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Lube Oil Predictive Maintenance, Handling, and Quality Assurance Guideline

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Technical Report

Lube Oil Predictive Maintenance, Handling, and Quality Assurance Guideline1004384

Final Report, December 2002

EPRI Project Manager R. Chambers

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 [email protected] www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIESTHIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT EPRI

ORDERING INFORMATIONRequests for copies of this report should be directed to EPRI Orders and Conferences, 1355 Willow Way, Suite 278, Concord, CA 94520, (800) 313-3774, press 2 or internally x5379, (925) 609-9169, (925) 609-1310 (fax). Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. EPRI. ELECTRIFY THE WORLD is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright 2002 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

CITATIONSThis report was prepared by EPRIsolutions 3412 Hillview Ave. Palo Alto, CA 94304 Principal Investigators G. VanDerHorn, EPRIsolutions R. Wurzbach, Noria Corporation This report describes research sponsored by EPRI. The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Lube Oil Predictive Maintenance, Handling, and Quality Assurance Guideline, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2002. 1004384.

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REPORT SUMMARY

This guideline has been prepared by EPRI to assist member utilities in the improvement of maintenance processes. It presents the key elements that should be included in the conduct of comprehensive lubrication program evaluations and in setting up a well-organized lubrication program. EPRI believes that organizational and procedural improvements can be made by utilities that will yield optimal lubrication programs. This guideline also serves as an excellent reference document because it describes key lubrication tools, processes, and procedures. It defines how these elements can contribute to plant operations when they are incorporated into maintenance strategies and assigned the proper priority. Background EPRI has for many years supported developments in the improvement of maintenance practices to increase equipment reliability and availability and to reduce costs. These maintenance improvement programs started with the development of monitoring and diagnostic instrumentation, which then progressed to the implementation of complete predictive maintenance (PdM) programs. Equipment maintenance guidelines were developed and, finally, the overall optimization of maintenance practices evolved. In the course of these activities, technology has always played an important role in the maintenance improvement process. Vibration, thermography, and oil analyses were identified early on as the fundamental backbones of a good basic machinery condition-monitoring program, which is all-important for the success of any maintenance optimization program. This guideline focuses on describing the elements of a good lubrication program, the valuable information that a good lubrication program produces, how such a program will benefit plant equipment life and operations, and how to set up a meaningful and productive program. Objectives To provide a comprehensive reference of information gathered from EPRIs years of knowledge and expertise in the development of lubrication maintenance tools and strategies To combine and incorporate the extensive experience of EPRI personnel, lubrication suppliers, testing laboratories, and utilities into a comprehensive and meaningful reference document that will help utilities to realize the benefits of a quality lubrication program

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Approach Extensive industry information, taken from the experience of long-standing EPRI personnel, lubrication suppliers, testing laboratories, and utilities, was gathered and compiled. An extensive literature search for information related to lubrication technology was conducted and included a review of EPRI reports, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards, military specifications, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) publications, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) notices. To support this experiential data, lubrication audits were initiated at utility sites, and the findings of those assessments are also included in this guideline. Results The activities required to improve maintenance effectiveness are many and varied. This guideline focuses on the area of lubrication maintenance and is designed to provide utilities with the information necessary to improve an existing lubrication program or to develop a new program. It identifies key aspects of a well-run lubrication maintenance program, and it also defines the specific tools necessary to implement a new program. This guideline provides the end user with a comprehensive reference for improving the lubrication maintenance process. EPRI Perspective The preparation of reliable maintenance process improvement guidelines provides a significant advantage for the power industry in the competitive market that it has been facing in recent years. EPRI-member utilities have realized substantial benefits by implementing many of the maintenance processes, condition-monitoring tools, and predictive maintenance programs that have been developed by EPRI. The goals leading to improved oil PdM, handling, and quality assurance have not been met, however, in all cases. This lubrication guideline identifies areas that need improvement in order to achieve best practices goals, and it defines the tools that can be used as part of a utilitys continuous improvement efforts needed to maintain its competitive position. Keywords Lubrication Lube oil Lube oil sampling Oil Oil analysis Predictive maintenance

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ABSTRACTPlant maintenance is an important function that produces significant benefits in machinery operation and plant reliability and availability. A good maintenance program comprises many elements, including the application of various technologies to monitor the condition of critical plant machinery. EPRI realizes that most utilities have implemented lubrication controls and analysis programs to varying degrees; however, industry data indicate that a great deal more can be done. Recent experience has shown that applying the technologies associated with lubrication management in power plants provides very good short-term benefits and has significant potential for medium and long-term benefits as well. At host plants or sites, EPRI plans to perform evaluations of what is currently being done in defined areas, such as sampling, testing, filtration and reclamation, health, environment, and safety. Based on the evaluation results, EPRI will make specific recommendations for improvement in the elements deemed essential to an effective and beneficial lubrication management program, from purchasing to the final test and action phases. This guideline focuses on the elements that constitute a good lubrication program and provides detailed descriptions of each element that should be considered when setting up a meaningful program. These key elements are: Standards, consolidation, and procurement Storage and handling Sampling techniques Contamination control Training, skill standards, and certification Lubricant analysis Lubrication/relubrication practices Program management Procedures and guidelines Program goals and metrics Safety practices Continuous improvement

An important value of the guideline is to provide utility plants with the tools to evaluate their existing lubrication practices and to compare them with best practices industry standards. Utilities can then determine where their lubrication program can be improved and how to make that happen. vii

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTSEPRI would like to thank the following individuals for their contributions to the publication of this guideline: Patrick Abbott, EPRIsolutions Ellie Cherry, EPRIsolutions Jim Fitch, Noria Corporation John Niemkiewicz, EPRIsolutions Drew Troyer, Noria Corporation

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CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW .......................................................................................1-1 Program Development ..........................................................................................................1-1 Audit Process ........................................................................................................................1-2 On-Site Audit ....................................................................................................................1-2 Audit Report......................................................................................................................1-3 Implementation Plan..............................................................................................................1-4 Implementation Plan Development...................................................................................1-4 Technical Assistance and Follow-Up Audit ......................................................................1-7 Lube Oil PdM, Handling, and Quality Assurance Guideline Report ......................................1-7 2 STANDARDS, CONSOLIDATION, AND PROCUREMENT ..................................................2-1 ConsolidationOptimizing the Use of Lubricant Products....................................................2-2 Determining the Consolidation Approach .........................................................................2-3 Phase IBrand Consolidation .........................................................................................2-4 Phase IITechnical Consolidation...................................................................................2-6 Phase IIIGeneric Specifications ....................................................................................2-8 Using a Database for Continuous Improvement.............................................................2-12 Quality Assurance and Receipt Inspection..........................................................................2-12 Testing............................................................................................................................2-14 Quarantine......................................................................................................................2-15 Q-Class Lubricants for Nuclear Power ...........................................................................2-16 3 STORAGE AND HANDLING .................................................................................................3-1 Health, Safety, and Environmental Issues ............................................................................3-8 Dispensing Systems..............................................................................................................3-9 Lubrication Technicians and the Digital Age .......................................................................3-11 Lubricant Storage and Handling..........................................................................................3-12

