Knowledge managementSocial capital and social network
Seeking Knowledge / advice
Discuss Class Materials
Social network analysisthe mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between people, groups, organization, computers or other information/knowledge processing entities
Collective knowledgeThe accumulated knowledge of the organization stored in its rules, procedures, routines and shared norms which guide the problem-solving activities and patterns of interaction among its members. From neuron to network
Organizing principlesHierarchyFormal, top-down, a priori, mechanical NetworkInformal, bottom-up, ad hoc, organic
The enumerated list under Religion in DDC
200 Religion 210 Natural theology 220 Bible 230 Christian theology 240 Christian moral & devotional theology 250 Christian orders & local church 260 Christian social theology 270 Christian church history 280 Christian denominations & sects 290 Other & comparative religions221 Old Testament 222 Historical books of Old Testament 223 Poetic books of Old Testament 224 Prophetic books of Old Testament 225 New Testament 226 Gospels & Acts 227 Epistles 228 Revelation (Apocalypse) 229 Apocrypha & pseudepigrapha MeSH browser Similarity thesaurus
The hierarchical view of the Internet
Network and information flowThe well-structure network can act as a screening device in the face of information overload, include others who can be bought into an opportunity, and deliver information early, providing the opportunity to act on the information before it is widespread or obsolete.
Knowledge is of two kinds: we know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it. Samuel Johnson
Why bother with networks?Networks reflect the patterns of interaction that make up the social world.They generate both opportunities and constraints for action for those within them: e.g. via resource flows, social capital (in its various forms), interdependence (and the balances of power it creates) etc. informal exchange of knowledge
Complementary views on knowledge sharing Knowledge marketCost and benefit analysis (social, economic, political)Reward system Social capital/organizational culture Society cant be reduced to mere market transactions Norms, culture, identity, and social relations
Social capital features of social organization, such as networks, norms, and trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit (Putnam, 1993).
Huysman, M. (2004). Design requirements for knowledge-sharing tools: a need for social capital analysis Conditions for knowledge sharing
Who shares knowledge,
and how is knowledge shared
What knowledge is shared
Why and when is knowledge shared
Structural dimension: opportunity to share knowledge
Cognitive dimension: ability to shard knowledge
Relational dimension: motivation to share knowledge
Opportunity, network ties, configuration, organization
Shared codes, language, stories
Trust, norms, obligation, identification, respect, generalized reciprocity
Networked view of social capitalSocial capital consists of the stock of active connections among people: the trust, mutual understanding, and shared values and behavior that bind the members of human networks and communities and make cooperative action possible
Two kinds of capitalRobert has more social capital, is it true?Bonding capital and Bridging capital
Structural advantages 1. Wide diversity Less redundant information 2. Early accessSeeing opportunities for innovation 3. Control over diffusion
Closure vs. Structural HolesJames Coleman: High trust in a community with full closure networks (strong component) and strong ties fosters mutual assistance obligations and the social control of deviant behaviors (e.g., disciplining children who misbehave in public)Ronald Burt: Ego gains numerous competitive advantages and higher investment returns if egos weak, direct-tie relations span structural holes, thus serving as bridge between its alters
Amplifier for creativityExperience from many domains suggest that innovations often arise from the unexpected synthesis of multiple ideas, each of them on their own perhaps well-known, but well-known in distinct and unrelated bodies of expertise.
SerendipityAccidental discoveries Taste, asthma, lung A propensity for making fortunate discoveries while looking for something unrelated The sagacity of being able to link together apparently innocuous information to come to a valuable conclusion
Structural holesif you link to two people who are not linked you can control their communication Three actor network with a structural hole
Connecting heterogeneous knowledgeBoundary spanners who take care of one specific boundary exampleRoamers going from place to place, creating an information web of connections Outposts bringing back news from the front and exploring new territories
BrokerageBrokerage relations: connections between disorganized others Measured by betweenness
Structural Holes from Egos ViewpointSOURCE: Knoke (2001:237)To gain information and control benefits from structural holes, players must identify bridging / brokering opportunities and fill in those gaps
Structural holes given greater homogeneity within than between groups, people whose networks bridge the structural holes between groups have earlier access to a broader diversity of information and have experience in translating information across groups . P.354
Structural equivalenceIdentify actors with similar rolesMeasures of similarity How similar each actors ties are to all other actorsTwo actors may be said to be structurally equivalent to each other if they have the same patterns of ties with other actors.
