Let's Talk LTE

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    Mohamed Hassan

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    LTE Introduction

    LTE Mission

    LTE Technologies (What is new)

    LTE Advanced

    Main Aim

    Technologies (What is new)

    LTE Vs. HSPA

    Technical Comparison

    LTE NW Drivers for Operators

    Spectrum Story (War) in UK

    Current Spectrum view

    Ofcom Auction

    Design Considerations.

    Operational Considerations

    Agenda

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    Reduced delays.

    Increased user data rates.

    Increased cell-edge bit-rate. Reduced cost per bit.

    Reasonable power consumption for themobile terminal

    Greater flexibility of spectrum usage, inboth new and pre-existing bands;

    Simplified network architecture;

    seamless mobility, including betweendifferent radio-access technologies;

    LTERequirementsWas set 2005

    LTE Mission

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    LTE Technologies

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    Different spectrum bandwidths canbe utilized from 1.4MHZ to 20MHZ

    Fractional frequency re-use andinterference coordination betweencells are facilitated

    SC-FDMA has a significantly lowerPAPR (Peak to Average PowerRatio), So can be used withHandsets.

    LTE Technologies (OFDMA and SC-FDMA)

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    LTE Technologies (Multiple Antenna)Diversity gain. Array gain.

    (Beamforming) Spatial multiplexinggain. (MIMO)

    Use of the space-diversity

    provided by the multiple

    antennas to improve the

    robustness of thetransmission against

    multipath fading.

    Concentration of energy in

    one or more given

    directions via precoding or

    beam forming. This alsoallows multiple users

    located in different

    directions to be served

    simultaneously (so-called

    multi-user MIMO).

    Transmission of multiple

    signal streams to a single

    user on multiple spatial

    layers created bycombinations of the

    available antennas.

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    LTE has been designed as a completely packet-orientedmultiservice system

    Use of the lessons learnt in HSDPA, Coupling the two lowerlayers for faster adaptation to radio environment changes

    To Improve system latency the packet duration was furtherreduced from the 2 ms used in HSDPA down to just 1 ms

    Adaptation of the MIMO configuration including the selectionof the number of spatial layers transmitted simultaneously,

    LTE Technologies (Packet-Switched Radio

    Interface)

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    The LTE system has been designed to support a compact set of fivecategories of UE

    LTE technologies (User Equipment's

    capability)

    UE Category

    1 2 3 4 5

    Maximum Downlink Data (Mbps) 10 50 100 150 300

    Maximum Uplink data rate (Mbps) 5 25 50 50 75

    Number if receive antennas required 2 2 2 2 4

    Number of downlink MIMO streams Supported 1 2 2 2 4

    Support of 64QAM modulation in downlink yes yes yes yes yes

    Support of 64QAM modulation in uplink no no no no yes

    Relative memory requirements for physical layer

    processing (normalised to category 1 level)1 4.9 4.9 7.3 14.6

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    LTE Network Architecture

    E-UTRAN EPC

    Radio resource

    Management Header Compression Security over air Connectivity to EPC

    PCRF:- Policy Control Function

    HSS:- User Subscription (Similar to HLR)P-GW:- Control IP allocation, Charging, QoSenforcementS-GW:-IP User Plane, Mobility Anchor, Inter-Systemmobility Anchor nodeMME:- Mobility Management Signalling

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    HSPA Vs. LTE

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    LTE VS HSPA

    Category LTE HSPA Winner Comment

    E2E RTT (Round TripTime

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    LTE Network Drivers

    HSPA is quickly reaching capacity limits. More Sites are needed to provide Capacity . But with Limited Spectrum there

    isnt much operator can doCapacity

    LTE 800 and 1800 Bands provide better coverage option for operatorsCoverage LTE use flat architecture ,, which requires

    HSPA+ network does already exist , supporting higher capabilities mayrequire SW investment in Network upgrades.

    Cost HSPA+ devices are slow penetrating the market , which erode any efficiency

    introduced

    LTE is better scalable technology , Devices mix can still achieve higherefficiency

    Devices LTE Technology is scalable, and very flexible with BWs(1.4.3.5.10.15.20)

    compared to 5MHZ WCDMA

    LTE Technology can be used with 15 different Bands (Very Flexible)Future

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    Verdict is

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    Band Usage Vodafone Three O2 EE

    900

    2G 12.4MHZ - 12.4MHZ -

    UMTS 5MHZ - 5MHZ -

    LTE - - - -

    1800

    2G 5.8MHZ 5.8MHZ 45+15MHZ

    UMTS - - - -

    LTE - - - -

    2100 UMTS 14.6(3*5MHZ) 14.6(3*5MHZ) 10(2*5MHZ) 20(4*5MHZ)

    800 (2X30 MHz) LTE Digital dividend (AWAITING AUCTIONS)

    2600 (2x95MHz) LTE (AWAITING AUCTIONS)

    Current Spectrum Story

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    LTE Coverage best Scenario

    Operator options

    Macro 800 Mhz800 Mhz

    Micro

    1800/2600Band 1800/2600

    Band

    Femto2600Band

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    Spectrum Wars#1

    800 Spectrum

    Best to provide LTEcoverage,

    not enough for all of theoperators to provide decent

    capacity.

