in teacher educationIssues and experiences
for countries in transition
Proceedings of a European Workshop,University of Twente,
Enschede, Netherlands, February 20-23, 1994
Edited by Betty Collis, Iliana Nikolova and Katerina Martcheva
T h e Te a c h e r ' s L i b r a r y
U N E S C O P U B L I S H I N G
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughoutthis publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever onthe part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country,territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitationof its frontiers or boundaries.
Published in 1995 by the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, FranceComposed and printed by UNESCO
UNESCO 1995Printed in France
Eighty-two experts in the field of education and information and communication tech-nologies came together to a workshop, held in Enschede (Netherlands) on February20-23, 1994, to examine issues and experiences for countries in transition.
Organized by UNESCO, in collaboration with the University of Twente and with thesupport of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the workshop on tea-cher education and information and communication technologies provided an opportu-nity to exchange ideas, knowledge and experiences in the area of teacher education andcommunication and information technologies (CIT) among experts of Central andEastern Europe and experts of Western Europe. The experts came from twenty-ninecountries of Europe.
The workshop's major objectives were: (a) to discover and develop bases for furtherpartnerships among Western, Eastern and Central European CIT specialists in teachereducation; (b) to help and advise policy-makers at the national level with respect to reor-ganizing or developing new programmes for teacher education on CIT and on its use; and(c) to prepare for the second UNESCO International Congress on Education andInformatics to be held in Moscow in July 1996.
Its programme was organized around four themes selected for the four workinggroups: CIT in Support of Teacher Education; Curriculum Issues relating to CIT andTeacher Education; Organization of Teacher Education and Issues within thisOrganization relating to CIT; and Policy and Strategic Planning in relation to CIT andEducational Systems.
UNESCO would like to express it sincere appreciation to the keynote speakers, ani-mators of working groups, the members of the Congress Bureau and all those who contri-buted to the workshop and to all those who contributed to the compilation of this worksIn particular, the Organization would like to thank thc three editors, Betty Collis, IlianaNikolova and Katerina Martcheva. We hope that these proceedings will be both of inter-est and of assistance to all those reading them. UNESCO would also like to thank
the University of Twente and the Commission of the European Communities for theircollaboration and Apple (Europe) for its sponsorship.
The authors are responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts containedin this book and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those ofUNESCO and do not commit the Organization.
AcknowledgementsThis workshop was organized by the Faculty of Educational Science and Technology ofthe University of Twente. The initiative was taken by the Section for EducationalResearch and Innovation of UNESCO's Division of Higher Education. Financial supportwas given by UNESCO, the Commission of the European Community (DG XIII), theUniversity of Twente, and the Foundation Universiteitsfonds Twente.
Introduction: Goals and Objectives of the Workshop 9
Part I.Perspectives from the Faculty of Educational Science and Technology,University of Twente1. Communication and Information Technologies as Change Agents.
Prof. Dr. Jef Moonen 132. In-service Training and Information Technology from a Curriculum
Innovation Perspective.Prof. Dr. Tjeerd Plomp and Dr. Jan van den Akker 26
3. What do Instructional and Information Technology Contributeto Problems in Teacher Education? Results and the Future.Prof. Dr. Sanne Dijkstra and Dr. Hein Krammer 34
4. Supporting Teachers and Learners to Design Powerful LearningEnvironments.Prof. Dr. Jules Pieters 40
5. New Possibilities for Teacher Education Through Computer-BasedCommunication Technologies.Dr. Betty Collis 52
Part II.Overviews6. Perspectives on Teacher Training Related to Information Technology
in Central and Eastern European Countries.Dr. Ivan Stanchev, Dr. Rouman Nikolov and Dr. Diana Nikolova,Bulgaria and The Netherlands 71
7. Computer Networks in Teacher Education: Realizations in the Frameworkof the Pluto Project.Prof. Arno Libotton, Belgium 84
