Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism (1800-1870)
I. Late Ottoman Empire (1800-1870)Ottomans started losing control of provinces in 1700s
2.Muhammad Ali used French military practices to push Ottomans out of Egypt
3.Egypt opens Suez Canal (1869)
A. Ottoman Reform Ottomans implemented European-style political, economic, & military reforms
Janissaries & ulama (religious elites )opposed reforms- fear of losing economic privileges- ulama opposed secularization- Christian Serbian independence (1805)- Greek independence (1829)
Sultan Selim III executed
B. Tanzimat Reforms (1839)1.Sultan Mahmud II instituted reforms:
- creation of new army corps- elimination of Janissaries- reduction of political power of religious elite
2. 16-yr. old son Abdul Mejid announces Tanzimat (reorganization) in 1839
Tanizmat Reforms:Secularized: law, government, education- only for men; women still subjected to Sharia
Muslims, Christians, & Jews granted equal protection
military trained in France
- French preferred language- beards cut- turbans banned but European hats interfered with prayer THE FEZ!
C. The Crimean WarRussias southward expansion into Ottoman territory led to Crimean War
alliance of Britain, France & Ottomans defeated Russians
war fought in Romania, Black Sea & Crimean peninsula
D. After the Crimean Wartransition to modern warfare: breech loading rifles
extensive propaganda campaigns
due to Ottoman debt, forced to grant European extraterritoriality in Instanbul
Ottomans crippled by: debt & inflation
The Young Ottomans1.Young Ottomans: political movement of educated urban men inspired nationalism & modernist views
- constitutionalism- liberal reform- creation of a Turkish national state
II. The Russian Empire
A. Early 1800s RussiaRussia dominated by nobles & serfs NO middle class
1700: agricultural society; only 3% urban; lack of transportation
3.Csar Alexander I: anti-European backlash after Napoleons failed attack in 1812
brother Csar Nicholas I: despotic, conservative dictator
- promoted serfdom- called Ottomans the sick man of Europe- crushed rebellions - some railroads & canals, but late to industrialize
Modernization occurs under Czar Alexander II after loss in Crimean War (1856)exemplified by writers Leo Tolstoy & Feodor Dostoyevsky
B. Russian Expansionby 18th-c. Russian Empire reached Pacific Ocean & borders of China
19th-c.:- conquered central Asia- conflict w/ China, Japan, Safavids, Ottomans
III. Late Qing Dynasty
A. Populationdoubling Chinese population between 1650-1800
2.White Lotus Rebellion (17941804): minority peoples driven off land & predictions of Buddha being reborn
Qing considered Europeans remote & not important..- early Qing exported silk, cotton, porcelain
merchants along coast tie China to outside
Our dynasty's majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures.
- 1793, Qianlong to King George IIIQUESTIONS:
According to this quote, what was the reaction of the Chinese to possible increased trade with Britain?
What was the attitude of the Chinese towards foreigners in the early 1800s?
B. Roots of Opium Wars1700s: British import opium - Qing banned opium in 1729- Britain saw this as a threat
2.Lord MaCartney travels as trade envoy to China (1793)
3.British import Indian opium to sell in China
- Lin Zexu blockades trade w/ Europe (1839)
A shocked mandarin in Manchu robe in the back, with Queen Victoria (UK), Wilhelm II (Germany), Nicholas II (Russia), Marianne (France), and a samurai (Japan) stabbing into a plate with Chine ("China" in French) written on it.
Letter to English KingOpium has a harm. Opium is a poison, undermining our good customs & morality. Its use is prohibited by law.
Now the commoner, Yang, dares to bring it into the Forbidden City. Indeed, he flouts the law! However, recently the purchasers, eaters, & consumers of opium have become numerous. Deceitful merchants buy & sell it to gain profit.
If we confine our search for opium to the seaports, we fear the search will not be sufficiently thorough. We should also order the general commandant of the police and police- censors at the five gates to prohibit opium & to search for it at all gates.
we order viceroys, governors, & superintendents of the maritime customs to conduct a thorough search for opium, & cut off its supply. They should in no ways consider this order a dead letter & allow opium to be smuggled out!
C. Opium Wars1.Opium Wars (1839-42 & 1856-60):
- easily won by British due to navy- Qing bannermen (swordsmen) failed miserably
2.Treaty of Nanking (1842) to end 1st Opium War:- gave Western powers extraterritoriality- ended Canton System Hong Kong to British
The Treaty of Nanjing, August 1842Article I: There shall henceforth be Peace and Friendship between ...England and China and between their respective Subjects.
Article II: His Majesty the Emperor of China agrees that British Subjects,, shall be allowed to reside, for the purpose of carrying on their commercial pursuits, without molestation or restraint at the Cities and Towns of Canton, Amoy, Foochow-fu, Ningpo, and Shanghai, and Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc., will appoint Superintendentsto reside at each of the above-named Cities.
Article III: It being obviously necessary and desirable, that British Subjects should have some Port whereat they may careen and refit their Ships, when required, and keep Stores for that purpose, His Majesty the Emperor of China cedes to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc., the Island of Hong-Kong, to be possessed in perpetuity by her Britannic Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors, and to be governed by such Laws and Regulations as Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc., shall see fit to direct.
Article V: The Government of China having compelled the British Merchants trading at Canton to deal exclusively with certain Chinese Merchants called Hong merchants (or Cohong), the Emperor of China agrees to abolish that practice in future at all Ports where British Merchants may reside, and to permit them to carry on their mercantile transactions with whatever persons they please...His Imperial Majesty further agrees to pay to the British Government the sum of 3 Millions of Dollars.
In what article do you find the transfer of the island of Hong Kong?Why do the British claim this is necessary?
2.Compare the Treaty of Nanjing with the Chinese emperor's reply to Lord Macartney. What sort of rights did the Chinese give to the British that they previously would have refused to give?