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4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES ....................................................................................................4-1 Sample Points .......................................................................................................................4-1 Sampling Port LocationGeneral Discussion ......................................................................4-2 Case ADry Sump, Horizontal Drain Line.......................................................................4-3 Case BDry Sump, Vertical Drain-Line...........................................................................4-3 Case CPressurized Feed Line ......................................................................................4-4 Case DPressurized Return Line ...................................................................................4-6 Case EWet Sump, Splash, or Bath Lubrication ............................................................4-7 Case FWet Sump, Circulating Lubrication ..................................................................4-10 Power Generation Specific Sampling Locations .................................................................4-11 5 CONTAMINATION CONTROL...............................................................................................5-1 Contaminant Identification.....................................................................................................5-2 Particulate Contamination ................................................................................................5-4 Moisture............................................................................................................................5-7 Coolant .............................................................................................................................5-9 Fuel and Soot .................................................................................................................5-10 Air ...................................................................................................................................5-11 Oxidation Products .........................................................................................................5-13 Contaminant Elimination .....................................................................................................5-15 Particulate.......................................................................................................................5-15 Filter Media.....................................................................................................................5-19 Filter Location Options ...............................................................................................5-20 Water ..............................................................................................................................5-21 Glycol, Fuel, and Soot ....................................................................................................5-23 Air ...................................................................................................................................5-23 Oxidation Products .........................................................................................................5-25 Contaminant Exclusion........................................................................................................5-27 Sealing the Machine .......................................................................................................5-28 Shaft Seals ................................................................................................................5-28 Lids, Access Ports .....................................................................................................5-29 Keeping Out Water ....................................................................................................5-31 Filtering the Vent ............................................................................................................5-32 Breather Filters ..........................................................................................................5-32 Desiccant ...................................................................................................................5-33 Bladders and Expansion Chambers ...............................................................................5-34

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6 TRAINING, SKILL STANDARDS, AND CERTIFICATION ....................................................6-1 Lubrication Training...............................................................................................................6-1 Reliability and PdM Analyst ..............................................................................................6-2 Lubrication Technicians....................................................................................................6-2 Oil Analysts.......................................................................................................................6-3 Mechanics ........................................................................................................................6-3 Operators..........................................................................................................................6-4 Managers and Supervisors...............................................................................................6-4 Knowledge and Skill Certification ..........................................................................................6-4 On-the-Job Training (OJT) ...............................................................................................6-6 7 LUBRICANT ANALYSIS........................................................................................................7-1 Determining the Case for On-Site Versus Outsourced Oil Analysis......................................7-1 Evolving from a Conventional Oil Analysis Program to a Modern One .................................7-4 Setting Up Facilities for On-Site Analysis..............................................................................7-5 Work Area and Health and Safety ....................................................................................7-6 Housekeeping...................................................................................................................7-6 Computers ........................................................................................................................7-7 Lubricant Testing ..............................................................................................................7-7 Wear Condition.................................................................................................................7-8 Lubricant Properties .......................................................................................................7-10 Contaminants .................................................................................................................7-16 Mini-Lab Analysis Testing...............................................................................................7-18 Sensory Tests.................................................................................................................7-21 Analysis Frequency .............................................................................................................7-21 Predictive Versus Proactive............................................................................................7-21 Optimizing with a Sample Frequency Generator............................................................7-23 Economic Penalty of Failure ......................................................................................7-25 Fluid Environment Severity ........................................................................................7-25 Machine Age ..............................................................................................................7-25 Oil Age .......................................................................................................................7-26 Target Tightness ........................................................................................................7-26 Putting Sampling Intervals to Work............................................................................7-26 Test Slates ..........................................................................................................................7-27

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8 LUBRICATION/RELUBRICATION PRACTICES...................................................................8-1 Maintenance Filling of Lubricated Equipment .......................................................................8-1 Level Checking and Top-Off of Oil Lubricated Equipment ....................................................8-5 Greasing................................................................................................................................8-8 Greasing on a Time-Based Interval..................................................................................8-8 Greasing Tools and Equipment ...................................................................................8-8 Avoiding Over-Greasing.............................................................................................8-12 Condition-Based Greasing .............................................................................................8-14 9 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................9-1 Dedicated Ownership of the Lubrication Program.................................................................9-2 Roles and Responsibilities ....................................................................................................9-3 Communication .....................................................................................................................9-4 Quantifying the Benefits of a Lubrication Program................................................................9-4 Proactive and Predictive Benefits.....................................................................................9-5 Basic Assumptions ...........................................................................................................9-6 Program Management Summary ..........................................................................................9-7 10 PROCEDURES...................................................................................................................10-1 Lubrication Procedures .......................................................................................................10-1 Importance of Lubrication Procedures............................................................................10-1 Elements of an Effective Lubrication Procedure.............................................................10-2 Procedure Topics ................................................................................................................10-2 Cleaning and Reconditioning Containers .......................................................................10-3 Flushing Systems After Overhaul or Repair ...................................................................10-3 Conducting an Oil Change .............................................................................................10-4 Lubricant Sampling Procedures .....................................................................................10-4 Lubricating Machines......................................................................................................10-4 Procedure Considerations...................................................................................................10-4 Strategy ..........................................................................................................................10-5 Purpose ..........................................................................................................................10-5 Procedure .......................................................................................................................10-6 Right Product .............................................................................................................10-6 Right Place ................................................................................................................10-7 Right Amount .............................................................................................................10-7

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Right Time .................................................................................................................10-8 Right Attitude .............................................................................................................10-8 11 PROGRAM GOALS AND METRICS .................................................................................11-1 Establishment of Specific Program Goals and Metrics .......................................................11-1 Reduce Lubricant Costs .................................................................................................11-2 Improve the Percent Compliance to Scheduled Lubrication PM Tasks..........................11-2 Adjust or Redefine Analysis Alert or Alarm Limits ..........................................................11-2 Improve Equipment Reliability ........................................................................................11-3 Improve Oil Cleanliness Levels ......................................................................................11-3 Lubricant Disposal Costs................................................................................................11-3 12 SAFETY PRACTICES ........................................................................................................12-1 Storage................................................................................................................................12-1 Handling ..............................................................................................................................12-3 In and Around Machines .....................................................................................................12-4 Sampling .............................................................................................................................12-5 Disposal ..............................................................................................................................12-6 13 CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT ........................................................................................13-1 Procedures and Guidelines .................................................................................................13-1 Oil Sampling and Analysis...................................................................................................13-1 Work Closeout.....................................................................................................................13-2 Culture Change ...................................................................................................................13-2 Customer Satisfaction .........................................................................................................13-3 Adopting Continuous Improvement Behaviors ....................................................................13-3 Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA)..............................................................................13-3 The FMEA Process ........................................................................................................13-4 The LUBE FMEA ............................................................................................................13-7 Lubrication Functions and Failure Mechanisms ................................................................13-10 The Concept of Continuous Improvement.........................................................................13-13 14 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................14-1