8. Teacher Education and Communication and Information Technologies:Implications for Faculties of Education.Prof. Bernard Cornu, France 93
9. Teacher Education and Communication and Information Technologies:A Reflection on Emerging Possibilities for Collaborative Projects.Prof. Stephen Heppell, UK 105
Part III.Case Studies10. The 'Yale Key' to Progress in Using Communication and Information
Technologies: A Case Study About Introducing CIT in a MunicipalSchool System. Mr. Erling Schmidt, Denmark 113
11. UK Case Study: Communications and Information Technology in UKTeacher Education.Dr. Niki Davis, UK 123
12. TELETEACHING '93: Norwegian Contributions.Prof. Jan Wibe, Norway 135
13. Case Study: A European Multimedia Training Network for InternationalDistance Learning.Mr. Leopold Reif and Miss Stefanie Fisher, Germany 176
14. German Experiences with Communication and Information Technologyfor Updating Teachers in Germany (North-Rhine Westfalia).Mr. Rudolph Hambusch, Germany 181
15. Teacher Training and Information Technologies in Spain: Data,Experiences and Comparisons.Mr. Carlos San Jos, Spain 193
16. The Implementation of Communication and Information Technologiesin Teacher Education in The Netherlands.Dr. Wim Been, Dr. Pieter llogenbirk and Dr. Frans Jansen,The Netherlands 205
17. Not All Birds Are Turtles: Developing Teaching/LearningEnvironments in Initial Teacher Training at Comenius University.Dr. Ivan Kalas and Dr. Andrej Blaho, Slovakia 222
Part IV.Additional Papers from Workshop Participants18. Communication and Information Technologies in Teacher Education:
The Experience of International Research and Training Center UNESCO/IIPat Glushkov Institute for Cybernetics.Dr. Vladimir Gritsenko, Dr. Alexei Dovgiallo and Dr. Valery Petrushin,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, V. M. Glushkov Institute forCybernetics, Ukraine 239
19. CIT in Teacher Training at the Charles University in Prague: Examplesfrom the Czech Republic.Dr. Miroslava Cernocova and Dr. Zdena Lusligova andDr. Stanislav Zelenda, Charles University, Czech Republic 249
20. Hungarian Teacher Training.Dr. Kristina Foghty and Prof. Ben Csap, Teacher TrainingCollege of Etvs Lornd University, Budapest, Hungary 254
21. The Computer: The Medium Stimulating the Development of a TeacherEducation Workshop (illustrated by Geography).Mr. Krzysztof Wozniak, Computer Education Center, Warsaw, Poland 267
AnnexesList of Participants 279Final Reports of the Working Groups 286Welcoming Addresses
Organizing Committee. Jef Moonen, Chairman 306Commission of the European Community, DG XIII. Dr. Wim Hansen 308UNESCO. Mr. Evgueni Khvilon 312International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP).Prof. Dr. Rita De Caluwe 314
Goals and Objectives of the Workshop
Main GoalAn exchange of ideas, knowledge, and experiences in the area of teacher education andcommunication and information technologies (CIT), between experts of Central andEastern Europe, and experts of Western Europe.
Major ObjectivesDiscovering and developing bases for further partnerships among Western, Eastern, andCentral European CIT specialists in teacher education.
Helping and advising policy makers at the national level with respect to reorganizing ordeveloping new programs for teacher education on CIT and on its use.
Preparing for the next UNESCO World Congress in Moscow (1996).
Expected ResultsBetter knowledge of common and specific problems with respect to CITand teacher edu-cation, and insight in ways to deal with these problems.
Recommendations concerning international and national activities with respect to CITand teacher education.
Perspectives fromthe Faculty of Educational Science
and Technology, University of Twente
Communication and Information Technologies as Change Agents
Faculty of Educational Science and TechnologyUniversity of Twente, The Netherlands
Technological developments and new training paradigms have a stronginfluence on society. Information technology (IT) is evolving toward anintegrated communication and information technology (CIT). Training isevolving from a separately planned external activity toward an integratedlearning-working activity. Education and the teaching profession have totake such developments into account. As a consequence the teaching pro -fession is evolving from an emphasis on delivering information to anemphasis on creating learning environments.
1. Need for teacher education
There is a critical need to train more and better teachers. As Rawley (1992) indicates:"Throughout history, teachers have been held in high regard. But today teaching holds alow status.