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  • JNCIA Juniper™ Networks Certified Internet Associate

    Study Guide

    by Joseph M. Soricelli with John L. Hammond, Galina Diker Pildush, Thomas E. Van Meter, and Todd M. Warble

    This book was originally developed by Juniper Networks Inc. in conjunction with Sybex Inc. It is being offered in electronic format because the original book (ISBN: 0-7821-4071-8) is now out of print. Every effort has been made to remove the original publisher's name and references to the original bound book and its accompanying CD. The original paper book may still be available in used book stores or by contacting, John Wiley & Sons, Publishers. www.wiley.com.

    Copyright © 2003-6 by Juniper Networks Inc. All rights reserved.

    This publication may be used in assisting students to prepare for a Juniper JNCIA exam but Juniper Networks Inc. cannot warrant that use of this publication will ensure passing the relevant exam.

  • Contents at a Glance

    Introduction xvii

    Assessment Test

    xxxiii

    Chapter 1

    The Components of a Juniper Networks Router 1

    Chapter 2

    Interfaces 61

    Chapter 3

    Protocol-Independent Routing 107

    Chapter 4

    Routing Policy 149

    Chapter 5

    The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 195

    Chapter 6

    Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 229

    Chapter 7

    Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) 275

    Chapter 8

    Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 321

    Chapter 9

    Multicast 373

    Chapter 10

    Firewall Filters 429

    Chapter 11

    Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 473

    Glossary

    533

    Index 569

  • Contents

    Introduction xvii

    Assessment Test xxxiii

    Chapter 1 The Components of a Juniper Networks Router 1

    Juniper Networks Router Design 2 Routing Engine Overview 3 Packet Forwarding Engine Overview 4

    Routing Engine Components 6 Software Architecture 6 Command-Line Interface 13 Manipulating Files on the Router 44 Routing Engine Redundancy 46

    Packet Forwarding Engine Components 47 Embedded OS Software 47 Application-Specific Integrated Circuits 47 Packet Flow 49

    Summary 52 Exam Essentials 52 Key Terms 54 Review Questions 55 Answers to Review Questions 59

    Chapter 2 Interfaces 61

    Types of Interfaces 62 Permanent Interfaces 62 Transient Interfaces 63

    Interface Naming 63 Interface Naming Structure 64 Interface Naming Examples 67

    Interface Properties 68 Physical Properties 68 Logical Properties 70 Disabling or Deactivating an Interface 73

    Configuration Examples 74 IP Version 4 75 IPv6 Support 80 IS-IS Support 82 MPLS Support 84

    Useful Interface Commands 85

    show interfaces extensive

    85

  • Contents

    iv

    monitor interface

    88

    monitor traffic

    89

    show arp

    90

    ping

    90

    ping atm

    91

    traceroute

    91 Interface Diagnostic Commands 92

    Loopback Testing 93 BERT Testing 96

    Summary 98 Exam Essentials 98 Key Terms 99 Review Questions 100 Answers to Review Questions 104

    Chapter 3 Protocol-Independent Routing 107

    Configured Routes 108 Static Routes 108 Aggregated Routes 116 Generated Routes 121

    Martian Routes 126 JUNOS software Implementation 127 Configuration Examples 127

    JUNOS software Routing Tables 131 Table

    inet.0

    131 Table

    inet.1

    132 Table

    inet.2

    133 Table

    inet.3

    133 Table

    inet.4

    134 Table

    inet6.0

    134 Table

    mpls.0

    134 Table

    bgp.l3vpn.0

    135 Table

    bgp.l2vpn.0

    135 JUNOS software Preference Values 136 Load Balancing 137 Summary 140 Exam Essentials 140 Key Terms 141 Review Questions 142 Answers to Review Questions 147

    Chapter 4 Routing Policy 149

    What Is a Routing Policy? 150 The Routing Table 150

  • v

    Contents

    Why Modify the Routing Table? 151 Changing the Map 153

    Forming a Policy 153 Composing a Routing Policy 153 Match Conditions 157 Actions 169 Default Policy 171

    Applying Routing Policies 173 RIP Policy Application 173 Link-State IGP Policy Application 174 BGP Policy Application 174

    Useful JUNOS software Commands 176 Configuring Multiple Policies 177

    insert

    177

    rename

    178

    show route

    Options

    180 Summary 183 Exam Essentials 184 Key Terms 185 Review Questions 186 Answers to Review Questions 192

    Chapter 5 The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 195

    Overview of RIP 196 RIP Features 197

    RIP Operations 199 Input Processing 199 Output Processing 201 Stability Features 201 Timers 203 Limitations 205

