LEARNER CENTERED APPROACH
BELIEFS ABOUT LEARNING Students learn in different ways
BELIEFS ABOUT LEARNINGLearning is an active dynamic process
BELIEFS ABOUT LEARNING Students respond well when they are involved
BELIEFS ABOUT LEARNING Ss learn with guidance, not prescriptions
BELIEFS ABOUT LEARNING Knowledge is internal;Ss build it
OLD TRADITIONAL APPROACH: Most class time is spent with the teacher lecturing and the students watching and listening.
Students work individually on assignments, and cooperation is discouraged. Activities have no meaningful purpose.
WE CAN GET THIS RESULT:
Or maybe this one!
Learner-centered methods shift the focus of activities from the teacher to the learners.
Active learning solve problemsformulate questions of their own answer questionsdiscusS debatebrainstormexplain create
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF A STUDENT CENTERED CLASS
Ss are active doers:
Teachers are organizers:
Ss own 80% of the lessonLittle time on TTT (20% of the lesson)
A Checklist we should meet in order to achieve a SCL:When thinking about activities and tasks to include in our LPs
A Checklist for meeting a SCL: The activity or task must contain
PredictionSelf-discoveryLesson involvementKnowledge applicationVaried Ss interaction patterns
WE CAN achieve this checklist through different kinds of activities:GAMES/SONGS WITH LEARNING VALUETASKSACTIVITIES WITH VARIED INTERACTION PATTERNS
All of the tasks and activities that teachers prepare must facilitate a positive and effective learning environment.
KEEP IN MIND
Studentscan work in small groups, at school / homehave access to more materialsare directly involved in what they studytake ownership of their learningare more motivated and committedTeachersact as facilitators / guideshelp ss to work out learning strategiesdevelop ss research ability
Benefits of SCL
A good teacher is one who makes himself progressively unnecessary. ~Thomas Carruthers
*Active Engagementis Learner Centered Teaching
Adapted from Guthrie et al. 2000*Model of Instructional Contexts for Reading/Content EngagementActive EngagementSocial InteractionMotivationConceptual KnowledgeCognitive StrategiesLearning and KnowledgeGoalsFormative AssessmentCollaborationSupportDirectInstructionTeacher Involvement
*ScaffoldingDefinition:Temporary devices and procedures used by teachers to support students as they learn strategies.
*Scaffolding LearningGradual Release of Responsibility ModelThis graphic is based on work by Pearson and Gallagher (1983). In a later study, Fielding and Pearson (1994) identified four components of instruction that follow the path of the gradual release of responsibility model: Teacher ModelingGuided PracticeIndependent Practice Application.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Teacher ResponsibilityStudent Responsibility
*Tips for Effective ScaffoldingAnticipate student errorsConduct teacher guided practiceProvide feedbackRecognize when it is appropriate to fade scaffolds
*Types of ScaffoldingPrompts: specific devices that can be employed for learning an overall cognitive strategy-something that students can refer to for assistance while working on the larger task. (graphic organizers, cue cards, checklists)
Think Alouds: teachers direct modeling of the strategy, including self-talk, that enables students to begin experiencing the strategy as a authentic set of behaviors/actions that can be learned to used to their advantage.
A. Archer*Processing Strategy: Tell-Help-CheckTell: Partner 1 turns to partner 2 and recall information without using notes.Help: Partner 2 listens carefully and asks questions and gives hints about missing or incorrect information.Check: Both partners consult notes to confirm accuracy.
What are the CommonFeatures of PBL?Learning is initiated by a problem.Problems are based on complex, real-world situations.All information needed to solve problem is not initially given.Students identify, find, and use appropriate resources.Students work in permanent groups.
PBL: The ProcessStudents are presented with a problem. They organize ideas and previous knowledge. pose questions, defining what they know and do not know.Assign responsibility for questions, discuss resources.Reconvene, explore newly learned information, refine questions.
The Problem-Based Learning CycleOverviewProblem, Project, or AssignmentGroup DiscussionResearchGroup DiscussionPreparation of Group ProductWhole Class DiscussionMini-lecture(Assessment)
Communities of Thinking, Harpaz & Lefstein, Educational Leadership, 2000 (ASCD)Fertile question stageResearch stageConcluding Performance stage
Open Q : that in principle has one definite answer, rather, it has several different and competing possible answers.
