Laser Safety Instructions - Laser Pointers EN 207 Tab. B1. TOP – Personal safety precautions ... If you drop something, block the laser beam at the laser before picking the object up

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  • Laser Safety Instructions

    April, 15th 2010

    Alexander Podlipensky (MPL)

    Stefan Malzer (IOIP)

    MPL IOIP

  • Hazard of unenclosed laser beam (wavelength range: 1 mm - 100 nm)

    Thermal damage of skin by a CO2 laser

    Damage by photochemical, thermal or opto-mechanical effects. by harmful gases and vapors by flammable materials und explosive gas mixtures (solvents, paper, plastics, ...)

    Why laser safety instructions?

  • Sun: ~2x105 W/m2

    Hazard of the laser radiation

    (1 mW laser causes 100 x sun irradiance)

  • Penetration depth in the eyePhotochemical cataract

    Kindling of the

    cornea Photochemical injury of the cornea

    Burning of the retina

    Thermal injury of the retina Burning of the cornea

    cornea lens retina lensretina

    cornealens

    Damaged structure

  • UV cornea damage

  • Retina damage

  • Cornea thermal damage

  • Thermal damage of skin

  • Penetration depth in skin

  • MPE- maximum permissible exposure (MZB-Werte maximale zulssige Bestrahlung)EN 60825-1, Table 6BGV B2 Tables 6a, 6b, 7 (pp. 57-59)

    Laser categories (EN 60825-1)

  • MPE- maximum permissible exposure (MZB-Werte maximale zulssige Bestrahlung)EN 60825-1, Table 6BGV B2 Tables 6a, 6b, 7 (pp. 57-59)

    Laser categories (EN 60825-1)

    MPE as power density versus exposure time for various wavelengths.

    MPE as energy density versus exposure time for various wavelengths.

  • AELs accessable emission limits(GZS Grenzwerte der zugnglichen Strahlung)

    MPE- maximum permissible exposure (MZB-Werte maximale zulssige Bestrahlung)EN 60825-1, Table 6BGV B2 Tables 6a, 6b, 7 (pp. 57-59)

    Laser categories (EN 60825-1)

    MPE as power density versus exposure time for various wavelengths.

    MPE as energy density versus exposure time for various wavelengths.

    MPE

  • Laser categories (EN 60825-1)Laser Class

    Concept , nm AELs Risk

    1 The radiation emitted by this laser is not dangerous

    all Depends on wavelength (W)

    No need for protection equipment

    1M not harmful for the eye as long as no focusing elements reduce the beam profile.

    302,5-4000

    Depends on wavelength

    No need for protection equipment, if used without optical instruments

    2 Eye safe by aversion responses including the blink reflex (< 0.25 s)

    400 - 700

  • Risk a combination of the likelihood of harm occurring and the severity of the harm that could be caused

    Equipment - poorly designed, difficult to use or operate.

    Potential faults or system failures resulting in additional hazards

    Risk factors in work with lasers (how harm could occur?)

  • Risk a combination of the likelihood of harm occurring and the severity of the harm that could be caused

    Equipment - poorly designed, difficult to use or operate.

    Process - experimental or investigative nature.

    There might be a need to readjust the beam, to rearrange configuration of the equipment introducing additional risks

    Risk factors in work with lasers (how harm could occur?)

  • Risk a combination of the likelihood of harm occurring and the severity of the harm that could be caused

    Location in which the work is being carried out.

    Not adequately enclosed or screened area, vibration and other environmental factors might disturb the safe operation.

    Equipment - poorly designed, difficult to use or operate.

    Process - experimental or investigative nature.

    Risk factors in work with lasers (how harm could occur?)

  • Risk a combination of the likelihood of harm occurring and the severity of the harm that could be caused

    Risk factors in work with lasers (how harm could occur?)

    People might not be fully aware of all the hazards or understand how the risk should be controlled.

    Location in which the work is being carried out.

    Equipment - poorly designed, difficult to use or operate.

    Process - experimental or investigative nature.

  • Decrease of the riskusing T.O.P. principle

  • TOP -principle

    T Technical safety precautions, safety instruments

    O Organization of the safe conditions on the working place

    P Personal safety precautions what everybody has to take into account

  • TOP - Technical safety precautions Enclose the laser and the beam path Keep open beam paths to a minimum

    Use curtains to protect the entrance area in the laser laboratory

    Use the beam damps to block the laser beam- before optics rearrangement- if the laser is not in use

    Enclose your setup from the sides by screens or curtains

    Key switches for the class 3 B and 4. Interlocks and note switches

  • Laser areas have to be clearly labeled.

    Make them as small as possible.

    No visitors!

    Regular cleaning.

    Wear safety goggles!

    Safety of the laser area

    TOP Organization

  • Labeling of the laser area

    TOP Organization

  • 1 - warning lamp2 - curtains protecting the entrance area3 - depot for the laser goggles

    Schematic image of a laser laboratory

    TOP Organization

  • From class 3R, laser safety engineers have to be appointed and lasers have to be notified by the LUK(federal accident insurance carrier).

