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  • Lyme Disease/Lyme Disease/Lyme BorreliosisLyme Borreliosis

    By Simone By Simone SwanepoelSwanepoel

    OutlineOutline Taxonomy/ History / Life cycleTaxonomy/ History / Life cycle

    Morphology of agents involved/ Epidemiology &Morphology of agents involved/ Epidemiology &DistributionDistribution

    Ecology / Evolution / Genetics / Physiology/ImmunologyEcology / Evolution / Genetics / Physiology/Immunology

    Parasite/host relationshipsParasite/host relationships

    Symptoms/ Treatment/ PreventionSymptoms/ Treatment/ Prevention

    Future ResearchFuture Research

    IntroductionIntroduction

    Leading arthropod-associated disease in theLeading arthropod-associated disease in theUSAUSA

    24, 000 human cases reported in USA (~10 % of24, 000 human cases reported in USA (~10 % ofphysician diagnosed cases)physician diagnosed cases)

    12 states 12 states 95 % of cases (CDC 2005) 95 % of cases (CDC 2005) Greatest incidence~Children under 14 & adultsGreatest incidence~Children under 14 & adults

    over 40over 40 Summer Months ( Morshed et al. 2005)Summer Months ( Morshed et al. 2005) Multisystem disorderMultisystem disorder Great imitator ~ myriad of symptomsGreat imitator ~ myriad of symptoms

  • TaxonomyTaxonomy Pathogen/CausativePathogen/Causative

    agent of disease ~agent of disease ~ Gram-negative Gram-negative

    spirochetal bacteriaspirochetal bacteria(Barbour 1984)(Barbour 1984) Borellia burgdorferiBorellia burgdorferi

    Principal vectorPrincipal vector ~ ~ - Ixodes scapularis - Ixodes scapularis

    (blacklegged tick/(blacklegged tick/deerdeer tick/hard tick) tick/hard tick) & &Ixodes PacificusIxodes Pacificus(Padgett and Lane(Padgett and Lane2001)2001)

    Figure1. B.burgdorferi bacteria (CDC)Figure 2. Larva, nymph, male and female I.scapularis (CDC).

    TaxonomyTaxonomy Principal reservoir ~Principal reservoir ~ (nymphs) (nymphs)

    -White footed mouse-White footed mouse- - Peromyscus leucopusPeromyscus leucopus

    Principal host ~Principal host ~(adults)(adults)

    -White-tailed deer, -Odocoileus

    virginianus

    Figure 4. O. virginianus deer (CDC).Figure3.P.leucopusmouse.

    Life CycleLife Cycle

    Figure5.TwoyearLifeCycleforI.scapularis(CDC)

  • Life CycleLife Cycle

    Figure 6. Seasonal activity of I. scapularis larvae, nymphs, and adults(CDC).

    Figure 5. The enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi infection in the northeasternUS and intersection with human Lyme disease (Journal of ClinicalInvestigation 2004.)

    Natural HistoryNatural History 1764 - Reverend Dr John Walker1764 - Reverend Dr John Walker

    1975 - Disease first recognized as a1975 - Disease first recognized as aclinical entity clinical entity Lyme, Connecticut (WHO) Lyme, Connecticut (WHO)

    1981 - Causative bacteria discovered - Dr.1981 - Causative bacteria discovered - Dr.Willy BurgdorferiWilly Burgdorferi Long Island, New York.Long Island, New York.

    Extensive History in Europe Extensive History in Europe 20 20thth Century Century

    Morphology of Morphology of IxodidaeIxodidae

    Figure 7. Hypothetical Male and Female Ixodidae (hard ticks) with keycharacteristics labeled (CDC).

  • Tick BitesTick Bites

    Figure 8. Scanning electron micrographs of the mouthparts of the blacklegged tick (CDC)

    EpidemiologyEpidemiology

    Figure 9. Reported cases of Lyme Disease in USA ~ 2005 (CDC).

    DistributionDistributionTick VectorTick Vector

    Figure 10. Distribution of the tick species associated with human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), I. scapularis, I.pacificus; and human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), A. americanum (CDC).

  • Ecology & EvolutionEcology & Evolution UrbanizationUrbanization Anthropogenic factorsAnthropogenic factors

    B.burgdorferi ~ B.burgdorferi ~ highhighstrain diversitystrain diversity

    Genetic & PhysiologicalGenetic & PhysiologicalAspectsAspects

    Genome Sequencing (Steere et al. 2004).Genome Sequencing (Steere et al. 2004). Spirochetes- Change of OpsA to OpsCSpirochetes- Change of OpsA to OpsC

    outer surface protein for mammalianouter surface protein for mammalianinfection.infection.

    Spirochete bind mammalian plasminogen.Spirochete bind mammalian plasminogen. Surface protein of Surface protein of B.burgdoferB.burgdoferi - C6i - C6

    peptide of the VslE protein antigen-peptide of the VslE protein antigen-immune responseimmune response

  • ImmunologyImmunology

    Figure 12. Host mechanisms of spirochetal killing (Journal of Clinical Investigation 2004).