    Packet Types 206 Version 1 Packet Format 207 Version 2 Packet Format 208

    RIPv2 Extensions 209 JUNOS software Configuration 210

    Minimum RIP Configuration 210 Applying Export Policy 212 Applying Import Policy 214 Modifying the Incoming Metric 215 Modifying the Outgoing Metric 216 Configuring Authentication 216 Controlling Route Preference 217 Configuring Update Messages 218

  • Contents

    vi

    Configuring the Number of Route Entries in an Update Message 220

    Accepting Packets Whose Reserved Fields Are Nonzero 220 Summary 221 Exam Essentials 221 Key Terms 222 Review Questions 223 Answers to Review Questions 227

    Chapter 6 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 229

    Basic OSPF Operation 230 Link-State Protocol Review 230 Packet Types 232 Forming Adjacencies 238

    Evolution of an OSPF Network 242 The Router LSA 242 Broadcast Networks 243 Scaling an OSPF Network 246 Non-OSPF Routes 250 Additional Scaling Techniques 252

    OSPF Configuration 255 Single OSPF Area 255 Multiple OSPF Areas 258

    JUNOS software Commands 259 Troubleshooting Your Configuration 259 Troubleshooting the Routing Protocol 261

    Summary 266 Exam Essentials 267 Key Terms 268 Review Questions 269 Answers to Review Questions 273

    Chapter 7 Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) 275

    Overview of IS-IS 276 Link-State Review 277 IS-IS Levels 278 Addressing 282

    Protocol Specifics 284 IS-IS Adjacency States 284 General IS-IS Information Exchange 284 Protocol Data Units 285

    Command-Line Interface 298 Configuration Commands 298 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands 303

  • vii

    Contents

    Comparison to OSPF 311 Summary 312 Exam Essentials 312 Key Terms 313 Review Questions 314 Answers to Review Questions 318

    Chapter 8 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 321

    Overview of BGP 322 Network Connectivity 322 Policy Control 323 Reliable Transport 324 Routing Table Scalability 325

    Theory of Operation 326 Peers 327 Establishing Relationships 332 Message Types 333 Routing Information Bases 337 The Route Selection Process 338 BGP Attributes 339

    Juniper Networks Implementation 345 Establishing Peer Relationships 346 Viewing Routing Knowledge 353 Solving Next Hop Reachability 357

    Summary 365 Exam Essentials 365 Key Terms 366 Review Questions 367 Answers to Review Questions 371

    Chapter 9 Multicast 373

    Multicast Overview 374 Unicast Transmissions 375 Broadcast Transmissions 376 Multicast Transmissions 377

    Multicast Addressing 377 IP Group Addresses 378 Ethernet Addresses 380

    Multicast Forwarding 383 Reverse Path Forwarding 383 Dense-Mode Forwarding 386 Sparse-Mode Forwarding 388

  • Contents

    viii

    Multicast Protocols 390 Internet Group Management Protocol 390 Protocol Independent Multicast 393

    JUNOS software Commands 403 IGMP Configuration 404 PIM Configuration 406

    show pim neighbors

    417

    show pim join extensive

    418

    show pim source

    418

    show multicast rpf

    419

    show multicast route

    420

    show route table inet.1

    420

    show multicast usage

    420 Summary 421 Exam Essentials 421 Key Terms 422 Review Questions 423 Answers to Review Questions 427

    Chapter 10 Firewall Filters 429

    Firewall Filter Overview 430 Implementing a Firewall Filter 431

    Writing the Firewall Filter 431 Processing Filters 432 Segmenting Filters 433 The Default Action 434 Match Conditions 434 Actions 446 Applying Firewall Filters 452

    Protecting the Routing Engine 453 Rate Policing 455

    Rate Limits 455 Filter Policers 456 Interface Policers 458

    JUNOS software Commands 459

    show firewall

    460

    show firewall log

    460

    show log messages

    461

    clear firewall

    462

    show interfaces filters

    462

    show interfaces policers

    462

    show policer

    463

    insert

    463

    rename

    464

  • ix

    Contents

    Summary 464 Exam Essentials 465 Key Terms 465 Review Questions 466 Answers to Review Questions 470

    Chapter 11 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 473

    The Creation of MPLS 474 The History of Traffic Engineering and MPLS 475

    IP Routing 475 ATM and Overlay Networks 476 SONET and MPLS 478

    MPLS Operations 480 Terminology 480 Packet Processing 485 Establishing an LSP 486 Signaling Protocols 488

    MPLS Implementation 493 Configuring a Static LSP 494 Configuring a Dynamic LSP 500 Altering the RSVP Protocol 510 Routing