Lecture 24 Digestive and Endocrine Systems - .ADH – Anti diuretic hormone called vasopressin Vasopressin

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Text of Lecture 24 Digestive and Endocrine Systems - .ADH – Anti diuretic hormone called...

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DigestiveSystem Digestivetract:muscularpathwayforfoodandfoodwastethatrunsthroughthebodyfromthemouthtotheanus

Krogh, 2011

DigestiveSystem 4layersofthedigestivetracttube

Krogh, 2011

DigestiveSystemStep1

TheMouth Chewing Digestiveenzymesreleasedbysalivaryglands

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DigestiveSystemStep2

ThePharynx PharynxlinksmouthandEsophagus Epiglottisblocksairpassage(trachea)whenswallowing

TheEsophagusMuscularcontractions(Peristalsis)pushfooddownandintostomach

DigestiveSystemStep3

TheStomach Digestsfoodbychurningtobreakdownmechanicially

Chemicalscausebreakdown Storesfood Foldscalledrugaeandcanexpand

pHinstomachislow/acidWhy?

Pyloricsphincterregulateschymemovementtosmallintestine

DigestiveSystemStep4

TheSmallIntestine80%ofnutrientsabsorbedinSIRecivessecretionsfrom

Pancreas Liver GallBladder

DigestiveSystemStep4

TheSmallIntestine80%ofnutrientsabsorbedinSIRecivessecretionsfrom

Pancreas Liver GallBladder

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Duodenumisabout10incheslongRecivessecre7onsandChyme

Jejunumis8feetlongMostdiges7onandabsorb7on

Ileumis12feetlongSomenutrientabsorp7on

DigestiveSystemStep4cont.

TheLiverNutrientsfromdigestivesystemcomeherethengettransferredtobody

ToxinspulledoutofbodyBloodstorageProducesBile

DigestiveSystemStep4cont.

TheGallbladderStoresandconcentratesbileproducedbyLiverBilehelpsdigestfatsinSmallIntestine

Gallstonesarehardenedbile

DigestiveSystemStep4cont.

ThePancreasSecretesdigestiveenzymesandbuffers(toraisepH)intoDuodenum

Carbohydrases Lipases Proteases

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DigestiveSystemStep5

TheLargeIntestineCecum(andappendixwhichispartofimmunesystem)

Colon reabsorbswaterandvitaminsfromwaste

Rectum Fecesstorage Endsatanus

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Humannutrition Nutrientsdo1orsomeofthefollowing:

1)Provideenergy 2)Providebuildingblocksneededbybody 3)Regulatebodysphysicalprocesses

6ClassesofnutrientsWaterMineralsVitamins CarbohydratesProtiens Lipids

Humannutrition-Minerals

ChemicalElementsneededbybodyHelpformstructuresorfacilitatechemicalreactions

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Humannutrition-Vitamins

ChemicalCompoundsneededbybodyHelpfacilitatechemicalreactions

Coenzymes!Rememberthis**

Krogh, 2011

Humannutrition-Vitamins

ChemicalCompoundsneededbybodyHelpfacilitatechemicalreactions

Humannutrition-Other

ProtiensEssentialaminoacids9(cannotbeprocessedbyhumanbodyandmustbeingested)

CarbohydratesStartchesdigestablecomplexcarbs(comefrom?)*Fibersnon-digestablecomplexcarbs(comefrom?)*

LipidsOilsliquidatroomtemperatureFatssolidatroomtempterature

UrinarySystem

Kidneys Ureter Bladder Urethra

Krogh, 2011

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UrinarySystem

Kidneysstructure

UrinarySystem

UrinarySystem

GlomerulusFiltersoutparticlesfromblood

ProximaltubuleWaterandnutrientsabsorbedintoblood

UrinarySystem

LoopofHenleWaterabsorbedintoblood

CollectingductWaterabsorbedintobloodviacollectingductthatdrainstobladder,concentratingurine

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UrinarySystem

DistaltubuleWaterabsorbedintobloodToxins,ionsandacidsfrombloodmoveintotubetobeexcreted

UrinarySystem

WaterretentioncontrolledbyhormoneADHAntidiuretichormonecalledvasopressinVasopressintellskidneystoabsorbmorewaterintoblood

CaffeineandalcoholsuppressADHandthuslotsofwaterinurineanddehydrationofbody

UrinarySystem

Bladderisastoragecompartmentforurine Drainsintourethra

Krogh, 2011

EndocrineSystem

Hormonessubstancessecretedbyonesetofcellsthattravelthroughthebloodstreamandaffecttheactivitiesofothercellsinthebody

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Hypothalamus Glands

Thyroid+ParathyroidPinealPituitaryAdrenal

OvariesorTestes Pancreas

EndocrineSystem EndocrineSystem

3hormonetypesAminoacidbasedhormones

Derivedfrommodieicationofasingleaminoacid AdrenalinemodieiedtyrosineMelatoninmodieiedtryptophan

Peptidehormones Largestclassofhormonesmadeofchainsofaminoacids

HumanGrowthHormone Insulin Vassopressin

EndocrineSystem

HowAminoacidandpeptidehormoneswork Donotgointocell Bindtoreceptorproteinsonmembraneandcauseachangeintheinsideofacell

EndocrineSystem

3hormonetypesAminoacidbasedhormonesPeptidehormonesSteroidhormones

Constructedoutofcholesterolandaregenerallyreproductive

Estrogen Testosterone

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EndocrineSystem

Howsteroidhormoneswork Gointocell Bindtoreceptorproteinsincytoplasmandaretakeninsidenucleus

CauseDNAtobetranscribedtocreateproteinsorproduct

EndocrineSystem-Hypotalamus

Responsibleformaintaininghomeostasis Connectedtopituitarygland(partofEndocrinesystem)

EndocrineSystemPituitaryGland

Responsibleformaintaininghomeostasis Connectedtopituitarygland(partofEndocrinesystem)

PosteriorPituitaryGland

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AnteriorPituitaryGland EndocrineandUrinarySystemworkingtogether Whydoesbeermakeyoupee?

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