Egypt The first recognized police organization occurred in Egypt under the reign of PHAROAH HUR MOHEB around 1340 B.C. A river security force with strong boats was formed to ensure navigational safety on the Nile. They were responsible for Preventing piracy Guarding commerce Searching suspect ships
POLICE Came from the Greek word POLITERIA which referred to that portion of government that had to do with protecting life and property, the preservation of public peace and order, and the prevention and suppression of crime. Power struggles between various city-states and civil unrest plagued early Greece.
Ancient Greece In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves known as ROD- BEARERS were used to guard public meetings, for crowd control and to assist in making arrests. When areas became larger and kingdoms were ruled by kings, they were guarded by a military police force.
Emperor Augustus Caesar Under the reign of Augustus, the capital grew to almost 1 million inhabitants. A special police force was formed with grades of officers who maintained order and security in Rome. Each of the 14 districts, known as WARDS, were protected by seven squads of 1,000 men called VIGILES who acted as firemen and night watchmen. Each had a commanding officer.
The VIGILES were supported by the URBAN COHORTS who acted as a heavy duty anti-riot force. The military police - PRAETORIAN GUARD would be called in to assist when necessary.
Europe American law enforcement concepts originated in medieval England around 900 A.D. In the beginning, local residents policed themselves and justice was a private matter based on revenge and retribution.
FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM During the Norman Conquest in 1066, King William instituted a form of community policing referred to as the FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM. Groups of ten families called a TITHING were sworn to hold other members of their tithing responsible for crime. They would apprehend, detain, bring to court and testify.
SHIRES: England 1202 - 1307 In England 10 tithings (of ten members each) were group together to form groups with 100 members. This large group was called a SHIRE. The top law enforcement official in the group was known as the SHIRE REEVE the forerunner of the American Sheriff. They were organized posses to chase and apprehend criminals.
NIGHT-WATCH SYSTEM In 1285, the Statute of Windsor was passed establishing the NIGHT-WATCH SYSTEM of protection. Under this statute, one man from each parish was selected to serve as CONSTABLE. This man was granted the power to draft citizens as WATCHMEN to guard the city at night.
WATCHMEN The WATCHMEN were on duty from sundown to sunrise and: Enforce curfews. Protected properties against fires. Guarded the gates of the city. Arrested those who broke the law. Since the Watchmen werent paid for their services they were often not found doing their job.
JUSTICE OF THE PEACE In 1326, the Shire Reeve was replaced with the office of the JUSTICE OF THE PEACE. With the help of the Constable, the Justice supervised various law enforcement activities, including investigations, securing criminals for trial and organizing the Night Watch System. This system lasted well into the 1700s.
OVERVIEW In the early European System of law enforcement 1)The citizens were the police 2)Law enforcement organization was local 3)The military was used for crime control
The BOW STREET RUNNERS In 1748, HENRY FIELDING, a London magistrate, founded a group of law enforcement agents to apprehend criminals and recover stolen property from the entertainment district of London known as Bow Street.
This group the BOW STREET RUNNERS were organized and highly effective, and paved the way for a more efficient and professional response to crime and the apprehension of criminals.
The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Around mid to late 1700s the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION brought many more people into the big cities. This population boom: Increased crime in the cities and on the highways leading into the industrialized areas. Caused a need for a more organized approach to law enforcement.
PAID POLICE In 1829, the English Parliament, led by SIR ROBERT PEEL, mandated publically funded police forces throughout England via the LONDON METROPOLITAN POLICE ACT. This act created a 1,000 member uniformed police force whose members became known as BOBBIES or PEELERS due to their founder. They were structured according to military rank to ensure discipline.
Peels 12 Principles 1)Police must be stable, efficient and organized along military lines. 2)The police must be under government control 3)The absence of crime will best prove their efficiency. 4)The distribution of crime news is essential. 5)The deployment of police strength by both time and area is essential.
6) No quality is more indispensable to a policeman than perfect command of temper; a quiet, determined manner has more effect than a violent action. 7) Good appearance commands respect. 8)The securing and training of proper persons is at the root of efficiency. 9) Public security demands that every police officer be given a number.
10) Police headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessible to the people. 11) Policemen should be hired on a probationary basis. 12) Police records are necessary to the correct distribution of police strength.