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A PROCEDURE FOR INSTALLATION OF LUBRICATION OIL SAMPLING VALVE FITTINGS FOR PLANT EQUIPMENT...................................................................................... A-1 B TEST SLATES ...................................................................................................................... B-1 C TRICO MANUFACTURING CORP. TECHNICAL REFERENCE FOR TRICO OILERS...... C-1

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LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1-1 Lube Oil Audit Spider Chart......................................................................................1-3 Figure 1-2 Action Item Matrix.....................................................................................................1-5 Figure 1-3 Microsoft Project Schedule Implementation Plan ..................................................1-6 Figure 2-1 Suppliers Recommendations...................................................................................2-2 Figure 2-2 Typical Lubricant Table ............................................................................................2-5 Figure 2-3 Lubricant Identification..............................................................................................2-6 Figure 2-4 Screen from Access Database .................................................................................2-7 Figure 2-5 Screen from Access Database .................................................................................2-7 Figure 2-6 Screen from Access Database .................................................................................2-8 Figure 2-7 Typical Generic Lubrication Specification...............................................................2-10 Figure 2-8 Typical Generic Lubrication Specification...............................................................2-11 Figure 2-9 Source of Contamination ........................................................................................2-13 Figure 2-10 Appropriate Storage Area.....................................................................................2-13 Figure 2-11 Leaking Container ................................................................................................2-14 Figure 2-12 Establish Quarantine Area....................................................................................2-15 Figure 2-13 Drum Re-Closure Tap and Caps ..........................................................................2-16 Figure 3-1 Potential Contamination from Outdoor Storage........................................................3-1 Figure 3-2 Correct Progression of Usage ..................................................................................3-2 Figure 3-3 Storage of Parts in a Clean Room .........................................................................3-3 Figure 3-4 Drum Resealing Tool................................................................................................3-4 Figure 3-5 Central Dedicated Storage Reservoirs .....................................................................3-5 Figure 3-6 Storage Locker .........................................................................................................3-6 Figure 3-7 Transfer Containers..................................................................................................3-7 Figure 3-8 Drum Stacker..........................................................................................................3-10 Figure 3-9 Filter Cart................................................................................................................3-11 Figure 3-10 Gravity Feed Lube Station....................................................................................3-13 Figure 3-11 Seavan Container.................................................................................................3-14 Figure 4-1 Drain Line Sample Points .........................................................................................4-3 Figure 4-2 Vertical Drain Line with Sample Trap .......................................................................4-4 Figure 4-3 Pressurized Feed Line Options ................................................................................4-5 Figure 4-4 High-Pressure Line with Mini-Mess Valve ................................................................4-6 Figure 4-5 Pressurized Hydraulic System..................................................................................4-7

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Figure 4-6 Wet Sump Sampling Options ...................................................................................4-8 Figure 4-7 Two-Way Valve for Sight-Glass Sampling................................................................4-9 Figure 4-8 Sampling with Portable Off-Line Cart .......................................................................4-9 Figure 4-9 Circulating System Wet Sump.............................................................................4-11 Figure 5-1 Machine with Checkpoints........................................................................................5-1 Figure 5-2 High-Efficiency Filter Breather..................................................................................5-3 Figure 5-3 ISO Standard............................................................................................................5-5 Figure 5-4 Flash Point Indicator...............................................................................................5-10 Figure 5-5 Foaming in Turbine Reservoir ................................................................................5-12 Figure 5-6 Continuous Filtration Machine ................................................................................5-16 Figure 5-7 Filter Operation Checkpoints ..................................................................................5-16 Figure 5-8 Turbine Oil Purifier..................................................................................................5-17 Figure 5-9 Determining Beta Rating ........................................................................................5-19 Figure 5-10 Filtered Machine Fill .............................................................................................5-21 Figure 5-11 Reducing Air Problems in Oil Reservoirs .............................................................5-24 Figure 5-12 Electrostatic Precipitation .....................................................................................5-26 Figure 5-13 Filter Cartridge......................................................................................................5-27 Figure 5-14 Transfer Containers..............................................................................................5-28 Figure 5-15 Labyrinth Seal.......................................................................................................5-29 Figure 5-16 Missing Screws on Sight-Glass ............................................................................5-30 Figure 5-17 Open Hatch ..........................................................................................................5-30 Figure 5-18 Modifications to Hatch ..........................................................................................5-31 Figure 5-19 Turbine Reservoir Hatch.......................................................................................5-31 Figure 5-20 Filter Breather.......................................................................................................5-33 Figure 5-21 Desiccated Filter Breather ....................................................................................5-33 Figure 5-22 Expansion Chambers ...........................................................................................5-34 Figure 6-1 Example of Skill-Based Matrix..................................................................................6-2 Figure 6-2 Skills Evaluation .......................................................................................................6-6 Figure 6-3 Required Certification for Job Functions ..................................................................6-6 Figure 7-1 Ferrous Wear Monitors.............................................................................................7-8 Figure 7-2 Elemental Analysis Methods ....................................................................................7-9 Figure 7-3 Common Wear Modes............................................................................................7-10 Figure 7-4 Device Used to Measure Kinematic Viscosity ........................................................7-12 Figure 7-5 Device Used to Measure Absolute Viscosity ..........................................................7-13 Figure 7-6 Titration...................................................................................................................7-14 Figure 7-7 RULER Device .......................................................................................................7-15 Figure 7-8 Karl Fischer Titrator ................................................................................................7-17 Figure 7-9 FTIR Analyzer.........................................................................................................7-17 Figure 7-10 Entek Mini-Lab......................................................................................................7-18

