Independence Movements in Latin America
Latin American GeographyLatin America is made up of countries from North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean Islands.All languages spoken here are derived from Latin.The cultures of this region reflect a combination of native beliefs and colonial powers.
TopographyMajor topographical features:Sierra Madre MountainsYucatan PeninsulaAmazon BasinAndes MountainsAtacama DesertBrazilian HighlandsPatagonia
Spirit of Liberation I swear before God and by my honor never to allow my hands to be idle nor my soul to rest until I have broken the chains that bind us to SpainSimon Bolivar
What do you think Liberation means?Explain the meaning of this quote in your own words.
Long Term CausesEuropean dominationEnlightenment ideas of Locke, Rousseau & MontesquieuAmerican and French RevolutionsGrowth of nationalism
Immediate CausesCreoles, Mestizos & Indians resent colonial ruleRevolutionary leaders emergeNapoleon invades Spain & colonies saw Spains weakness as an opportunity to revolt
Haitis StruggleHaitis sugar plantations made it a valuable colony of France
Toussaint LOuvertureBorn into slaverySon of a Noble West African FamilyLearned to readInspired by stories of revolt in ancient Rome and Julius Caesar
Uprising of 1791
Toussaint with support of slaves vs France, Spain, Britain and MulattoesMore lives lost than in any other Revolution in the Americas
Rebuilding HaitiBy 1798 enslaved Haitians freeToussaint controlled most of the islandAttempted to heal rifts between classesOffered government jobs to whites, mulattoes & AfricansNapoleon enters picture in 1802 when 100 French soldiers were dying a dayTRUCE ESTABLISHED
Death of ToussaintToussaint was betrayed and seized by Napoleons menTen months later in a French prison Toussaint died1804 Haitian leaders declared independence1820 Haiti a republic & only non slave nation in Western Hemisphere
Call to Freedom in MexicoSeptember 16, 1810 Father Miguel Hidalgo, a Creole priest, rang bells of freedom
My children, will you be free? Will you make the effort to recover the lands stolen from your forefathers by the hated Spaniards 300 years ago?
Mexicans rally behind HidalgoHidalgo is supported by poor MexicansMestizos and Native Americans march to Mexico cityCalled for an end to slaveryBefore 1811 he was executed
Father Jose MorelosFather Morelos, a mestizo, called for the end of slavery and suffrage for all menHe was captured and shotSpain almost succeeded in ending rebel movements
Independence for Spain & Mexico1820 liberals forced King of Spain to issue a constitutionConservative Creole Agustin de Iturbide feared colonial reform1821, backed by Creoles, mestizos and Native Americans he overthrew Spanish ViceroyLife for most changed little
South Americas StrugglesStrong Native American challenge led by Tupac Amaruin 1780Revolt crushed bbut Spanish King ened system of forced laborBy the 1800s discontent among Creoles sparked drive for independence
Simon Bolivar ActsSimon Bolivar, an educated Creole, saw Napoleons occuparion of Spain the signal to actIn 1810 he led an uprising that established a republic in VenezuelaCivil war raged & Bolivar forced into exile
The Liberator1819 Bolivar marches army across the Andes and attacks at Bogota1821 he freed Caracas, VenezuelaMoves into Peru, Ecuador and BoliviaJoins forces with Jose de San Martin
Jose de San MartinSan Martin , a Creole like Bolivar, was born in Argentina 1816 he won freedom for ArgentinaHe led an army across Andes into Chile 1822 San Martin stepped aside & Bolivar won final victories against Spain
Dreams and DisappointmentsBy 1824 wars of independence had endedBolivars dream for Gran Columbia vanished as rivalries flaredGran Columbia split into Venezuela, Columbia and EcuadorViolent civil wars emerged Long struggle for stability and even longer for democracy
Independence for BrazilPortuguese King fled Napoleon to BrazilInstituted reformsLeaves son Dom Pedro to rule Brazil
If Brazil demands independence, proclaim it yourself and put the crown on your own head.
In 1822 Dom Pedro became Emperor
Long-Term Effects18 separate republics are establishedStruggle to achieve stable democratic governments & to gain economic independenceOngoing efforts to bring prosperity & democracy to the people of Latin America
AssignmentWork in groups to complete your Recipe for Revolution
*Bolivar would fulfill quote and by 1825 most of Latin America had been freed from colonial rule.