Information/contact redundancyGroup cohesion (Fig. 1.2)Structural equivalence The use of electricity metaphor and when it fails Looking for the structural holes in a network is a kind of perceptual test
Network constraints Constraints: the extent to which an actors connections to other are also connected to one anotherE.g. A is constrained by its relationship with B to the extent that A does not have many alternatives (has few other ties except that to B), and As other alternatives are also tied to B.
Echoing Coleman, Burt argues that social closure provides a key resource for building trust and amplifying reputation 2004 Ronald Burt. Brokerage and Closure, Cambridge University Press 2005.
Strong ties, weak ties Strong ties represent willingness to share information, but those to whom we are weakly tied may have access to more valuable and diverse information due to their connections in different networks
Granovetter 1973Interviewed MBA graduates and asked: How did you find your job?Kept getting the same answer: through an acquaintance or friends friend, not a friendImplications Weak ties are surprisingly valuable because they are more likely to lean novel information and ideas
Strength of a tie and influenceM. S. Granovetter: The Strength of Weak Ties, AJS, 1973:
finding a job through a contact that one sawfrequently (2+ times/week) 16.7%occasionally (more than once a year but < 2x week) 55.6%rarely 27.8%but length of path is shortcontact directly works for/is the employeror is connected directly to employer
Granovetters theory of weak tieStrong ties are embedded in high homophilous clustersWeak ties connect to diversity Weak ties a source of novel information Adopted from Borgatti, 2004
Tie strength and knowledge sharing
Network obstacles to innovationFragmentation Collaboration often breaks down across functional lines, technical capabilities, and occupational subcultures in ways that invisibly undermine strategic innovation efforts. Domination The voices of a few central network members, who often have expertise good for times gone by, can drown out novel ideas and drive innovation efforts along traditional trajectories long after the market has veered in another direction. Insularity The inability to recognize and leverage relevant external expertise can yield excessive cost structures and delays that results in missed market opportunities.
* betweenness centrality* betweenness centrality
**Scientists debate how important this number is, though. Previous research on animal brains has indicated thatbigger isn't necessarily better; the bulkier brains, holding lots of neurons, could just be what's needed to control larger bodies. Others contend that our big brains are necessary for our complex social lives, our extreme tool use or our ability to think about thinking, called metacognition.Other researchers believe that our intelligence lies not in our brain size, but in the complexity of the brain's interactions. The brain is so complex and tangled in and around itself, in fact, thatunraveling how it workshas been a seemingly never-ending puzzle.All in all, is a monkey's brain worth of neurons off the top really make all that big of a difference?
**Is of, kind of Hierarchy has been one of the major principle in organizing information Depending how specific the information you want, you can choose term within the hierarchy
Mechnical vs. organic *********Out of nothing, creation and innovation **Fish-scale, Whats is well known here is little known over there
Access to diverse skill setsPrivate information Power **07/16/96*##******A typical office-politics situation: Ego fills a structural hole between B and both As, extracts commission Ego cant fill any hole between As Indeed, maintaining ties to both As is redundant (and costly) If Ego cuts a tie to one A, where should it invest time & energy forging a new tie that will maximize its entrepreneurial opportunities?
*07/16/96*##**In a new person provides information that you already have, the new person adds coordination but no value *Suppose you have a budget of five connections (before facebook)Look at the before chart. How many redundant relationship?One? (the connection between 3 and 5)What if 1,2,3 are from engineering; 4, 5 are from finance The redundancy becomes 2 **********ignorant of or uninterested in cultures, ideas, or peoples outside one's own experience.*