New Technologies and Learning Environments for Teacher Professional Growth Roy PeaCenter for Technology in LearningSRI InternationalNECCChicagoJune 27, 2001
OverviewThe national context of teacher workforce development and the appearance of for-profitsAddressable market size and issuesHow to think about the key technological developments Emerging designs for teacher learning environmentsClosing questions
What is happening to teaching? Huge turnover and new workforce preparation need2 Million new teachers needed by 2008-2009 (3.1 Mil today)Increasingly accountable, but unprepared for new standards and assessments Weakly-defined professional career path for lifelong learningYetemerging higher standards for teaching (NBPTS, INTASC) And rapid growth of alternative certificationsChanging roles of post-secondary institutions and the private sector There is a national crisis in teacher professional development-Glenn Commission, 1999
U.S. teachers . have no time to work with or observe other teachers; they experience occasional hit-and-run workshops that are usually unconnected to their work and immediate problems of practice. [Effective TPD cannot] be adequately cultivated without the development of more substantial professional discourse and engagement in communities of practice.
Darling-Hammond and Ball (NEGP, 1997)
Current state of in-service TPDTeachers continually isolated; rare mentoring Dominant mode of delivery is one-day off site workshops with no follow-upTeaching strategies too rarely linked to content, advances in learning research, standards, or modeled in classroom settingsNo assessment tools or results orientationMarket dominated by fragmented, local non-scaleable solutionsLittle use of technologyNo just-in-time teacher learning support District level TPD planning or management tools are lacking
Addressable Market, Available Funds* $3.7 billion (37% of all in-service TPD funds) available to purchase TPD services**$750 million in teacher expenditures for TPD services**$4.5 billion total addressable market**Growing at 15% per annum***Excludes all public high schools and all private, parochial, charter and home schools. Also excludes approximately $6Bil spent on teacher salaries to attend TPD events
**Sources: McKinsey & Co., National Commission of the States, US Department of Education, Merrill Lynch
What key technological developments are catalyzing the changing roles of post-secondary institutions and the private sector in teacher education? ???????????????
1960s: First Wave - Fundamental Net protocolsLed by government agencies and contractorsDriven by computer-to-computer file transfer and messagingNobody imagined the Net as becoming a mass medium 1980s: Second Wave - Bulletin Boards & Online ServicesLed by Proprietary Commercial Online Services VenturesText and crude graphics; driven by access to programs and data from computer hobbyists and serious techno/business users1990s: Third Wave - WWW (content, community, commerce)Led by Garage Startups and Media Empires - they ran circles around big technology companies and labsRich text, graphics, imagesDriven by info hungry business and consumersRace to capture eyeballs and create cyberspace brand identityThe Fourth Wave...Fourth Wave Internet (Sarnoff Labs)
Fourth Wave InternetA multidimensional explosionMedia RichnessSmart ServiceUbiquitousConnectivityText and GraphicsProcess MIPsStorage MBSpeed kbpsPC connectedAudio and videoEverything connectedProcess 100s MIPsStorage GBSpeed Mbps3D interactive objectsSeveral things connectedIT CapacityBrowsersSearch EnginesMedia based searchesPersonalized SearchPersonalized Web View
Key Technological Developments for Teacher Learning EnvironmentsMarket penetration of low-cost networkable multimedia computers and Internet access Easy-to-use Web Browsers as user interfaceStreaming media standards, toolsCommunity tools Web hosting and ASP model (Application Service Provider) to improve QOSPersonalization (profile-specific features)Integration with back-office systems (e.g., authentication, student records, e-commerce)
Emerging designs for distributed teacher learning environmentsUses of generic course platform shells (e.g., Blackboard, WebCT)Special-purpose proprietary course platforms (e.g., Teachscape, Classroom Connect)Use of web-accessible video materials of teaching practices (e.g., Teachscape, Teachstream, PT3 grantees, PBSTeacherLine)Use of on-line community tools for meetings, moderated events (e.g., TAPPED IN, Teachscape, Classroom Connect)On-line course malls (e.g., AT&T Learning Network)
Benefits of on-line TPD servicesConvenient, self-paced learning to meet in-service certification requirements (typically 30 hours TPD per year) Access to professional communities of practiceOngoing, on-line mentoring with district TPD professionals or facultyDistricts may better scale the certification of teachers, at lower cost per teacher than off-site models
Addressable Market: CapacityNearly all teachers use a computer at home and/or at school for professional activities; 2/3rds of public school teachers report using computers or the Internet for classroom instruction. (1)77% of schools have sufficient bandwidth to access on-line services with 128kbs or better connectivity.(4)61% of school computers have processors able to support streaming media today.(2)80% of all teachers have computers at home (3)59% of all teachers have Internet connections at home. (3)66% of all U.S. teachers received up to 8 hours of basic technology training last year (2) (1) U.S. Department of Education, NCES, Teacher Use of Computers and the Internet in Public Schools, April 2000.(2) Market Data Retrieval, 1999.(3) Center for Research on Information Technology & Organizations, UC Irvine, November 1999.(4) U.S. Department of Education, NCES, Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2000, May 2001.
