing?– Level, with tires off the ground?

Are power line clearances known? Do we know the weight of the load? Is everyone aware that a lift is being

made?

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Basic Crane Safety2

Is the load properly rigged for a stable, vertical lift?

Is there a high wind condition? Is the swing radius barricaded? Can a tagline be properly used? Can the crane make the lift and set

the load without interference?

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Truck-Mounted Cranes/Boom Trucks

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Case Study: What went wrong?Two employees were moving structural steel building beams to a storage area. After setting the fourth beam on the crib, the signal man signaled the crane operator to pull the sling from around a cribbed structural beam which was set on its flange side. The second employee then attempted to remove the shackle from the beam when the swaged fitting of the sling apparently caught and caused the steel beam to roll off the cribbing, crushing the second employee.

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Materials Handling(1926.250 - 252)

Common OSHA Citations:.251(a)(1) Rigging equipment inspection

and removal from service..251(e)(8) Synthetic Web Slings – removal from service..252(a) Exterior drop chutes.251(a)(4) Rigging capacity not marked – not proof-

tested.

How can the hazards addressed by these Standards best be corrected, controlled, or eliminated?

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Review Questions True or False?

1. Back injuries are the number one cause of worker compensation claims.

2. Using proper lifting techniques, staying in shape, using mechanical aids, and team lifting are the best ways to avoid back injuries.

3. Using a back belt almost always prevents a back injury.

4. Anyone can hook-up a sling and be a rigger.

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Review Questions True or False?

5.Job-made slings, hooks, links, and fasteners formed from bolts are allowed if a Competent Person says so.

6.Proper knots are permitted in web-slings.7.Slings should be inspected before each use

and pulled from service if found defective. 8.The safest sling angles are less than 45

degrees from the horizontal.

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Review Questions True or False?

9. Cranes and rigging must stay at least 10 feet from power lines.

10. Materials can be stored within 10 feet of the roof’s edge.

11. Materials dropped more than 20 feet require a chute.

12. Materials must be kept at least 2 feet from floor openings and hoistways.

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