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LIGHT, IMAGES, AND LEARNING LIGHT, IMAGES, AND LEARNING  1 LIGHT AND VISION When reflected light enters the eye, a visual sensation occurs along with

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  • LIGHT, IMAGES, AND LEARNING1 LIGHT AND VISION When reflected light enters the eye, a visual sensation occurs along with an emotion however intense, and is stored in the brain for a while. The intensity of recall of that image might depend upon the severity of the emotion that helped store the image.

    One may recall an image in the mind by a trigger mechanism. For instance, were I to mention the words, space shuttle, what image occurs . . . tragedy, a place where your were maybe?

    If I were to mention the phrase, spring break, would that recall a happy or sad image in your mind?

  • If I were to mention the word, mother, is there any of you that could not vividly conjure up a vision of your mother in your mind. But you have had immense devices to store that memory in your brain such that you can immediately recall it any time.

    But if I were to mention the Greek letter, pi, what would come up? You did learn that in high school math, didnt you? But how important was it at the time? Maybe you can think a bit and come up with 3.14. But how many can come up with 3.14159? And how many of you can recall the definition of Pi ?


    a) Sensory memory - storage of an image by sight, sound, touch, smell, or taste. If conscious observation, with emotion, is sufficient to store the sensation, it will remain until recalled, otherwise it will be discarded.

    b) Short Term When there is sufficient reason to store a memory, such as looking up a telephone number and remembering long enough to dial. If the number is of someone really important, maybe the visual sensation of the persons face or voice will easily recall the number. Otherwise, its gone.

  • c) Long Term Memory An image so vividly stored that one can recall it anytime. But one of this type usually requires the help of two or three, perhaps four of the senses. Memorize a poem: sight the written words on the page. Is that enough? Maybe. But to recite aloud the words, along with the emotion conjured by rhythm brings in sound, perhaps even touch. Could Rap exist without rhythm?

    Play a tune on a piano: sight reading music, touch the contact with piano notes, sound the music is heard.

  • Some experiences of long term memory are vividly stored because intense emotion is involved, plus, other sensory images as well. Perhaps you remember well the events that took place on September 11, 2001 an infamous phrase we simply call 911. Shock was present a form of fear, perhaps hate for the ones responsible, perhaps love for those who died, a form of grief. And you saw pictures of people jumping out of windows. Had you been present maybe sound and odor would have added to the images.

  • You probably dont have any trouble remembering where you were and what you were doing that day, do you?

    I remember exactly where I was and what I was doing when the first space shuttle exploded, shortly after take-off.

    Then later when I visited Washington D.C. I remember seeing the plot at Arlington National Cemetery where the honorary graves of the victims were placed. I could walk directly to it without asking directions all because of memory stored by an intense emotion.

  • The process of learning is a process of storing long-term memory. You can still ride a bicycle, and you still know how to swim. Because these events involved not only one or more of the senses, but emotion as well.

    Dribble a basketball without looking. Sure you can do it because you have multiple sensations of touch and sound, plus the emotion of desire and the force of competition. But then stuff your ears with cotton. Would it be as simple?

    Learning systems and processes is like that. Involve two or more senses in the process, plus an emotion and it can be a slam dunk.

  • But remember, there is no such thing as transcendental meditation that will allow you to learn while you sleep. The only thing you will get sleeping with your text book under your pillow is a headache.

    Also remember that you wont store any of the memory about the stuff in the book if you dont read it.

    . . . Just as there is not an infinite amount of time between midnight and 9:00 AM, particularly before a test or a project is due.