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Figure 7-11 Computational Systems Inc. (CSI) Mini-Lab.........................................................7-19 Figure 7-12 Approach to Oil Analysis Program........................................................................7-22 Figure 7-13 Sample Frequency Generator ..............................................................................7-24 Figure 7-14 Bathtub Curve Probability of Equipment Failure .............................................7-25 Figure 8-1 Portable Filtration Rig ...............................................................................................8-2 Figure 8-2 Labeling of Oil Disposal Container ...........................................................................8-3 Figure 8-3 Drip-Type and Bottle-Type Oilers .............................................................................8-3 Figure 8-4 Unshielded/Unsealed Bearing ..................................................................................8-5 Figure 8-5 Bulls-Eye Level Indicator without Placard................................................................8-6 Figure 8-6 Sight-Glass with Information Placard .......................................................................8-6 Figure 8-7 Lever-Style Grease Gun...........................................................................................8-9 Figure 8-8 Air-Powered Grease Gun .........................................................................................8-9 Figure 8-9 Grease Guns with Clear Tubes ..............................................................................8-10 Figure 8-10 Vent Plugs and Relief Fittings ..............................................................................8-11 Figure 8-11 Cleaned Grease Gun Nozzle................................................................................8-12 Figure 8-12 Ultrasonic Condition-Based Greasing Devices.....................................................8-15 Figure 11-1 Cleanliness Goals KPI Display .............................................................................11-3 Figure 12-1 Portable Berms.....................................................................................................12-2 Figure 12-2 Area Lubricant Notification Sign ...........................................................................12-2 Figure 12-3 MSDS Properly Located .......................................................................................12-3 Figure 12-4 Spill-Response Kit ................................................................................................12-4 Figure 12-5 Incorrect Lubricant Disposal .................................................................................12-6 Figure 12-6 Clearly Marked Receptacle ..................................................................................12-7 Figure 13-1 FMEA Process......................................................................................................13-4 Figure 13-2 Lube FMEA System Impact Assessment Worksheet ...........................................13-9

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LIST OF TABLESTable 1-1 Sampling Techniques ................................................................................................1-4 Table 4-1 Power Plant Equipment/Lubrication Systems ..........................................................4-12 Table 5-1 Lubricant Test/Contaminations ..................................................................................5-2 Table 7-1 Lubricant Property Tests..........................................................................................7-11 Table 7-2 Tests Used to Monitor Contaminants ......................................................................7-16 Table 7-3 List of Some Mini-Lab and Equipment Suppliers .....................................................7-20 Table 7-4 Test Slates...............................................................................................................7-27 Table 9-1 Total Life Extension ...................................................................................................9-5 Table 13-1 Severity Rating ......................................................................................................13-6 Table 13-2 Failure Occurrence Frequency Assessment..........................................................13-6 Table 13-3 Warning Period Rating...........................................................................................13-7 Table 13-4 Lubrication Functions Table.................................................................................13-10 Table 13-5 Lubrication Failure Mechanisms ..........................................................................13-11

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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

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EPRI realizes that most utilities have implemented lubrication controls and analysis programs to varying degrees; however, industry data indicate that a great deal more can be done. Although recent experience has shown that applying the technologies associated with lubrication management in power plants can provide significant benefits, many plants struggle to define and implement a quality lubrication program. To this end, EPRI has been tasked to define and develop the guidelines for such a program. EPRI has also been tasked to develop a lube oil predictive maintenance (PdM), handling, and quality assurance guideline to support plants that are implementing such a program. To meet these challenges, the EPRI Monitoring and Diagnostics (M&D) Center teamed with lubrication industry experts, such as Noria Corporation, to develop a comprehensive lubrication program that would address both technical and programmatic aspects required for implementation.

Program DevelopmentProgram development first focused on identifying key elements, or areas that should be included in a comprehensive lubrication program. Each element was then carefully reviewed by the EPRI team to identify required activities or practices that should exist within that element. A literature search was performed to identify the current best practices associated with each element. Previous industry experiences were considered as the key elements were selected. Following is the list of lubrication program key elements that were identified: Standards, consolidation, and procurement Storage and handling Sampling techniques Contamination control Training, skill standards, and certification Lubricant analysis Lubrication/relubrication practices Program management Procedures and guidelines Program goals and metrics Safety practices Continuous improvement 1-1

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To validate each key element and capture additional industry best practices, EPRI proposed a Tailored Collaborative (TC) project to perform lubrication program audits at member utility sites. Several members have participated in this effort and others are in the process of scheduling the audits.

Audit ProcessOn-Site Audit The TC audit process begins with a two-day site visit by the EPRI team to evaluate the plants existing lubrication program. Plant observations are made and personnel interviews are conducted to evaluate and assess existing lube oil practices. Each key element or area is assessed. In practice, the observations are conducted in a manner that mimics the path of a lubricant as it travels through the facility. Typically, the auditors begin in the storeroom receiving area, to observe the manner in which lubricant shipments are received and initially stored. Interviews with storeroom personnel help to provide an overall picture of the plants current practices. The oil path is then tracked to its central storage location, plant distribution centers, transfer containers, the machines themselves, and finally, to disposal. Sampling points, the sampling process, and the analysis process are also addressed as part of the audit process. Throughout this cycle, key personnel are surveyed, including those who handle the lubricants or take actions to impact lubricant quality (through storage, transfer, and sampling), and those who are involved with lubricant analysis. Typically, these personnel would include: Purchasing agents Storeroom receiving personnel Storeroom issuing personnel Supervisors responsible for central or satellite lubricant storage Individuals involved in transporting lubricants to and from storage locations Machine operators and others involved in topping off lubricants at machines Maintenance personnel involved in filling reservoirs during maintenance Maintenance personnel or operators responsible for filter monitoring and changing Lubricant sampling technicians Oil analysis technicians Oil analysis/lubrication program owner Predictive maintenance program championperformance level Predictive maintenance program championmanagement level (who sponsors the program)

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Typically, each interview takes about 1530 minutes, depending on the interviewees level of involvement in the program. It is requested that a site contact, preferably the Lube Oil Program Owner, be present and participate in the audit process. An exit interview is conducted with the management team prior to the EPRI teams departure. The audit process evaluates the lubrication program by reviewing the existing activities within each key element. Each element of the lubrication program is rated on a one-to-ten scale. The purpose is to generate a graphic representation of the status of the existing program. A score of 7 or 8 is very good. A score of 4 or less indicates that real improvement is needed. A score of 10 is considered a top decile world-class performer, whose standards require the support and efforts of an engaged management and craft team. However, an 8 or above is referred to as being World Class. The results are graphically depicted in a radar or Spider Chart as shown in Figure 1-1.

Figure 1-1 Lube Oil Audit Spider Chart

Audit Report The next step of the audit process is the development and presentation of a comprehensive audit report containing key audit findings and focused recommendations for improvement. An executive summary is provided with immediate impact and the prioritized next steps that should be taken. Each finding is addressed including focused recommendations and, where applicable, best practice information links. A typical report input of sampling techniques is shown in Table 1-1.

