India–Sri Lanka Development Cooperation ISDG India–Sri Lanka...آ  iv India–Sri Lanka Development

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  • Institute for Sustainable Development & Governance (ISDG) TC-23/1599, Golf Links, Kowdiar Trivandrum – 695 003 Kerala, India. Tel: +91(0)471 2433358 www.isdg.in

    Supported by

    Oxfam India 4th & 5th Floor, Shriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra

    1 Copernicus Marg, New Delhi -110001 Tel: +91(0)11 4653 8000

    www.oxfamindia.org

    Abraham George & Hasantha Gunaweera

    Supported by

    India–Sri Lanka Development Cooperation

    With a Special Focus on

    Indian Housing Project for Internally Displaced Persons

  • India–Sri Lanka Development Cooperation

    With a Special Focus on

    Indian Housing Project for Internally Displaced Persons

    Abraham George & Hasantha Gunaweera

    2018

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    India–Sri Lanka Development Cooperation with a Special Focus on Indian Housing Project for Internally

    Displaced Persons

    Authors: Abraham George & Hasantha Gunaweera

    Research Support: Avinash Thomas Editorial Assistance: Shoba Ramachandran

    This Report is based on the Oxfam India-ISDG research study on India–Sri Lanka Development Cooperation by the authors.

    Institute for Sustainable Development & Governance (ISDG) is a policy research and advocacy institute committed to the promotion of sustainable development and democratic governance in India.

    © Oxfam India October 2018

    This publication is copyright but the text may be used free of charge for the purposes of advocacy, campaigning, education, and research, provided that the source is acknowledged in full. The copyright holder requests that all such use be registered with them for impact assessment purposes. For copying in any other circumstances, permission must be secured. E-mail: policy@oxfamindia.org

    Oxfam India, a fully independent Indian organization, is a member of an international confederation of 20 organizations. The Oxfams are rights-based organizations, which fight poverty and injustice by linking grassroots interventions to local, national, and global policy developments.

    For further information please write to: policy@oxfamindia.org

    or visit our website: www.oxfamindia.org

    Abraham George is the Director of the Institute for Sustainable Development & Governance (ISDG), Trivandrum. He serves as an Assessor with the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) too. With his Ph.D in Economics and research interests in the areas of International Economics, Development Studies and Education Policy, he has more than three decades of experience in teaching and research and several publications to his credit. Earlier he had served as the Principal of Mar Thoma College, Tiruvalla (Mahatma Gandhi University), Kerala, India.

    Hasantha Gunaweera is a freelance consultant in Sri Lanka working in the fields of design, monitoring and evaluation of development programmes in line with the logical framework and rights based approach. His expertise is mainly in the areas that promote systems assuring participation, accountability, social safeguard, natural resource management and livelihood. A graduate in Agriculture and postgraduate training in Agriculture Extension from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, his involvement with development programmes and projects exceeds three decades.

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    Contents

    Acknowledgements iv

    List of Acronyms v

    1. An Overview of Development Cooperation Experience between India and Sri Lanka 1

    2. Indo–Sri Lankan Development Partnership 13

    3. Indian Housing Project for Internally Displaced Persons – Features, Effectiveness and Impact 22

    4. Policy Recommendations 42

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    Acknowledgements

    In continuation of the research studies on India’s development cooperation, ISDG, in collaboration with Oxfam India, is bringing out yet another work in this area. Besides analysing the evolution and growth of development partnership between India and Sri Lanka, this report gives special focus on the Indian Housing Project (IHP) for the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) that was initiated soon after the end of the civil war in Sri Lanka.

    I would like to express my appreciation to the authors Dr Abraham George, Director of ISDG and Mr Hasantha Gunaweera, freelance Consultant from Sri Lanka for successfully bringing out this Report. Dr George co-ordinated the research study and has been the lead writer of the Report.

    Mr Hasantha made it possible to conduct the field study in Northern Sri Lanka and organised a Consultative Workshop at Kandy. His analysis of the field study has been incorporated in Chapter 3 of this Report.

    We are deeply indebted to Dr Diya Dutta and Mr Tomojit Basu of Oxfam India for the excellent support they provided throughout the course of the project and also for their invaluable comments and suggestions during the writing of the Report.

    Our sincere thanks to Oxfam India’s present CEO Mr Amitabh Behar and former CEO Dr Nisha Agrawal for their guidance and patronage.

    We wish to acknowledge the valuable research assistance provided by Mr Avinash Thomas of ISDG. Many thanks to Ms Mini John, Ms Rajalekshmi and other colleagues at the ISDG and to Ms Hutokshi Doctor and Mr K C Dwarakanath of CCDS, Pune for their whole-hearted cooperation and help throughout the project.

    We owe our gratitude to Ms Shoba Ramachandran for her valuable editorial support.

    We acknowledge with gratitude the financial assistance extended by Oxfam India for this research study. Special thanks to Oxfam America for supporting the field study in Sri Lanka without which this Report in its present form would not have been possible.

    John Samuel President, ISDG

  • v

    List of Acronyms

    A ADB : Asian Development Bank

    C CBO : Community Based Organisation

    CEB : Ceylon Electricity Board

    CEPA : Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement

    D DAC : Development Assistance Committee

    DPA : Development Partnership Administration

    DS : Divisional Secretariat

    E ECTA : Economic and Technology Cooperation Agreement

    EECD : Early Childhood Care and Development

    EU : European Union

    EXIM : Export and Import Bank of India

    F FGD : Focus Group Discussion

    G GA : Government Agents (like District Secretaries)

    GDP : Gross Domestic Product

    GN : Grama Niladarie (a grassroots administrative officer, reporting to the DS)

    GoI : Government of India

    GoSL : Government of Sri Lanka

    H HfH : Habitat for Humanity

    I IAs : Implementing Agencies

    ICAR : Indian Council for Agricultural Research

    ICCR : Indian Council for Cultural Relations

    IDEAS : Indian Development and Economic Assistance Scheme

    IDPs : Internally Displaced Persons

    IFRC : International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    IHP : Indian Housing Project

    IMF : International Monetary Fund

    INR : Indian Rupee

    IOT : Indian Origin Tamils

    ISDG : Institute for Sustainable Development and Governance

    ISLFTA : India–Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

    ITEC : Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation

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    J JWG : Joint Working Group

    K KIIs : Key Informant Interviews

    KKS : Kankesanthurai

    L LKR : Sri Lankan Rupee

    LoC : Line of Credit

    LTTE : Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

    M MEA : Ministry of External Affairs, GoI

    MoU : Memorandum of Understanding

    MSCS : Most Significant Case Stories

    N NAM : Non-Aligned Movement

    NGO : Non-Governmental Organisation

    NHDA : National Housing Development Authority (a GoSL Institution)

    NTPC : National Thermal Power Corporation

    NWSDB : National Water Supply and Drainage Board

    O ODA : Official Development Assistance

    OECD : Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

    P POI : People of Indian Origin

    S SAARC : South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

    SAFTA : South Asian Free Trade Area

    SBA : Stand by Arrangement

    SCAAP : Special Commonwealth Assistance for Africa Programme

    SDP : Small Development Project

    SEWA : Self-Employed Women’s Association

    SLFTA : Sri Lanka Free Trade Agree