Lyme Disease/ Lyme Disease/ Lyme Borreliosis Lyme Borreliosis By Simone By Simone Swanepoel Swanepoel Outline Outline Taxonomy/ History / Life cycle Taxonomy/ History / Life cycle Morphology of agents involved/ Epidemiology & Morphology of agents involved/ Epidemiology & Distribution Distribution Ecology / Evolution / Genetics / Physiology/Immunology Ecology / Evolution / Genetics / Physiology/Immunology Parasite/host relationships Parasite/host relationships Symptoms/ Treatment/ Prevention Symptoms/ Treatment/ Prevention Future Research Future Research Introduction Introduction Leading arthropod-associated disease in the Leading arthropod-associated disease in the USA USA 24, 000 human cases reported in USA (~10 % of 24, 000 human cases reported in USA (~10 % of physician diagnosed cases) physician diagnosed cases) 12 states 12 states – 95 % of cases (CDC 2005) 95 % of cases (CDC 2005) Greatest incidence~Children under 14 & adults Greatest incidence~Children under 14 & adults over 40 over 40 Summer Months ( Morshed et al. 2005) Summer Months ( Morshed et al. 2005) Multisystem disorder Multisystem disorder Great imitator ~ myriad of symptoms Great imitator ~ myriad of symptoms
Antibiotics ~Antibiotics ~(including(includingtetracyclines/ mosttetracyclines/ mostpenicillins, and manypenicillins, and manysecond- and third-second- and third-generationgenerationcephalosporins).cephalosporins).
Early treatmentEarly treatment
Figure 12 . An algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of the early eventssurrounding Lyme disease in the summer months. Serologic testing for Lymedisease has limited utility during the first 1 or 2 weeks of infection, and earlytreatment, without serologic testing, is recommended (Journal of ClinicalInvestigation 2004.)
Works CitedWorks Cited Assous M. V., D.Assous M. V., D. Postic, G.Postic, G. Paul, P.Paul, P. Névot and G.Névot and G. Baranton. 1993.Baranton. 1993.
Western blot analysis of sera from Lyme borreliosis patientsWestern blot analysis of sera from Lyme borreliosis patientsaccording to the genomic species of the according to the genomic species of the BorreliaBorrelia strains used as strains used asantigens. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectiousantigens. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & InfectiousDiseases12: 261-268.Diseases12: 261-268.
Barbour A. G. 1984. Isolation and cultivation of Lyme diseaseBarbour A. G. 1984. Isolation and cultivation of Lyme diseasespirochetes. Yale Journal of biology and medicine 57: 521-525.spirochetes. Yale Journal of biology and medicine 57: 521-525.
Center for Disease Control And Prevention. 2009. Learn aboutCenter for Disease Control And Prevention. 2009. Learn aboutLyme Disease. Accessed online atLyme Disease. Accessed online athttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/lyme/http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/lyme/
Morshed, M. G.,Morshed, M. G., J. D. Scott, K.J. D. Scott, K. Fernando, L. Beati, D. F.Fernando, L. Beati, D. F. Mazerolle,Mazerolle,G. Geddes, and L. A. Durden. 2005. Migratory songbirds disperseG. Geddes, and L. A. Durden. 2005. Migratory songbirds disperseticks across Canada, and first isolation of the ticks across Canada, and first isolation of the LymeLyme diseasediseasespirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from the avian tick, Ixodes auritulus.spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from the avian tick, Ixodes auritulus.Journal of Parasitology 91: 780-790.Journal of Parasitology 91: 780-790.
Works CitedWorks Cited PadgettPadgett K. A., and R. S. Lane. 2001. Life Cycle K. A., and R. S. Lane. 2001. Life Cycle
of of Ixodes pacificusIxodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae): Timing of (Acari: Ixodidae): Timing ofDevelopmental Processes Under Field andDevelopmental Processes Under Field andLaboratory Conditions. Journal of MedicalLaboratory Conditions. Journal of MedicalEntomology 38:684-693.Entomology 38:684-693.
Steere A. C., J. Coburn and L. Glickstein. 2004.Steere A. C., J. Coburn and L. Glickstein. 2004.The emergence of Lyme disease. Journal ofThe emergence of Lyme disease. Journal ofClinical Investigation 113: 1093-1101.Clinical Investigation 113: 1093-1101.
World Health Organization. 2009. LymeWorld Health Organization. 2009. LymeDisease. Accessed online atDisease. Accessed online athttp://www.who.int/topics/lyme_disease/en/http://www.who.int/topics/lyme_disease/en/