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EPRI Licensed Material Introduction and Overview Table 1-1 Sampling Techniques Equipment/Area/Item General oil sampling Finding Very few locations for obtaining representative online samples were seen. An overall assessment of the sampling program should be performed. No appropriate sampling location currently provided. Recommendation Review the examples given of proper sampling point locations and perform an evaluation of all analyzed equipment to determine proper sampling technique and location. Install oil sampling fitting at the location indicated by red arrow by installing into existing thread with a short busing, referencing the oil sampling procedure. Note/Image Reference Sampling Port Location General Discussion.doc

Vertical motors 480V/4kV

Sampling Procedure Probe-On Vacuum.doc

Implementation PlanIn most cases, best practices are included as part of each recommendation for improvement. An Implementation Plan is then developed that includes action items, areas of responsibility, and an overall program implementation schedule. Implementation Plan Development After the report has been reviewed, a detailed Implementation Plan is developed using an Action Item Matrix as shown in Figure 1-2. The Action Item Matrix captures each action item and responsibility assigned to ensure that each recommendation is properly addressed. As shown in Figure 1-3, the overall Implementation Plan is developed to track the progress of the action items.

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Figure 1-2 Action Item Matrix

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Figure 1-3 Microsoft Project Schedule Implementation Plan

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Technical Assistance and Follow-Up Audit As part of the audit process, technical assistance is provided to help implement the audit recommendations. A follow-up effectiveness audit is also conducted and a report is produced to evaluate the progress of the lubrication program.

Lube Oil PdM, Handling, and Quality Assurance Guideline ReportThe experiences gained through the development of this lubrication program, and the information and best practices obtained through the continuing lubrication audits, have been captured in this Lube Oil Predictive Maintenance, Handling, and Quality Assurance Guideline. Lubrication audits are still being performed and additional best practices will be captured for inclusion in an addendum to this guideline. It is also the future intent to capture the process of performing self-audits and to identify true industry standards for rating each key element based on actual industry data. Each of the following sections of this guideline is based on a key element of the lubrication program. Each section discusses specific areas within that element that should be addressed when implementing or improving a comprehensive lubrication management and analysis program. Best practices have also been provided where applicable.

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STANDARDS, CONSOLIDATION, AND PROCUREMENT

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The first step in the cycle of using lubricants is the specification, purchase, and receipt of new lubricants. The basis of effective lubrication is the right product, in the right location, at the right time, in the right condition, in the right amount. Using the right product starts with its specification and purchase. Often, this function happens independent of those individuals who might be considered as the lubrication experts for the site. As a result, sometimes the sole criterion for the purchase of lubricants becomes cost. Lubricants that are purchased based solely on cost, without consideration given to the technical requirements, the quality implications, or the effects of interchangeability of lubricants, can have a significant adverse effect on the lubrication program. At any given time, the currently stocked lubricants for a facility typically include the products originally specified when the plant or machinery was designed, plus any number of additional products that have been added over time. This population of products may or may not be an efficient allocation of the proper type and number of different lubricants in use. Making the process even more difficult is the fact that many equipment manuals, which are provided as a guideline to installation and maintenance of that equipment, are rather vague in their description of lubrication requirements. For example, it is not uncommon to find an equipment manual that will specify something such as use a good grade of mineral oil 300 SSU. Another possible recommendation could be from a manufacturer to use the specially named product that they supply with their equipment or an equivalent. That named product might be merely a repackaging of an existing manufactured lubricant, which is then resold at a greater price to the customer. Although manufacturers are required by law to supply their customers under warranty with either alternate lubricants that they can use or a free supply of their own solely specified lubricant, many times the information given about alternate acceptable products is minimal and leaves much to be desired. Plants that have an efficient system of procuring lubricants typically have performed a lubrication consolidation in the recent past. The consolidation process is most effective when implemented with strict configuration controls in place. These controls are typically in the form of guiding procedures that limit how new lubricant types can be specified and that provide for a periodic review of lubricants in use. The approval process for new lubricants is linked to a set of existing generic specifications that have been created to address all of the equipment lubrication needs for the site. A receipt inspection program has also been implemented that provides for the quality assurance of delivered lubricants, whether packaged or in bulk. Nuclear power plants have also identified all equipment whose lubricants must be purchased Q-class, and have taken steps to ensure that non-Q supplies of the same product cannot mistakenly be used in those applications.

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ConsolidationOptimizing the Use of Lubricant ProductsTo understand the need for consolidation present in most facilities, it is important to realize just how lubricants become specified for machinery. In most cases, plants are built around an optimal design for production of the desired product. This can mean that a given facility can have a wide range of components from many different suppliers and equipment manufacturers. Manufacturers supply information about lubrication requirements with their equipment, but the specificity of those recommendations can vary greatly. Although some equipment manuals may include detailed instructions for specifying and selecting a suitable lubricant, others may be extremely brief and vague. Statements such as, use a good grade of 30 weight mineral oil, may be the sole direction in choosing the lubricant. It is with this varied and uncoordinated set of guidelines that design and construction engineers select lubricants for plant equipment and stock quantities of the needed types in the facility. Even when efforts are made during this phase to minimize the number of products, changes to the plant over time can lead to additional lubricants being used in new or upgraded equipment. When performance problems are experienced with equipment, it is not uncommon for personnel to arrive at a conclusion that the current lubricant was the cause of failure and to specify a new product to be used in that application. Over time, these changes can lead to a growth in the number of products inventoried and used in plant equipment. Figure 2-1 shows the types of lubricants recommended by various suppliers and the variations that depend on plant-specific requirements.

Figure 2-1 Suppliers Recommendations

Business competitiveness and lean manufacturing techniques have, in recent years, led to the scrutiny of many of the costs of operating a facility. Not least among these are costs associated with maintaining an inventory of equipment, parts, and supplies for production machinery. This has inevitably led to the assessment of lubricant types and brands in a facility storeroom and a general acknowledgement of the need to reduce. But unlike discrete parts, which are assigned to 2-2

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specific equipment applications and can be addressed through a review of consumption frequencies and just-in-time scheduling techniques, lubricants are more like a commodity. The uses and requirements are not as clearly defined and it takes more care to ensure that, when changing any of the products used in lubricating equipment, the proper product is specified for the equipment type, application, and environment. From this starting point, significant gains can be made through a careful evaluation of the products available and the equipment needs. Even a general review of existing inventories can reveal potential savings merely through the identification of redundant products from different manufacturers. The chart in Figure 2-1 illustrates how a given plant may identify the distribution of lubricant types among a number of different suppliers when first glancing at an existing inventory. When a varied number of suppliers exist, there is probably the potential for making initial gains in consolidation, solely through the evaluation of product data sheets for the lubricants currently in use. A carefully planned approach to lubricant consolidation can translate into big benefits. The keys to success are identifying all lubricants in use, using equipment lubricant requirements to create generic specifications, and adopting an environment of continuous improvement through the use of a current and updateable database. A multi-phase approach can allow a facility to realize real benefits after a minimal investment and allow sufficient support to be generated to sustain the effort. As the program grows, multiple facilities within a given company can be brought together to share data and leverage lubricant buying power. Using existing database resources of commercial lubricant properties, equipment lubrication requirements, and lubricant equivalency tables will result in the lowest cost optimized lubrication program. Determining the Consolidation Approach When taking a first cut at consolidating lubricants, many companies find that the most economical way to proceed is to use the incentive of increased lubricant sales to entice a lubricant supplier to provide the service for reduced cost, or possibly at no cost. Many suppliers, especially the larger companies, use this as a marketing tool to increase their sales. Larger endusers are offered free lubrication engineering service and this opportunity typically results in a consolidation of the existing slate of suppliers to a very few. Optimally, all existing products are cross-referenced to the assisting suppliers products. Some will go beyond the simple crossreference and actually tour the facility to look at equipment to help make the determination. This type of consolidation can be very effective, especially for companies with a large existing inventory of lubricants from a large variety of suppliers. Additionally, the out-of-pocket costs can be close to zero, which is always well received by managers trying to get as much as they can out of their budget. Real costs, however, are higher and include the time invested by plant personnel to interface with the supplier lubrication engineer, the cost of replacing the existing lubricants with the new suppliers products, and the costs associated with revising procedures, labels, and other documentation to indicate the new products. Another positive is that most suppliers offering this service generally furnish lubrication engineers with considerable experience and knowledge, which sometimes exceeds the expertise level of plant personnel. As some have said, its like getting a lubrication expert for free. 2-3