  • Chapter 1Making Buildings

  • The Building Process From Idea to BeginningGENERALLY, THE OWNER:Develops the idea / realizes a need Then Selects Design Professional (Architect)

    THEN THE ARCHITECT, WITH THE OWNER:Develop Building ConceptFeasibility StudyAssemble Design & Engineering Team

  • The Building Process - From Idea to Decisions THEN THE ARCHITECT Develop Contract DocumentsBuilding Codes Compliance ReviewContractor Selection (perhaps with the owner)Subcontractors and Suppliers Selection (generally done by the Contractor)Begin Construction Compliance Inspections (done by the architect to ascertain quality control)

  • Selection Considerations for Building MaterialsA Major Part of the Design Decision ProcessSuitabilityAvailabilityCostAppearancePreferenceBuilding Constraints

  • Building Design Constraints Physical LimitationsAvailable LandConsideration for future expansionSoil Bearing CapacityStructural Span LimitationsBuilding Material PerformanceBudgetLegal Restrictions such as zoning and ordinance compliance

  • Who Has Primary Responsibility for Building Material Selection?DEPENDS on Contractual Arrangements - - - often

    Designer/Architect, with input from theOwner for Appearance and / or Performance & theContractor for Cost, Availability, & Constructability

  • Who is Primarily Responsible for Construction Methods?AIA 201; The contractor shall be solely responsible for and have control over means, methods, techniques, sequences and procedures and for coordinating all portions of the Work under the contract (unless instructed otherwise by special conditions)

    AIA 201 is a standard publication of the American Institute of Architects; an instruction called General Conditions.

  • Zoning and OrdinancesImposed by Local AuthoritiesGovern: Property Use, Types of Activities Size, Setbacks, Appearance Access, Parking, Utilities Construction ActivitiesAvailable @ Planning Dept. / InspectorBuilding permit enforces compliance

  • Building CodesPurpose

    establish minimum construction standards for the protection of life, health, and welfare of the public.

    Primary focus is to protect against fire

    Building codes are laws that instruct WHAT or WHAT NOT must be done without telling HOW it is to be accomplished.

  • Building CodesModel Codes (standardized codes) International Building Code (IBC)First published in 2000Earlier Model CodesUniform Building Code (UBC)BOCA Building Code (BOCA)Standard Building Code (SBC)

    All DefineUSE Groups Occupancy TypeConstruction TypeEstablish Minimum Building Standards

  • Fire Wall

  • Code Adoption, Revision, and InterpretationBuilding Code selection, adoption, and revision is left entirely to the entity, which may be a city, county, or state. Interpretation is left to the Building Official, except that each code requires a Building Board of Appeals to rule if conflicts arise.

    Revision of standard codes is examined critically by insurance companies, because they have an interest in the process of assuring health safety and welfare of building occupants.

  • Code ComplianceThe Architect is Responsible to Ensure that Contract Documents Conform to Code Requirements.

    The Architect is the author of the Contract Documents.

    Contractors have the responsibility to comply with all code requirements that govern the performance of their work.

  • Phases of the design and construction processWhere an Owner hires an ArchitectTo represent his interests.

    The Owner then contracts with a builder Who performs the constructionAnd agrees that the ArchitectRepresents the Owner in theAdministration of the Contract betweenThe Owner and the Builder

  • 1 The Architectural Design PhaseThe OWNER hires the ARCHITECT to represent him in all areas of expertise, including design and construction and compliance with all applicable laws.

    The OWNER provides a PROGRAM of information to the ARCHITECT, which indicates the needs of the OWNER.

    The ARCHITECT prepares drawings and depictions that describe how he answers the needs of the OWNER, as well as to display creativity as an artist to provide a unique, functional, aesthetically pleasing, and architecturally (and sometimes expandable) correct design.

  • 2 The Contract Document PhaseThe ARCHTECT prepares drawings and specifications that describe the materials and assembly for EVERY phase of the work.

    The ARCHITECT prepares a Construction Manual that will describe the duties and responsibilities of the Architect, the Owner, and the Contractor during the construction phase.

    The ARCHITECT prepares a Contract that will describe the duties and responsibilities of the OWNER and CONTRACTOR in the construction phase, particularly describing cost, payments, time, and acceptance of work.

  • 3 The Contractor Selection PhaseCompetitive Bidding: The architect provides copies of documents and invites interested contractors to submit a bid, describing costs and time of construction.

    Selection by Negotiation: The Owner names a contractor in whom he has confidence and bargains (with the help of the architect) until a settlement is reached regarding cost, time, and compliance with documents, agreeable to both parties.

  • 4 The Con