    ParasitismParasitism

    Obligate blood-feeders (ticks)Obligate blood-feeders (ticks)

    Require animal host to survive &Require animal host to survive &reproducereproduce

    Wide host range (people/pets/livestock)Wide host range (people/pets/livestock)

    Depends on host for nutritionalDepends on host for nutritionalrequirementsrequirements

    Clinical signs & symptomsClinical signs & symptoms Early localized/Early localized/

    disseminateddisseminatedinfectioninfection CharacteristicCharacteristic

    Erythema MigransErythema Migransrash (EM rash)/ bulls-rash (EM rash)/ bulls-eye rasheye rash

    Flu-like SymptomsFlu-like Symptoms Acute neurological/Acute neurological/ cardiac/ ocular cardiac/ ocular

    symptomssymptoms

    Late persistentLate persistentinfectioninfection

    Myriad of chronicMyriad of chronicdisabling symptomsdisabling symptoms

    Brain & nervesBrain & nerves(neurological(neurologicalsymptoms), eyes,symptoms), eyes,joints (arthritis) andjoints (arthritis) andheart.heart.

    Figure 11. Characteristic bulls-eye rash

  • Diagnosis & Treatment ofDiagnosis & Treatment ofDisease/SymptomsDisease/Symptoms

    EM rashEM rash Difficult to diagnoseDifficult to diagnose Over/underOver/under

    diagnoseddiagnosed Blood test Blood test

    antibodiesantibodies ELISAELISA Western ImmunoblotWestern Immunoblot (Assous et al. 1993) (Assous et al. 1993) False positive/False positive/

    negative (PCR)negative (PCR) Techniques improvingTechniques improving

    Antibiotics ~Antibiotics ~(including(includingtetracyclines/ mosttetracyclines/ mostpenicillins, and manypenicillins, and manysecond- and third-second- and third-generationgenerationcephalosporins).cephalosporins).

    Early treatmentEarly treatment

    Figure 12 . An algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of the early eventssurrounding Lyme disease in the summer months. Serologic testing for Lymedisease has limited utility during the first 1 or 2 weeks of infection, and earlytreatment, without serologic testing, is recommended (Journal of ClinicalInvestigation 2004.)

    PreventionPrevention Pesticides (acaricides) / InsectPesticides (acaricides) / Insect

    repellantrepellant Create a tick-safe zoneCreate a tick-safe zone Avoid areas with lots of ticksAvoid areas with lots of ticks Keep ticks off skin-Check skinKeep ticks off skin-Check skin

    & clothes for ticks& clothes for ticks Biological Control Biological Control

    landscaping/integrated pestlandscaping/integrated pestmanagement/ decrease deermanagement/ decrease deerpopulationpopulation

    Clothing ( light colors &Clothing ( light colors &protective)protective)

    Organic approach Organic approach Guinea Guineafowlfowl

    VaccinationVaccination

  • Incorporation if recentIncorporation if recentresearchresearch

    Chronic Lyme diseaseChronic Lyme disease

    Long term treatment in humansLong term treatment in humans

    VaccineVaccine

    Deer populationDeer population

    Future- Lyme diseaseFuture- Lyme disease

    Figure 13. Reported cases of Lyme disease in the United States ~ 1991-2005 (CDC).

    ConclusionConclusion Taxonomy/ History / Life cycleTaxonomy/ History / Life cycle

    Morphology of agents involved/ Epidemiology &Morphology of agents involved/ Epidemiology &DistributionDistribution

    Ecology / Evolution / Genetics / Physiology/ ImmunologyEcology / Evolution / Genetics / Physiology/ Immunology

    Parasite/host relationshipsParasite/host relationships

    Symptoms/ Treatment/ PreventionSymptoms/ Treatment/ Prevention

    Future ResearchFuture Research

  • Works CitedWorks Cited Assous M. V., D.Assous M. V., D. Postic, G.Postic, G. Paul, P.Paul, P. Nvot and G.Nvot and G. Baranton. 1993.Baranton. 1993.

    Western blot analysis of sera from Lyme borreliosis patientsWestern blot analysis of sera from Lyme borreliosis patientsaccording to the genomic species of the according to the genomic species of the BorreliaBorrelia strains used as strains used asantigens. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectiousantigens. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & InfectiousDiseases12: 261-268.Diseases12: 261-268.

    Barbour A. G. 1984. Isolation and cultivation of Lyme diseaseBarbour A. G. 1984. Isolation and cultivation of Lyme diseasespirochetes. Yale Journal of biology and medicine 57: 521-525.spirochetes. Yale Journal of biology and medicine 57: 521-525.

    Center for Disease Control And Prevention. 2009. Learn aboutCenter for Disease Control And Prevention. 2009. Learn aboutLyme Disease. Accessed online atLyme Disease. Accessed online athttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/lyme/http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/lyme/

    Morshed, M. G.,Morshed, M. G., J. D. Scott, K.J. D. Scott, K. Fernando, L. Beati, D. F.Fernando, L. Beati, D. F. Mazerolle,Mazerolle,G. Geddes, and L. A. Durden. 2005. Migratory songbirds disperseG. Geddes, and L. A. Durden. 2005. Migratory songbirds disperseticks across Canada, and first isolation of the ticks across Canada, and first isolation of the