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However, with even the most reputable suppliers, there are trade-offs for this free service. For one, it is intrinsic in the fact that these companies are in the business of selling oil, that there may not be an incentive for them to help the plant reduce lubricant consumption. Indeed, the potential to sell more product is the very incentive that has them offering the service. Although the total number of suppliers will invariably be reduced, there is some question whether the total number of different products will be reduced. Again, there is little to drive the supplier to reduce the number of different products. Another byproduct of using a supplier to perform the consolidation is the removal of product price reduction pressure in the absence of competition. Once a company has cleared out its storeroom, brought in the new product, changed out their machines, revised procedures and changed labels; it would be difficult to justify doing it all over again to respond to a different supplier who may offer similar products at a lower cost. The suppliers knowledge of this may remove some of their incentive to keep product costs competitive. In spite of the concerns listed here, lubricant supplier-provided consolidation services can still be a useful and viable option for companies to consider when approaching a lubricant consolidation project. A general rule of thumb may be that, if less than 50% of the total number of products is provided by any one supplier, then a lubricant consolidation proposal provided by a potential supplier can be a valuable first step in optimizing a facilitys lubrication. A party that holds no interest in the sale of products to the company generally provides an independent evaluation to the organization. This service appears to be more costly because the company now pays the full cost of the engineering service directly to the provider, instead of indirectly through the cost of the lubricants it purchases. There is an obvious and direct impact on the companys budget and this can serve as a barrier to selecting this path. The exception to this is when plant staff or corporate personnel provide the service. In that case, the costs can be quite high but are hidden because the salaries of those individuals are being paid whether they are working on lubrication or some other function. In an independent optimization, however, the entire approach to lubricant consolidation is changed. Instead of focusing on the existing products in use and finding equivalents, the focus is on optimizing the lubricant inventory based on equipment design, production, and environmental needs. This method is a three-phase process to identify redundant products, define equipment requirements, and develop lubrication specifications. Phase IBrand Consolidation Somewhat like the efforts undertaken by lubricant suppliers performing consolidation, the first step of independent optimization is an inspection of existing lubricants and a comparison of product design and application. Although some of this consolidation can be done by inspection based on personal knowledge of the products, the majority of the work is accomplished by obtaining the technical data sheets for all of the products on the list. This is not as easy as it sounds. Some manufacturers openly share the physical/chemical property and performance data for their products, but others closely guard this information.

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Many suppliers include these data on their web sites or graciously fax or email the data sheets upon request. Others may present more of a problem. As a customer, it is usually possible to get this information from the manufacturer without too many problems. There are some suppliers, however, who may refuse to release this information. It is necessary at that point to determine if the product is sufficiently unique or of such superior performance to warrant its continued use, because it will be impossible to include it in the consolidation effort. Figure 2-2 shows a typical table used to compile a list of currently used lubricants, including identification of each product by application and type. Designations include Extreme Pressure (EP) Gear Oil, Turbine Oil, R&O Oil, Worm Gear Oil, and Anti-Wear (AW) Grease. Within the greases, thickener type is also used to identify the product, because some applications require specific thickener types. Once this has been done, products are grouped together by type to indicate where there may be redundant product types from different manufacturers. The total number of groupings is the total number of different lubricant types currently in use. Many times this first step, although requiring minimal work, can identify significant opportunity for elimination of redundant products. As much as 40% of a given plants inventory may be eliminated in this manner.

Figure 2-2 Typical Lubricant Table

A table similar to that shown in Figure 2-3 can be developed to identify the functional properties of the lubricants and the overlaps. Once the lubricants have been grouped together, the decision to reduce certain products can be based on operating experience with the products, ease of storage or purchase, or, most likely, unit cost. Once the surviving product is identified in each group, the others can be phased out by not restocking the redundant products. It is important to confirm compatibility between manufacturers within a group. If an incompatibility exists, processes must be put in place to ensure that one product is not topped off with another when the product being replaced runs out. In that case, a reservoir flush must preceed the changeover.

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Figure 2-3 Lubricant Identification

Phase IITechnical Consolidation Although the brand consolidation can be very effective, it doesnt ensure that the products being used presently are right for the job. Somewhere along the line, an improper product may have been specified or equipment may have been modified without addressing the changed requirements of the lubricant. To ensure that lubrication is optimized (that is, that all equipment has the proper type and amount of lubricant specified), it is necessary to go further. The next step of the process expands the investigation to the equipment and component level. By reviewing the population of lubricated equipment in the facility and identifying the make and model, vendor specifications can be obtained. It is important to remember that lubrication is a fundamental design property and the machine designer makes certain assumptions and design decisions based on the lubricant to be used. It is, therefore, important to begin any technical evaluation by looking at the recommendations made by the equipment designer, captured in the vendor manual for the equipment. Assembling the list of all lubricated equipment in the facility is the first step. This is often accomplished by using existing databases, such as the Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), the lubrication route, or a predictive maintenance database. Using a versatile program like Access or Excel allows flexibility in the design and output of the database. Figures 2-4, 2-5, and 2-6 show typical screens from a database developed in Access. After converting the raw data to the database format, fields are established for equipment ID, reservoir ID (for multiple sump equipment), manufacturer, model number, and current lubricant. For equipment that is assembled from separate manufacturers components (such as a Roots blower driven by a Siemens motor) and provided with separate vendor manuals, it is necessary to treat them as separate database entries.

