INTRODUCTION TO PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPHY - .INTRODUCTION TO PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPHY Subcourse Number SS

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  • SUBCOURSE EDITIONSS0510 A

    INTRODUCTION TO PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPHY

    DEVELOPMENT DATE: September 1994

  • INTRODUCTION TO PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPHY

    Subcourse Number SS 0510

    EDITION A

    United States Army Signal Center and SchoolFort Gordon, GA 30905-5074

    6 Credit Hours

    Edition Date: September 1994

    SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW

    This subcourse presents the information and techniques necessary to enable you to shoot official Armyportraits. Essentially, there are three types of portraits required for military purposes: identification,formal, and informal. You will learn to identify these types of portraits and select the correct camera andlens requirements for proper perspective. In addition, you will learn about portrait lighting; selecting thebest type for the situation; and setting the light ratio. Also contained within this subcourse aresuggestions on posing the subject. Finally, you will identify the proper films and learn to produce andevaluate the final product--the print for overall quality.

    There are no prerequisites for this subcourse.

    This subcourse reflects the doctrine which was current at the time it was prepared. In your own worksituation, always refer to the latest official publications.

    Unless otherwise stated, the masculine gender of singular pronouns is used to refer to both men andwomen.

    TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE

    ACTION: You will identify and describe the basic principles of portrait photography to includethe three types of portraits and proper selection of lighting and camera equipment.

    CONDITION: You will be given information from TM 11-401-1, TM 11-401-2, and STP 1125S13-SM-TG.

    STANDARD: To demonstrate competency of this task, you must achieve a minimum score of 70%on the subcourse examination.

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  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section Page

    Subcourse Overview .................................................................................................................................... i

    Lesson 1: Introduction to Portraiture, Portrait Equipment, and Lighting .............................................. 1-1

    Part A: Types of Portraits...................................................................................................... 1-3

    Part B: Portrait Cameras and Lenses .................................................................................... 1-7

    Part C: Portrait Lighting ..................................................................................................... 1-10

    Practice Exercise...................................................................................................................1-33

    Answer Key and Feedback................................................................................................... 1-35

    Lesson 2: Directing the Subject and Finishing the Print ........................................................................2-1

    Part A: Posing the Subject ....................................................................................................2-2

    Part B: Selecting and Processing Films and Papers for Portraiture ......................................2-9

    Practice Exercise...................................................................................................................2-11

    Answer Key and Feedback................................................................................................... 2-12

    Examination ............................................................................................................................................ E-1

    Appendix A: List of Acronyms...............................................................................................................A-1

    Appendix B: Sample Photographs ......................................................................................................... B-1

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  • LESSON 1

    INTRODUCTION TO PORTRAITURE, PORTRAIT EQUIPMENT,AND LIGHTING

    Critical Task: 113-578-1011

    OVERVIEW

    LESSON DESCRIPTION:

    In this lesson, you will learn to identify the three types of portraits generally required for Army use. Youwill also learn to select the proper camera and lens requirements for various portraits. In addition, youwill describe the correct techniques of lighting, including selection of equipment and light ratios, for avariety of situations that you may encounter.

    TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:

    ACTIONS: a. Identify the three types of portraits: identification, formal, and informal.

    b. Identify the proper image placement of the subject within the viewing area of thecamera selected for the type of portrait required.

    c. Describe the overall purpose, pose, and backgrounds used to obtain the portrait.

    d. Identify the proper camera for a given portrait type along with the minimum lensfocal length required to prevent distortion and to maintain a comfortable workingdistance both in front of and behind the subject.

    e. Identify the proper film for various camera formats.

    f. Identify placement of electronic flash, calculation of exposure, and lighting ratiosfor outdoor portrait.

    CONDITION: You will be given information from TM 11-401-2 and STP 11-25S13-SM-TG.

    STANDARD: Identify and describe the three types of portraits and the cameras and lightingequipment used in portraiture in accordance with TM 11-401-1 and STP 11-25S13-SM-TG.

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  • REFERENCES: The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications:TM 11-401-1 and STP 11-25S13-SM-TG.

    INTRODUCTION

    A portrait is a likeness of a person, especially the face. This definition isolates one essential point inportraiture. A portrait should emphasize the person rather than the person's environment or somethingassociated with the person. However, a pictorial representation which portrays only a recognizablelikeness of a person is not enough. A portrait must be more than just a photograph. It must have mood,personality, and characteristics from which the viewer can draw conclusions about the subject. Bymanipulating expressions, posing, lighting, and environments, a portrait photographer can portray anymood from happiness to gloom as well as the personality of a subject. Posing the subject with familiarobjects and environments can produce a more natural expression and pose because the subject will bemore at ease. Articles or props included in the scene can help to tell more about the subject.

    Success in portraiture requires a thorough understanding of the techniques involved, an artistic ability,and a talent for directing the subject of a portrait into the desired expression and pose. The portraitphotographer should have a sensitivity for, and an understanding of people. Portrait photographers varyconsiderably in their styles and techniques. The subjects of portraits vary in their likes and dislikes.Thus, there is no one blueprint or formula which will ensure success.

    Of all the subjects passing before our cameras, the portrait subject is the most interesting and challengingto many photographers. In portraiture, the subject is always changing and challenging the photographer.If you are to meet this challenge, you must have vision, be capable of good judgment, and have an abilityand willingness to seek out the best in your subjects and show them to their advantage.

    How you visualize the picture, how you pose and light the subject, and how you capture the rightexpression are more important than the mechanical operation of the camera. What takes place frombehind the lens in no way alters the lighting, pose, or the expression, which are the prime factors of goodportraiture.

    Most people have their portraits made because they want someone else to see how they look. They want others to see them to the

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  • best advantage and to think highly of them. A beautiful woman knows she is beautiful and in a pictureshe wants to appear beautiful--so make her beautiful. A slight flattering may be called for, but not overflattery. Men know their features; they know whether they appear dignified; they know if they appear tohave great strength of character; and they are right in expecting the photographer to emphasize thesegood points. The subject expects a true portrait--a good expression and natural pose, a portrait thatshows whatever beauty or strength she or he has, and one that shows his or her character and features.

    Character is formed by life. A frown or a smile today leaves no trace, but continued use of facialmuscles to form a smile, a laugh, or a frown leaves lines on the forehead, around the eyes, nose, andmouth. And it is these lines and expressions that form facial character. Lines of character are scars wonin our battle of life, and as such, must be carefully considered by the portrait photographer. They can besubdued or exaggerated by the way you light your subject. Exaggeration is what most of your subjectswill not like; however, you should not eliminate character lines either, rather only soften them withlighting. A face has features: two eyes, a nose, a mouth, and two ears, but photographically thesefeatures are not equally important. To the portrait photographer, the most important and most expressiveare the eyes.

    The face is constantly moving, the expression changing, lasting only momentarily. No happy expressionor frown lasts long enough for us to take full notice of it--until we photograph it. And if you picture it atthe wrong instant, it is captured to be looked at, and all the bad points appear exaggerated.

    To be a good portrait photographer, you must learn to study each face as it appears before