Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

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  • This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted materialis quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonableefforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannotassume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.

    Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronicor mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage orretrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

    The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, forcreating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLCfor such copying.

    Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431.

    Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and areused only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

    2001 by CRC Press LLCLewis Publishers is an imprint of CRC Press LLC

    No claim to original U.S. Government worksInternational Standard Book Number 1-56670-543-6

    Library of Congress Card Number 00-044356Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

    Printed on acid-free paper

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataPankratz, Tom M.

    Environmental engineering dictionary and directory / Thomas M. Pankratz. p. cm.

    ISBN 1-56670-543-6 (alk. paper) 1. Environmental engineering--Dictionaries. 2. Brand name products--Dictionaries. 3.

    Trademarks--Dictionaries. 4. Environmental engineering--Directories. I. Title.

    TD9 .P36 2000628--dc21 00-044356

  • Preface

    This book has been written to help professionals, students, and lay people identifythe increasing number of terms in the fields of environmental engineering andscience.

    More than 8000 terms, acronyms, and abbreviations applying to wastewater,potable water, industrial water treatment, seawater desalination, air pollution, incin-eration, and hazardous waste remediation have been defined.

    The most unique feature of this book is the inclusion of more than 3000 trade-marks and brand names. Many of these commercial terms for proprietary productsor processes are so common or descriptive that they have fallen into general use.This confusion is compounded by the fact that many terms contain similar prefixes(e.g., bio-, enviro-, hydra-, hydro-, etc.) and it is often difficult to tell them apart.

    This book originates from Screening Equipment Handbook, first published in1988, whose glossary contains a list of screening-related trademarks and brandnames along with their company affiliation. Even though that list was relativelyshort, a surprisingly large number of companies had come and gone or changed theirnames through mergers or acquisitions. This led to an expanded directory entitled,The Dictionary of Water and Wastewater Treatment Trademarks and Brand Names,published in 1991, and which contained 1200 commercial terms.

    The Concise Dictionary of Environmental Engineering followed in 1996. Inaddition to the 2200 commercial terms, it was further expanded to include 3000generic environmental engineering terms. Shortly after it was published, the envi-ronmental equipment manufacturing industry began a consolidation led by USFilter,Waterlink, Baker Hughes, ITT, F.B. Leopold, and others that has resulted in changesto 43% of the terms included in the 1996 edition.

    During the research for this book, many other books, magazines, dictionaries,glossaries, buyers guides, catalogs, brochures, and technical papers were reviewedto locate new terms and their definitions. Although there are too many referencesto list, I would like to acknowledge the help of these publications and their authors.

    In addition to technically reviewing this book, John B. Tonner was especiallyhelpful with his suggestions, advice, research assistance, and computer wizardry.Regardless of when I would call, John was always available to help. His Web site also proved to be a valuable research tool.

    I would like to acknowledge the libraries that were used in my research. Theyinclude the M.D. Anderson Library at the University of Houston, the Helen HallLibrary in League City, Texas, the Houston Public Library Central Branch, and thelibrary at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Mining in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    I also recognize USFilter and Alfa-Laval for their support.Im grateful for the assistance of the many friends and colleagues who suggested

    new terms and challenged old ones, helped with definitions, provided encouragement,

  • or assisted in the books production. Some of these people include Robert W. Brown,Gordon Carter, Bill Copa, Chad Dannemann, Jim Force, Jack Gardiner, DuaneGermenis, Stacie Jones, John Meidl, Mack Moore, Chad Pankratz, Bill Perpich,Barb Petroff, Jim Symons, Mark Wilson, and Joe Zuback.

    Like the first edition, published in 1996, much of my work on this book tookplace while traveling; the rest was done in the evenings and weekends. I would neverhave been able to finish without the continued patience and support of my wife,Julie, and our children, Chad, Sarah, Mike, and Katie.

    This book is dedicated to my wife, Julie Lynn Pankratz, and our grandson,Gabriel R. Suarez, who was born the same day this book was completed.

    Tom Pankratz

  • Introduction

    This dictionary contains terms used in the fields of environmental engineering andenvironmental science, and the definitions provided relate to their use in an envi-ronmental context only.

    The commercial terms represent company brand names or trademarks, and havebeen italicized to differentiate them from the technical terms in general usage.Whenever appropriate, the use of or has been included following the name ofthe entry, although terms may be registered trademarks even though they do notinclude either symbol. It is also possible that some of the entries listed as trademarksmay not be registered or properly used by the manufacturers listed in connectionwith them.

    Brand names and trademarks often evolve and take different forms. Variationsin the use of capitalization, hyphens, or symbols often occur over time. The repre-sentation of the words included in this book reflects the latest version seen in useand are assumed to be the preferred form.

    Commercial acronyms are included if they are registered trademarks or com-monly used abbreviations of company names. Nonregistered product model numbersand trademarks that are the same as the name of a company are not always included.Many definitions were extrapolated from stories, advertisements, or product bro-chures and were not directly corroborated by the company listed as being responsiblefor the term.

    The company name included in the definition of a commercial term usuallyrepresents the company that manufactures that particular product or process. In somecases, the listed company may only market, distribute, or license the product.

    In several instances, the same brand name has been listed more than once todescribe different products or processes from different companies. The author isunaware of any dispute involving these cases and is simply reporting that thecompanies identified have used the term for the product described. In some cases,the term may be dormant, obsolete, or no longer available from the company listed.

    Company addresses, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses listed in the Manu-facturers Directory were confirmed over a period of several years. Some contactinformation may have changed, especially with the recent telephone area codechanges in many parts of the U.S. Readers are cautioned that an incorrect phonenumber, address, or e-mail address does not mean that a company is no longer inbusiness.

    There are a few cases where a company whose name is listed in a definition isnot included in the Manufacturers Directory. If current contact information for acompany could not be located, the out-of-date information was not included.

    Terms have been arranged alphabetically using current word processing software.

  • In general, terms related to plumbing, household products, computer programs,or software have not been included.

    All of the terms have been listed in good faith. A reasonable attempt has beenmade to confirm all definitions and, in the case of commercial terms, verify thecompanies responsible for the listings. The author apologizes for any omissions orerrors.

    If you are aware of any changes or additions that should be included in subse-quent editions, please send them to Tom Pankratz, P.O. Box 75064, Houston, TexasUSA, 77234-5064.

  • Foreword

    The areas of environmental engineering and sciences and their related businessactivities have grown to the point that they overlap the professional and private livesof almost everyone. As environmental issues become more complicated, so does thevocabulary required to understand and discuss them. This Environmental Engineer-ing Dictionary and Directory defines many terms that did not even exist a decade ago.

    My own field of water reclamation and reuse is an example of a relatively newarea of environmental engineering that has fostered the introduction of many newterms and technologies.

    When considering advanced treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters,a repeated thesis has been that such a high quality effluent should be put to beneficialuse rather than simply wasted. Today, techni