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Figure 2-4 Screen from Access Database

Figure 2-5 Screen from Access Database

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Figure 2-6 Screen from Access Database

The next step usually takes place in the plant library or at another location where most of the vendor manuals can be found. Not all facilities have done a good job at cataloging equipment vendor manuals, so some extra work is usually required in researching the manufacturers to obtain the lubrication design data. When using outside service providers, there may be some advantages at this stage because they may already have a catalog of equipment lubrication design data from previous consolidation efforts. Other fields in the database are used to identify the key physical/chemical properties and performance characteristics. Figure 2-3 showed how the lubricants can be characterized by these properties. A similar table is used to identify the equipment requirements. A project can be brought to completion in this step by using these tables to find the overlap between available products and equipment requirements. The most significant gains are made, however, when proceeding to the final step and creating the blueprint for lubricant optimization: generic specifications. Phase IIIGeneric Specifications Once the lubrication requirements have been determined for the facility, that information can be reduced to generic purchase specifications. This optimized configuration can be used to meet the lubrication requirements for the facility, and then these specifications can be taken to the potential lubricant suppliers to obtain the benefits of leveraged purchasing power. This allows the plant to obtain the best deal on those products whose characteristics and performance meet or exceed the minimum standards outlined in the specifications. This also provides for the flexibility of using multiple suppliers or changing a particular supplier from time to time as product prices, quality, or availability vary. Of course, to ensure the compatibility of products from different suppliers, care must be taken when changing suppliers and products. A list of lubricant application types can be developed for the facility using the tables or databases that have been constructed for equipment lubricant requirements, operating conditions, and 2-8

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environmental conditions. Examples include EP Gear Oil, Turbine Oil, Anti-Wear Hydraulic Oil, Worm Gear Oil, and Hi-Temp Grease. Within each of these application types, the viscosity grades necessary to address machine requirements can be identified. The process generally proceeds by choosing some obvious category classifications within the population of identified required product types, and then by creating generic specifications for those types. Plant equipment is identified in the database as belonging to a generic specification. As generic specifications are assigned to the database, those machines are filtered out of the population requiring specifications. Before creating new specifications, the existing set of specifications is reviewed to see if any of them meet the requirements of the next machine. In those cases where the difference in requirements is minor, consideration is given to expanding an existing specification to include this next piece of equipment, or possibly going to a multi-purpose lubricant or taking advantage of the properties of some superior performance product types (such as synthetics). The goal is to determine the minimum number of unique lube application types that will address all equipment needs within the plant. The specification must be sufficiently generic to be able to receive competitive bids for products that will meet the specification. In efforts to minimize the number of application types, care must be taken to avoid overlooking any critical performance characteristics of the lubricants. There is such a thing as over-consolidation, where too much focus is placed on limiting the number of different products being stocked, at the expense of lubricant performance. It must be stressed that just a few or perhaps one lubricant-induced equipment failure can wipe out all of the potential monetary savings of a consolidation project. Wherever possible, the specification reference must recognize standards such as those of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) when developing the chemical/physical and performance characteristics. A simple and standard format presents both the acceptable testing result limits, and a discussion of general application usage and lubricant properties. Figures 2-7 and 2-8, located on the following pages, show the front and back of a typical generic lube specification. The generic specification consists of two pages of information that can be printed back-to-back to have a single sheet. This is intended to serve as a reference document, which a purchasing agent can use to properly solicit bids for required products based on the facilitys consumption of that type of lubricant. The first page consists of a product description, a description of the applications for this product, and an overview of the specifications. The specification description includes packaging and labeling requirements, cleanliness considerations, and equipment- and environment-specific considerations. The second page of the specification is a tabular compilation of the physical/chemical and performance characteristic requirements. Values are given for the required range of viscosity grades for oils, base oil viscosity, NLGI grade, and thickener type (for greases).

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Figure 2-7 Typical Generic Lubrication Specification

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Figure 2-8 Typical Generic Lubrication Specification

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Using a Database for Continuous Improvement In the same way that the addition of new equipment or changes to the facility were originally described as one of the needs for consolidation, the work is still not considered complete just because the consolidation is finished. Procedures and processes must be in place to control and update the inventory of lubricants and their assigned equipment to take changes into account. The most efficient way to accomplish this is to produce a database that will serve as a living document of lubricant inventory and application. The construction of the database is not a large amount of additional work because all of the information needed was compiled during the brand and technical consolidations. The database can serve as an ultimate reference source for equipment lubricant requirements, and can be integrated with an electronic lubrication manual to provide a single source of equipment-specific lubricant information for the facility. The previously illustrated Figure 2-4 shows a typical start screen for a database (such as the one described) that could be developed for a multi-plant company. By making the database accessible to the company intranet, further efficiencies could be developed in the use of lubricants at different sites. This start screen provides selections for each of the individual plants, thus allowing users to narrow the information search to their facility. Reports can also be generated that query from the larger database and allow information to be extracted from across the sites. Once a site has been selected, options can include editing and recording data (as seen in Figure 2-5). To minimize the occurrence of data corruption, the add/edit function can be limited to only authorized personnel. Various reports can be generated, or customized queries can be made based on the information desired by the user. The data entry mode screens, such as that seen in Figure 2-6, allow the user to enter new records or modify existing records to reflect changes. These changes could include the addition of new equipment, a replacement part from a different component that requires a different lubricant, or feedback from Proactive Maintenance (PAM) investigations that result in design changes to the equipment lubrication. Once this resource, used to track the development of the optimized lubrication configuration for the facility, has been created, a functional database exists and can be used as a living program to incorporate feedback from operational and maintenance experiences and the changes in lubrication management that it prompts. It is also possible to scale up and apply corporate-wide what has been done on a facility level. The single greatest pitfall to the successful implementation of a lubrication consolidation is a lack of configuration control after the original project is complete. Adopting the living program, through the creation and maintenance of a database and the development of policies and procedures that define responsibilities for program improvement, will enable an environment of continued lubrication excellence.

Quality Assurance and Receipt InspectionProcedures should be in place that provide for the immediate acceptance of delivered drums, totes, and containers, and their movement to a designated storage location for processing. Without such controls in place, there is a risk that containers are left exposed to contaminants for some period of time before being processed (Figure 2-9). Oil drums exposed to the elements are subject to temperature extremes, direct sun, and rain that will compromise lubricant quality.

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Figure 2-9 Source of Contamination

A designated room or enclosed structure is needed to store lubricants. The room or structure must be climate controlled, have limited access, and have appropriate fire suppression and spill response equipment. They should be stored neatly to minimize confusion and the possibility of taking the wrong product. The acceptance storage area should be clean, dry, and provided with necessary fire-protection measures (Figure 2-10).