Undermining Q: determines the learners basic assumptions casts doubts on the self-evident or commonsensical, uncovers basic conflicts lacking a simple solution, and requires the critical considerations of origins.
Rich Q: necessitates grappling with rich content that is indispensable to understanding humanity and the world around us. It needs careful and lengthy research. Communities of Thinking, Harpaz & Lefstein, Educational Leadership, 2000 (ASCD)
Connected Q: relevant to the learners, the society in which they live, and the discipline and field they are studying
Charged Q: with an ethical dimension, charged with emotional, social, and political implications that potentially motivates inquiry and learning
Practical Q: can be researched in the context of the learners, facilitators, and school facilities and from which research questions may be derived
Communities of Thinking, Harpaz & Lefstein, Educational Leadership, 2000 (ASCD)
Carefully focused questions make all the difference. questions may do little support, answers make it feel productive ( Douglas P. Newton, 2000) select the Right Type of question, each serves a different purpose use the right technique
How can teachers utilize effective questioning? Plan questions in advance- build up to more challenging Focus on a few carefully constructed open ended questions. Ask one question at a time. Consider the need for think time- Avoid the trap of answering your own questions. Vary questioning strategies e.g. For a change make a provocative statement and wait for a response. Ensure all students have the opportunity to respond to questions by catering for the range of learners in the class.
How can teachers encourage effective student questions?
Introduce different questioning strategies Develop student awareness of different types of questions and the type of thinking required Make time for student questions and celebrating them. Providing positive feedback to student questions Clarify students questions
Students are often concerned about how their responses to questions might be perceived by their teacher and their peers. Important for students to learn how to respond to each other appropriately. Establishing trust is essential so students are prepared to take risks and their share ideas freely.
Educational researchers Paul Burden & David Byrd (2010) identify several effective questioning techniques: Craft guiding questions aligned to each learning objectivePhrase questions clearly and explicitly Ask questions logically and sequentially Ask questions that demand responses at different cognitive levelsAdapt questions to students ability levelsFollow up on student responses Encourage students to ask questions of the teacher and one another
The question ishow come the teacher asks all the questionswhen Im the one who needs to know things.The question iswhy Im supposed to have the answersto all my parents questions when they cant answer mine.The question is why scientists ask ten questions for every answer they getBut I have to answer seven out of ten to pass.The question is why politicians learn not to answer questionswhile I have to learn to answer them.
The question is why questions have to be answered fast at school when philosophers take years to answer them.The question is why are there so many little questions in schoolwhen Marie Curie spent her whole life on one big question.The question is why must I find answers to already answered questionswhen I have questions that have not yet been answered.The question is why cant I be in charge of the questions?
Questioning Web SitesFrom Now On www.fno.orgThe Great Question Press: Squeezing Import from Content21st Century Literacies http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/21stcent/sitemap.htmlQuestioning www.questioning.orgQuestioning Strategieshttp://www.css.edu/USERS/ggaetz/Student.pages/Questioning_Strategies_webpage.htmlInquiry Pagehttp://inquiry.uiuc.edu/
REFERENCES:http://ehlt.fliners.edu.au/education/DLiT/2002/environs/scott/stucteac.htmhttp://shambles.net/pages/staff/EAL_ESL/http://www.2vobs.at/methods/communicative _language_teachingEducational Leadership, 2000 ASCD articles
Have Teachers work in pairs and support each of the beliefs regarding ESL with an example*Have Teachers work in pairs and support each of the beliefs regarding ESL with an example*Have Teachers work in pairs and support each of the beliefs regarding ESL with an example*Have Teachers work in pairs and support each of the beliefs regarding ESL with an example*Have Teachers work in pairs and support each of the beliefs regarding ESL with an example****Scaffolding includes providing simplified problems, modeling of procedures, and thinking aloud by the teacher as he/she solves the problem. They may also include tools, or prompts, such as cue cards or checklists.
**Conduct teacher guided practice: vary the context and difficulty of the task within the assignment.Provide feedback: in various means-directly from the teacher, through peer consultations or expert model checklists.Fading scaffolds: or withdraw prompts as students internalize the strategy. Teachers may also have students refer to prompts as needed, reducing the frequency of prompts or direct support.*Teachers guided practice should include use of the prompt itself, as well as guiding students in the use of the overall cognitive strategy.******