    Annual laser safety instruction is due

    Regular control of safety instruments and equipment

    TOP Organization

  • Safety precautions in work with class 3B and 4 lasers:

    at least two persons have to operate the laser;

    wear the laser protection glasses;

    dont leave the key in the key switch, if the laser is out of the use to avoid access to the laser for not-authorized personal (every lab must have a key box);

    the laser should not be used out of regular working time and on weekends to avoid accidences caused by overwork.

    TOP Organization

  • TOP Personal safety precautions

    Full protection (EN 207)After the glasses the laser radiation corresponds to the class 1

    Alignment protection (EN 208)After the glasses the laser radiation corresponds to the class 2

    Never look into the beam!!!According the EN207/208 standards the laser safety eye wear is tested for direct 10 s (100 pulses) laser exposure.

    How to choose the laser safety glasses?

  • TOP Personal safety precautionsHow to choose the laser safety glasses?

    MPE values 60825-1, Tab. 6BGV B2, Tab. 6a, 6b, 7

    Laser parametersspectral range, intensity, fluence, repetition rate

    Protection levelOptical density of the filterIncrease of the working distanceProtection boxes and tubes

  • TOP Personal safety precautionsHow to choose the laser safety glasses?

    Full protection (EN 207)

    Reference: EN 207 Tab. B1

  • TOP Personal safety precautionsHow to choose the laser safety glasses?

    Alignment protection (EN 208)

    Reference: EN 208

  • TOP Personal safety precautionsLabeling of the laser safety glasses

    532 D L5 LV DIN CE S

    Wavelength, nm

    Laser typeD cwI pulsedR giant pulsedM modelocked

    Protection level

    Manufacturer

    Indicator for DIN GS program(Geprfte Sichercheit tested safety)

    EC type approval

    Increased mechanical robustness

  • TOP Personal safety precautions

    Adjustment

    block the laser beam before optics rearrangementdecrease the power of the laser or use an additional low power VIS laser source

    use pinholes and beam stops

    Laser Laser

  • safe design of the experimental set upplace the laser beam below the eye level

    design the setup properly to keep the incident and reflected beams in the plane parallel to the table (constant beam hight)

    Avoid propagation of beams in vertical direction!!!

    Enclose your setup

    Control the reflecting and refracting beams and use the beam stops

    TOP Personal safety precautions

  • The 10 golden rules of laser safety

  • Do not look into a laser beam.Don't look down specular reflections (eg: from mirrors or other reflective surfaces). Don't stare at diffuse reflections.If it looks bright-don't stare at it.

  • Keep room lights on brightly if possible.

    The brighter the ambient lighting level,the smaller the eye's pupil will become, and the chance of a laser beamentering the eye will be lessened.

  • Remove personal jewellery.

    Watches, rings etc act as reflectors. When entering a laser lab, remove anything which may pose a reflection hazard. This is to protect you and your co-workers.

  • Locate and terminate all stray laser beams.

    Make sure that all stray beams are terminated with a matt, diffusing beam dump which is capable of handling the power of the laser beam.

  • Clamp all optical components securely.

    Clamp, and where possible double clamp all optical components; this helps prevent your experiment from becoming misaligned and reduces the chances of a component moving and sweeping a laser beam over you.

  • Keep beams horizontal.

    Horizontal beams are easier to work with and are predictable. Avoid vertical and skew beams if possible. Change beam height with a periscope, and be careful when aligning it.

  • Don't bend down below beam height.

    If you drop something, block the laser beam at the laser before picking the object up. If you can't stop the beam (for instance, if you are in the middle of an experimental run), kick the object out of the way so that you don't trip over it. If you must sit down in a lab,make sure that the chair is high enough that your head is above beam height. If, for one reason or an other, you have to bend down, close your eyes when doing so or protect them with your hands.

  • Remember, optical components reflect, transmit and absorb light.

    Often, a transmitting component will also reflect light, a reflecting component will transmit light etc.. This can lead to stray beams. Beware that optical components may change their characteristics when used with high power lasers i.e: neutral density filters can bleach, crack or even explode.

  • Don't forget non-optical hazards.

    Don't trip over, electrocute yourself, spill solvents,burn yourself on liquid nitrogen etc..

  • Wear laser safety eyewear.

    If eyewear is provided, ensure that it is suitable and wear it.

  • And again.

    Keep your working space clean and tidy

    No food and drinks in the lab area!!!

  • In emergency See the doctor

    (ophthalmic clinic, phone 85-33001)

    immediately! Inform your boss and the safety

    officer.

  • Laser safety video

    available at

    optikshare://For All Divisions/lasersafety video divx6

    Guide to laser safety (Laservision)

    BGV B2

    BGI 5092

    Thank you for your attention!

    Laser Safety InstructionsFolie 2Hazard of the laser radiationPenetration depth in the eyeUV cornea damageRetina damageCornea thermal damageThermal damage of skinPenetration depth in skinLaser categories (EN 60825-1)Slide 11Slide 12Slide 13Folie 14Folie 15Folie 16Folie 17Folie 18TOP -principleTOP - Technical safety precautionsTOP OrganizationSlide 22Slide 23Slide 24Slide 25Folie 26Folie 27Folie 28Folie 29Folie 30Folie 31Folie 32Folie 33Folie 34Folie 35Folie 36Folie 37Folie 38Folie 39Folie 40Folie 41Folie 42Folie 43And again.In emergencyLaser safety video

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