Figure 2-10 Appropriate Storage Area

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A documented procedure is necessary for receiving and inspecting new lubricant deliveries, including acceptance criteria. This should include an agreement with local lubricant distributors regarding their role in optimizing lubricant storage and handling practices. Their responsibilities should include the occasional reconditioning of containers. All lube containers should be date-stamped with the following information: date of blending, date of receipt by the plant, and date opened and put into service. The date-opened information recorded on the drum will allow the proper shelf life limitations to be applied. Packaging materials should protect the oil from handling and shipping hazards, including ingression of contaminants, moisture, and debris. Packaging material should be inert to the product oil and conform to all applicable shipping rules and regulations. Packages should be plainly marked with the manufacturers name, oil brand name, product code, lot number, type of material, volume content, and any other information required by law. The condition of the containers should be checked, including any damage, signs of neglect, signs of outdoor storage (faded labels, etc.), or any leaks. Any container leaks will also be subject to contaminant ingression and will compromise the lubricant supply quality. Leaking containers (Figure 2-11) should be immediately returned to the supplier.

Figure 2-11 Leaking Container

Testing Sampling and analysis of newly delivered containers and bulk shipments should be part of a commodity quality assurance program. In particular, the cleanliness of delivered lubricants varies greatly and can contribute significantly to the level of contaminants that end up in lubricated equipment. By testing lubricants on a batch basis at the time of delivery, the integrity of the lubricant supply can be improved.

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Sampling methods employed should be consistent with sampling best practices as detailed in Section 4 (Sampling Techniques). Sampling lubricants in new containers or from bulk shipments can be challenging but it is important that the samples obtained are representative of the entire container. Batch testing for items that are purchased in lots is a cost-effective way of minimizing the amount of samples required. A testing slate should be developed that reflects the key characteristics of the lubricant and the likely contaminants that should be screened. Greases should be tested for their specific key properties as well, including consistency and dropping point. In some cases, supplier-provided documentation can take the place of required receipt testing, provided that the suppliers manufacturing and testing programs have been audited to ensure that sufficient Quality Assurance (QA) programs are in place. Examples of this include the acceptance of supplier lubricant testing data for those manufacturers that have undergone Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC) audits for the nuclear power industry. Quarantine When certain lubricants have been identified as requiring acceptance testing prior to deployment to the plant, there should be an established quarantine area for holding those containers until the testing can be completed. Access to this area should be limited to prevent the inadvertent use of lubricants that have not been cleared for use (Figure 2-12).

Figure 2-12 Establish Quarantine Area

An additional step that should be taken following the sampling for acceptance testing is the positive re-closure of the container. Some lubrication audits have shown that drums that have been opened for the purpose of sampling and analysis have subsequently had their quality compromised by their opened bungs. By resealing drum bungs and ensuring positive re-closing 2-15

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of other containers, the results of such acceptance testing will be truly representative of the condition of the lubricant in that container. Figure 2-13 shows a drum re-closer tool and caps. These caps can even be customized to indicate that a drum has been sampled and is awaiting testing, or has been sampled and approved for use. Self-gasketing cap seals crimp over drum plugs. Once crimped in place, they indicate unauthorized entry into the drum because the cap seal must be destroyed to be removed.

Figure 2-13 Drum Re-Closure Tap and Caps

Q-Class Lubricants for Nuclear Power In the late 1980s, Mobil Oil instituted a program to produce a product line of lubricants that could be purchased as Safety-Class with the necessary provided documentation. The increased cost of these lubricants caused many plants to adopt a strategy of performing commercial-grade dedication of off-the-shelf lubricants that met the design criteria for their safety-class lubricated components. This was deemed to be an acceptable practice, and soon Mobil discontinued the production of the MobilRad products. It is important for nuclear power plants to commit to providing Q purchase-class lubricants through a commercial-grade dedication process wherever necessary in their facility. Commercial-grade dedication packages must exist for these products, and a clear plan should be in place to prevent a non-Q lubricant from being used in a Q application. Most facilities have accomplished this by commercially dedicating all stocks of a given product that have at least one Q-class application on-site. Others maintain both Q and non-Q stocks of a given product but assign separate stock codes for use in the different machines. This is a riskier approach and must be accompanied by strict adherence to procedures, which ensures that lubricant technicians are obtaining lubricants for Q equipment directly from a clearly labeled, dedicated Q-class product.

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STORAGE AND HANDLING

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The bulk storage and dispensing of lubricants, and the topping off and filling of machine reservoirs, are areas fraught with opportunities for mixing of lubricants and lubricant contamination. Great care and consideration must be given in assigning areas for the storage of lubricants, and to the containers that are used to transfer lubricants to machine reservoirs. As an example, even though the drums (shown in Figure 3-1) have been properly blocked, the longterm outdoor storage has rusted the containers and likely compromised the quality of the lubricant.

Figure 3-1 Potential Contamination from Outdoor Storage

Generally speaking, there will be an assigned storage area for all new drums, totes, pails, canisters, tubes, and other units of purchased lubricants that will typically be found in a storeroom area. When assessing the storeroom storage areas for lubricants, it is necessary to look at a couple of things. First, have storeroom personnel established shelf lives for the lubricants and, secondly, do they practice FIFO (First In First Out) rotation of lubricants? The manner in which the lubricants are stored may or may not be conducive to FIFO inventory rotation. One good practice, which ensures the FIFO process, is to have an area where incoming lubricants are issued in and stored, and another area or the other side where outgoing lubricants are issued. This creates a natural FIFO progression of optimum usage as illustrated in Figure 3-2. The lubricants should always be stored indoors, segregated from other chemicals and storage materials, and in a lay down area that is kept clean and free of debris, dust, and dirt. 3-1

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Figure 3-2 Correct Progression of Usage

Because lubricants are combustible, this area should also be provided with appropriate fire safety equipment, such as a sprinkler system and easily accessible fire extinguishers of the right type for fighting a liquid petroleum fire. The possibility of puncturing containers during handling, and the resulting leakage, makes it a good practice to have spill clean-up materials in the area where lubricants are stored and, where possible, an erected berm to prevent a loss of spilled materials into surrounding storm grates and other unacceptable areas. Drums and pails should not be stacked on top of each other because of the likelihood of floor dirt from the bottom of one container being transferred to the top, or pouring surface, of the other container. Also, the likelihood of damage to the containers is greater when they are stacked. All containers in such a storage area should be clearly labeled with the product name, lot number, shelf life expiration date, and any chemical control handling information that is necessary. Like lubricants should be grouped and these areas should be labeled to minimize the possibility of the incorrect product being issued from the storeroom. Under the topic of storage and handling is also the treatment of bearings, seals, and gears. Although they are not lubricants themselves, the ultimate reliability of the lubricated machinery is dependent upon the cleanliness practices throughout machine life, including storage of its constituent parts as shown in Figure 3-3. Dirty or damaged bearings, seals, and gears will still contribute to premature failure even when all other lubrication practices are sound. Therefore, bearings, bearing housing seals, pump seals, and gearboxes must be carefully stored to avoid unnecessary and unacceptable contamination while in the storeroom. Machines that are stored for long periods of time must be stored with the reservoirs filled, and they should be periodically rotated to fully coat the parts, thus providing corrosion protection. Rotating element beari