Magnetism Final

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<ul><li><p>Magnetism</p></li><li><p>Magnetism is the ability to attract iron, nickel and cobalt.Magnetism is perhaps more difficult to understand than other characteristic properties of matter, such as mass, energy, and electric charge, because magnetism is difficult to detect and measure. We can feel mass, visualize energy, and be shocked by electricity, but we cannot sense magnetism.</p></li><li><p>Classification of magnets:Natural magnetsArtificial permanenetElectromagnets</p></li><li><p>Natural Magnet</p></li><li><p>Natural magnets-lodestone</p></li><li><p>Lodestones became magnetized by lying in earth for thousands of years</p></li><li><p>Artificial permanent magnetsHard steelMagnetic compassAlnico</p></li><li><p>Hard steel </p></li><li><p>Magnetic compass</p></li><li><p>Alnico is an acronym referring to iron alloys which in addition to iron are composed primarily of aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co). Alnico alloys are ferromagnetic, with a high resistance to loss of magnetism and are used to make permanent magnets. Before the development of rare earth magnets in the 1970s, they were the strongest type of magnet.Aluminium cannot be magnetized</p></li><li><p>Electromagnets magnets produced by means of electric.</p></li><li><p>The magnetic field of a charged particle such as an electron in motion is perpendicular to the motion of that particle. The intensity of the magnetic field is represented by imaginary linesIf the electron's motion is a closed loop, as with an electron circling a nucleus, magnetic field lines will be perpendicular to the plane of motion.Electrons behave as if they rotate on an axis clockwise or counterclockwise. This rotation creates a property called electron spin. The electron spin creates a magnetic field, which is neutralized in electron pairs. Therefore, atoms that have an odd number of electrons in any shell exhibit a very small magnetic field.</p></li><li><p>The lines of a magnetic field do not start or end as the lines of an electric field do. Such a field is called bipolar or dipolar; it always has a north and a south pole. The small magnet created by the electron orbit is called a magnetic dipole</p></li><li><p>Spinning electric charges also induce a magnetic field. The proton in a hydrogen nucleus spins on its axis and creates a nuclear magnetic dipole called a magnetic moment. This forms the basis of MRI.</p></li><li><p>MRI electromagnet</p></li><li><p>Laws of magnetism:Every magnet has two polesLike magnetic poles repel unlike attractThe force of attraction/repulsion follows inverse square law (The magnetic force is proportional to the product of the magnetic pole strengths divided by the square of the distance between them.)</p></li><li><p>Every magnet has two polesThe lines of a magnetic field are always closed loops.</p></li><li><p>Like magnetic poles repel</p><p>Unlike poles attract</p></li><li><p>Breaking a magnet will result in each magnet becoming a whole</p></li><li><p>Magnetic domain accumulation of many dipoles.</p></li><li><p>The magnetic dipole in bar magnet generate imaginary lines of magnetic field. </p></li><li><p>Characteristics of the lines of force:From N to F outside of the magnetFrom S to N inside of the magnetLines in the same direction will repel each otherMagnetic field is distorted by magnetic material but not affected by non-magnetic materials</p></li><li><p>Lines of force</p></li><li><p>LINES OF FORCE</p></li><li><p>Magnetic field is distorted by magnetic material but not affected by non-magnetic materials.</p></li><li><p>This principle is employed with many MRI systems that use an iron magnetic shield to reduce the level of the fringe magnetic field. Ferromagnetic material acts as a magnetic sink by drawing the lines of the magnetic field into it.</p></li><li><p>A magnetic element can exist in magnetized or non-magnetized form.</p></li><li><p> Magnetization:InductionTouch</p></li><li><p>MAGNETIC INDUCTION (MAGNETIZATION)</p></li><li><p>Magnetization and demagnetization</p></li><li><p>Magnetic permeabilityEase with which the material can be magnetized. Soft ironMagnetic retentivityMaterial resistance to magnetization. Hard steel</p></li><li><p>Four Magnetic States of Matter</p><p>StateMaterialCharacteristicsNonmagneticWood, glass, copperUnaffected by a magnetic fieldDiamagneticWater, plasticWeakly repelled from both poles of a magnetic fieldParamagneticGadoliniumWeakly attracted to both poles of a magnetic fieldFerromagneticIron, nickel, cobaltCan be strongly magnetized</p></li><li><p>The SI unit of magnet field strength is the tesla. An older unit is the gauss. One tesla (T) = 10,000 gauss (G).</p><p>The use of a compass might suggest that the Earth has a strong magnetic field, but it does not. The Earth's magnetic field is approximately 50 T at the equator and 100 T at the poles. This is far less than the magnet on a cabinet door latch, which is approximately 100 mT.</p></li></ul>