Macquarie University ResearchOnline final آ  alluvial rivers, and their processes respond

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  • Macquarie University ResearchOnline

    This is the author version of an article published as: Ralph, T. J. and Hesse, P.P. (2010) Downstream hydrogeomorphic changes along the Macquarie River, southeastern Australia, leading to channel breakdown and floodplain wetlands. Geomorphology 118(1-2): 48-64.

    Access to the published version: Copyright: 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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    Downstream hydrogeomorphic changes along the Macquarie River, southeast- ern Australia, leading to channel breakdown and floodplain wetlands

    Timothy J. Ralph, Paul P. Hesse

    PII: S0169-555X(09)00523-6 DOI: doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.12.007 Reference: GEOMOR 3167

    To appear in: Geomorphology

    Received date: 1 May 2008 Revised date: 3 December 2009 Accepted date: 7 December 2009

    Please cite this article as: Ralph, Timothy J., Hesse, Paul P., Downstream hy- drogeomorphic changes along the Macquarie River, southeastern Australia, lead- ing to channel breakdown and floodplain wetlands, Geomorphology (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.12.007

    This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

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    Downstream hydrogeomorphic changes along the Macquarie River,

    southeastern Australia, leading to channel breakdown and floodplain


    Timothy J Ralph1 and Paul P Hesse*

    Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, N.S.W. 2109,


    * Corresponding author. Email:; Telephone: +61 2 9850 8384;

    Facsimile: +61 2 9850 8420 1 Present address: Rivers and Wetlands Unit, Department of Environment, Climate

    Change and Water N.S.W., PO Box A290, Sydney South, N.S.W. 1232, Australia.



    Floodplain wetlands and floodouts in the Macquarie Marshes are fed by numerous

    anastomosing and distributary channels on the lower reaches of the Macquarie River,

    southeastern Australia. River discharge is seasonally and annually variable and is

    affected by both interannual and interdecadal climatic trends, related to ENSO and IPO.

    A downstream comparison of hydrologic data shows that flows decrease significantly in

    magnitude and stream power along the allogenic lower Macquarie River as distributary

    outflows are not matched by tributary inputs. Intrinsic hydrologic and geomorphic

    thresholds along the lower Macquarie River lead to the breakdown of the trunk stream

    into smaller distributaries, with disintegration of channelised flows and development of

    extensive wetlands on the low gradient, dryland alluvial floodplain-fan. Cross-sectional

    analysis shows that the morphology and morphometry of the trunk stream change

    accordingly, with adjustments in planform and cross-sectional shape and marked

    downstream reductions in channel capacity and bed width. Despite monotonic declines

    in river discharge, gross stream power and channel cross-sectional area, there is a

    threshold change in the geomorphic response. Channel width-to-depth ratio decreases in

    the middle reaches and then increases, while channel sinuosity increases until


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    immediately upstream of the core wetlands and then rapidly declines as straight

    channels enter areas of extensive channel breakdown. Floodplain width is greatest on

    the alluvial plain, allowing a broader area of floodplain wetlands to develop, that are

    characterised by fine cohesive sediments. Floodplain connection is greatest where

    floodouts and wetlands form in the Marshes. Channel breakdown and floodplain

    wetland formation along the lower Macquarie River and in the Macquarie Marshes are

    distinct examples of a nonequilibrium response to downstream declining discharge and

    stream power, which is an inherent condition in many dryland Australian rivers during

    the Holocene.

    Keywords: allogenic river hydrology; El Niño Southern Oscillation; avulsion; channel

    breakdown; floodplain wetlands; Macquarie Marshes

    1. Introduction

    Channel breakdown and extensive floodplain wetlands are typical features of the lower

    reaches of many rivers in the Murray-Darling Basin of southeastern Australia. The

    wetlands are important waterbird and wildlife habitats whose health is much debated

    and a subject of contention in resource management and nature conservation today.

    However, the floodplain wetlands are a fluvial landscape that is both poorly

    documented and poorly understood, and the debates over land and water management

    proceed largely in ignorance of the geomorphic factors leading to the formation and

    maintenance of the wetlands or their natural dynamics. For the most part these fluvial

    systems and their landforms have escaped detailed geomorphological investigation

    despite their large extent and common occurrence. The floodplain wetlands and their

    associated channel breakdown features are similar in many respects to floodouts,

    described in more arid areas of Australia, as ‘a site where channelized flow ceases and

    floodwaters spill across adjacent alluvial surfaces’ (Tooth, 1999a, p222). But the

    features described here also differ in many ways, including the size of the inflowing

    streams and their perennial flows. In this paper we examine the hydrological conditions

    and channel morphology of the Macquarie River that feeds the largest example of the

    floodplain wetlands in the Murray-Darling Basin, the Macquarie Marshes. Our

    hypothesis is that the floodplain wetlands and trunk stream channel breakdown occur


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    because of the particular catchment and channel hydrological and sediment transport


    The size and shape of alluvial river channels reflect the type, amount, and rate of

    discharge and sediment supply that comes from the upstream catchment area, as

    transmitted through the cross-sectional profile (Leopold et al., 1964; Knighton, 1998).

    Similarly, the morphology of an alluvial floodplain is also genetically related to the

    channel that supplies it, and both the channels and floodplain may be affected by

    inherited features that are imposed by the landscape in which they develop. In addition,

    regional hydrology, topography, and geomorphology tend to vary in the downstream

    direction; and so downstream adjustments occur in channel and floodplain forms as

    alluvial rivers, and their processes respond to changes in these environmental controls.

    However, unlike temperate zone rivers, where discharge tends to increase downstream

    and channel capacity increases accordingly, many dryland rivers exhibit the reverse

    pattern: a decrease in discharge downstream with associated reductions in channel size

    and adjustments of form. These downstream declines are particularly pronounced on the

    lower reaches of dryland rivers that receive variable floods and have significant

    transmission losses, distributary outflows and few tributary contributions in their lower

    catchments (Tooth, 1999b, 2000a, b). This is the case for the lower Macquarie River, a

    tributary of the Barwon-Darling River in southeastern Australia (Fig. 1), which

    undergoes a series of hydrological and morphological changes as it flows across a low,

    broad alluvial plain, a floodplain-fan, before it breaks down at a range of scales to form

    the Macquarie Marshes.

    This paper investigates the modern hydrology of the Macquarie River, the longitudinal

    variation of flows and the longitudinal morphological changes of the channel and

    floodplain from the mid-upper catchment to the lower reaches where breakdown occurs.

    We consider whether the hydrological character and morphological response provide

    coherent explanations for channel breakdown and marsh formation and also consider

    alternative explanations. Neotectonic activity has been proposed as the cause of the

    formation of the Macquarie Marshes (Watkins and Meakin, 1996), and an example of

    tectonic damming occurs on the Murray River elsewhere in the Murray-Darling Basin

    (see Bowler, 1967). Alluvial trunk stream damming has also led to the formation of


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    terminal wetlands on another large river in the