    Three and EE claim that VFand O2 have already Sub1GHz spectrum , so trying tolimit what VF and O2 can getin next auction.

    Ofcom will impose 95%

    coverage on one of thelicenses on this band

    Not all 800 band is

    1800 Spectrum

    Second best spectrum toprovide coverage, 1800 LTEcoverage is better than 2600one by 3dB (better coverage )

    EE dominance in 1800 Bandallow them to re farm 20MHZof the 1800 band for LTEservice, GSM NW can runwith nearly 25MHZ ofspectrum

    EE has to sell 15MHz of its1800 Band , because of themerger decisoin

    2600 Spectrum

    Worst to provide Coverage ,with typical cell range of400m

    Costly Solution to providecoverage.

    There enough for all operator Suitable for small cell(Femto ,Micros, Picos..),capacity solution

    There 2 *95 Spectrum ,enough to slice betweenOperators

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    Ofcom imposed Caps as:-

    An overall spectrum cap of 2 x 105 MHz (Mainly to Limit EE)

    A sub-1GHz spectrum cap of 2 x 27.5 MHz (Mainly to Limit VF , and O2 )

    Minimum holding for 4thnational competitor (i.e Three)

    Spectrum Auction#1

    Vodafone EE O2 Three

    Current Total Spectrum 2*37.2 2*65+2*15 2*32.2 15

    Current Sub 1GHZ Holding 17.5MHZ 0 17MHZ 0

    Maxium Spectrum can be won 2*80 2*40MHZ

    Maximum Sub 1GHZ can be won 2*10MHZ 2*27MHZ 2*10MHZ 2*27.5

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    Ofcom is inclined to guarantee 4thNational wholesaler one of the followinggroup

    Obviously Options 5/6 is the best option for this vendor (i.e. 3) which canallow for the sharing with EE and continue MBNL story

    option 4 is second best, if 3 want to build its LTE own network

    Spectrum Auction #2

    Portfolio 800 MHz 1800 MHz 2.6 GHz

    3 2 x 15 MHz

    4 2x 10 MHz 2 x 10 MHz

    5 2 x 10 MHz 2x 15 MHz

    6 2x 15 MHz 2 x 10 MHz

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    Scenario Band Vodafone EE O2 Three Comment

    Scenario 1 800 5MHZ 10MHZ 5MHZ 10MHZ Assuming group 5

    for 3 UK

    900 5MHZ - 5MHZ - O2 and VF can

    deploy second U900

    then convert to LTE

    when devices are

    ready

    1800 5MHZ 20MHZ 5MHZ 15MHZ Assuming group 5

    for 3 UK

    2600 25 20 25 25 Assuming EE will be

    capped.

    LTE Possible Scenarios in UK

    Other Scenarios can exist depending on final decision on reservation for the 4thwholesaler

    Hard to believe the no operator will get a slice in the 800 Band , but it can happen (money

    talks)

    Parts of the 800 Band is interfering with TV services, 3% of houses will need filters , left for the

    winning wholesaler to deal with.

    Vodafone and O2 will have to bring their 900 into LTE game, even if in phases , i.e. 2ndcarrier

    HSPA 900 then migrate that to LTE

    1800 Band will suit 3 more, in its Joint venture with EE or any other operator in UK.

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    Scenario Band Vodafone EE O2 Three Comment

    Scenario 2 800 10MHZ - 10MHZ 10MHZ Assuming VF deeppocket and O2, and

    EE no real need for

    800

    900 5MHZ - 5MHZ - O2 and VF can

    deploy second U900

    then convert to LTEwhen devices are

    ready

    1800 5MHZ 20MHZ 5MHZ 15MHZ Assuming group 5

    for 3 UK

    2600 25 20 25 25 Assuming EE will be

    capped.

    LTE Possible Scenarios in UK

    This Scenario suit more VF and O2 , as they provide capacity and coverage using the 800MHZ

    band

    EE may prefer this option to save initial high cost Spectrum cost.

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    LTE Release10 is set to provide higher bitrates in acost efficient way .

    Increased peak data rate, DL 3 Gbps, UL 1.5 Gbps

    Higher spectral