major topics of discussion in archaeology since its beginnings as a
Located at the intersection of the QinghaieTibet and theYunnaneGuizhou-Plateau and bordering on the Sichuan Basin, theLiangshan region is a connection point of several cultural-
mental preconditions.in this paper I rstditions, includingroutes of trafc. Incord, focusing onbining computer-al archaeologicalch of these foreignn, the reasons ford the routes and
mechanisms through which they arrived in the new location.Based on these analyses, I argue that questions of environmental
preconditions, inter-group contact, and local cultural and socialprocesses are intrinsically connected, without any of them pre-determining the other. The complexities of the Liangshan regionexemplify how people can interact within marginal environments,thus serving as an exemplary study for theoretical and methodo-logical issues of research on mechanisms of cultural contacts andhuman movement in the landscape.
* The Friedberg Center for East Asian Studies, Faculty of Humanities Rm. 6328,The Hebrew Universityof Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel.
E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, margiana2002@
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Quaternary International xxx (2013) 1e20hotmail.com.discipline. The methodological and theoretical aspects of these is-sues have so far largely been argued on the basis of ethnographicstudies and socialeanthropological theories. As the kind of infor-mation available to cultural anthropologists is very different fromwhat the archaeologist is faced with, such studies are difcult toapply in archaeological research. To alleviate this problem, thisstudy starts from the concrete body of archaeological material ofthe Liangshan region in southwest China, discussing various kindsof contact situations and their underlying motivations.
To unlock the research potential of the region,provide an overview of local geographic preconthe availability of natural resources and possiblea second step, I describe the archaeological resigns of outside contact and their origins. Comaided spatial analysis (GIS) with traditionmethods of typology and statistics, I consider eaelements in its context, pondering their functiotheir acceptance by the local populations, ancord, and the mechanisms of contact between them, have been case study for questions of cultural contacts and their environ-1. Introduction
The identication of cultural gro1040-6182/$ e see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd ahttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.12.011
Please cite this article in press as: Hein, ASouthwest China, Quaternary Internationalenvironmental preconditions. This paper unlocks the research potential of the Liangshan region by rstproviding an overview of local prehistoric cultural developments and their geographic preconditions,focusing on signs of outside contacts and their possible origin; in a second step, it suggests routes andtypes of contact and their motivations. I argue that questions of cultural identity, inter-group contact, andhumaneenvironment interaction cannot be treated separately but have to be considered in combination.At the same time, the case at hand shows that the environment is not just a limiting or determiningfactor: even marginal environments can be used in a variety of ways and do not necessarily lead toconict among neighboring populations. I therefore argue that in the emergence of contact networks andacceptance of foreign traits, cultural decisions are just as important as and sometimes even moreimportant than geographic preconditions.
2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.
the archaeological re-
geographic regions. The multitude of different groups living inand passing through this area since the late 3rd millennium BChave left a highly complex material record that provides an idealchanneled the early exchange along Chinas western frontier. The archaeological material from this re-gion therefore provides an ideal case study for research on mechanisms of cultural contact and theirAvailable online xxx China; it is dominated by the towering Hengduan Mountains, whose northesouth oriented ridgesInterregional contacts and geographic prLiangshan region, Southwest China
Anke Marion Hein a,b,*aCotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), 308 CharCA 90095-1510, USAb The Friedberg Center for East Asian Studies, Faculty of Humanities Rm. 6328, The Heb
a r t i c l e i n f o
a b s t r a c t
The Liangshan region is lond INQUA. All rights reserved.
.M., Interregional contacts(2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.10onditions in the prehistoric
. Young Drive North, A210 Fowler Building, Los Angeles,
University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
d at the intersection of several cultural-geographic regions in Southwest
le at ScienceDirect
sevier .com/locate/quaintand geographic preconditions in the prehistoric Liangshan region,16/j.quaint.2013.12.011
2. Range of material and suggested approach
2.1. Spatial and chronological extent of the material
Geographically, this paper focuses on the southwest Sichuan,the area covered by Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, plusPanzhihua City and adjacent counties in northwest Yunnan(Figs. 1e2). This area is circumscribed by the high mountains ofMuli County in the Northwest, the Dadu River in the North, and theJinsha River in the South. These natural boundaries make it a well-dened geographic entity covering an area of about 81,434 km2, alittle smaller than Austria (83,855 km2).
Chronologically, this paper concentrates on the material pre-dating the onset of large-scale Han inuence during the 1st cen-tury AD, which brought about dramatic cultural and social changesthat are clearly reected in the material record. To achieve a multi-dimensional picture that reects changes throughout time andspace, the study includes all available prehistoric material. The timespan covered in this paper thus extends from the mid-third to theend of the rst millennium BC.
2.2. State of previous research and scope of the present study
Whereas other parts of Sichuan Province have been explored byarchaeologists since the late 19th century, systematic archaeolog-ical work in the Liangshan region did not start until the 1970s(Liangshan, 1977). The amount of available excavated material isthus limited and issues of chronological and cultural development
remain highly debated. As most sites are single-phased andradiocarbon dates are few, the local chronology is largely based ontypological comparisons with other regions. Most scholars explainthe presence of objects of foreign character in the local contextthrough inuence or contact, but usually without consideringthe nature of these connections.
This paper discusses the nature of these connections through ananalysis of archaeological material and geographic preconditions.As a rst step, I consider theoretical and methodological assump-tions underlying research on cultural contact. Next, I provide anoverview of the geographic preconditions in the research area,paying particular attention to raw material distribution and otherincentives for inter-regional contacts as well as possible routes ofinteraction. Only then do I introduce the archaeological material,paying particular attention to evidence for outside contacts.
My study is based on information from 313 sites, including 82settlements,191 grave sites, 26multi-purpose sites, and 14 depositsand single nds (Fig. 3) compiled from published excavation re-ports, material collections in local research institutes, and personalexcavation participation and survey work (Hein, 2013). The mainmethods that I employ are spatial analysis, typology, and statistics,aimed at nding regular co-occurrences and mutual exclusion ofmaterial traces of past behavior that can serve to identify regionalgroups and signs of contact between them. Finally, I connect thearchaeological evidence with the geographic preconditions to drawconclusions on the motivations for and routes of past contacts,before reassessing methodological and theoretical issues of inter-group contact.
A.M. Hein / Quaternary International xxx (2013) 1e202Fig. 1. Map showing the location (black square in A) and topographic details of the research
Please cite this article in press as: Hein, A.M., Interregional contactsSouthwest China, Quaternary International (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1area (B) in East Asia. Modern country and province borders are shown for orientation.
and geographic preconditions in the prehistoric Liangshan region,016/j.quaint.2013.12.011
ternA.M. Hein / Quaternary In2.3. Theoretical and methodological considerations
The nature of cultural groups and their reection in the materialrecord has long been a heated topic of discussion in archaeologicalresearch.Within the Anglo-American tradition of archaeology, untilthe 1960s it was generally held that the repetitive occurrence ofsimilar typological or stylistic traits could be identiedwith speciccultures, the cultural unit equaling an ethnic and linguistic unit(e.g., Childe, 1929, pp. vevi). It soon became apparent, however,that differences in material remains had no such clear-cut bound-aries. Later approaches therefore directed attention to smallergroups, signaling their distinctiveness through commonalities anddifferences in behavior, which in turn are reected in the materialrecord (e.g., Hodder, 1982).
A promising approach that has gained popularity since the1990s is based on the chane opratoire concept, which focuseson the process of procurement, production, use, and discard (Sellet,1993). As this appro