As an examplehttp://www.teachscape.com
A new approach to teacher professional developmentA scaleable, Web-based, teacher professional development system that offers teachers just-in-time access to annotated video cases and distributed learning courses, linking pedagogy to content, while also providing tools for school administrators to plan and manage professional development A company based in New York with partners including AFT, NBPTS, Intel, SRI International, ABC NewsFocused efforts to bring learning sciences and educational research as well as practical knowledge on teacher communities into Teachscapes products and services
Approach for TPDVideo case studies of research-informed and standards-based teaching strategies in literacy, math, and scienceAnnotated with teacher reflections, expert commentaries Embedded assessment activities with rubricsStructured community discussion around case materialsDistributed learning courses built up from collections of video case studies from digital library -- for use in schools and at homePartner with districts to develop plans to meet distinctive needs of their schools and teachers and build PD capacity with existing staffSupported by on-site and on-line mentoring by participating districts Supported by on-line communities of practitioners -- enabling peer-peer collaboration and continuous feedback for teacher reflection on practice Teachers can earn CEUs, academic credits
Living Cases Visible models: A video-based narrative account of how one or more teachers experienced a problem, the strategy used to deal with it, and the outcomes Principles underlying the teachers practicesGuided practice: Guidance in reflective use comparing cases to experience is instrumental to changing teaching practices. Reflective community: Cases created as fertile soil for reflective community dialog, elaboration, multiple interpretations-- not as sterile packages of inert wisdom. They extend the published case-and-commentary model with on-line commentary, dialog.
Research-based teaching practicesStandards-based curriculumCase-based learning theoryEmbedded assessmentsExpert commentariesUse with on-line communityAugmenting collective intelligence for teacher learning using interactive video case studies with communityDocumentary film-makingExemplary teachers and practice artefacts Capture distributed expertise in web-based video casesEstablish and refine models of case useSchool-site useAdd Gems from community discourse
Teachscape: Connecting Video Models of Instructional Strategies with On-Line Community
Opportunities and questions for schools of educationOpportunities:Scaleup your best teacher programs in partnership with for-profits Use digital assets of for-profits in new on-line courses that augment your teacher programs Create state or regional alliances between post-secondary institutions and for-profitsProcure federal grants for experimental programs with for-profit partnersQuestionsCan you go it alone and do it yourself?What are business models for public-private engagement?Quality review issues in designing and reviewing courses, and commitment to research and evaluation
Can you do it yourself? Caution is due: Its more than a websiteScaleability of web-based TPD servicesCosts of course production are significant and need many users to amortize costsFaculty challenges: authoring tools and interestsNew talents: for running online community services Maintenance and upgrade: of web platforms, browsers, media servers Authentication and securityTechnical support and quality of service (QOS)
Business model possibilitiesSharing of costs and revenues relating to the production, distribution and sale of on-line coursesPayment of a royalty