Text of In the name of god. History taking lung disease Common Symptoms: Chest pain Shortness of breath...
In the name of god
History taking lung disease
Common Symptoms: Chest pain Shortness of breath (dyspnea) Wheezing Cough Blood-streaked sputum (hemoptysis)
The myocardium angina pectoris, myocardial infarction The pericardium Pericarditis The aorta Dissecting aortic aneurysm The trachea and large bronchi Bronchitis
The parietal pleura Pericarditis, pneumonia The chest wall, including the musculoskeletal system and skin Costochondritis, herpes zoster
The esophagus Reflux esophagitis, esophageal spasm Extrathoracic structures such as the neck, gallbladder, and stomach. Cervical arthritis, biliary colic, gastritis
Your initial questions should be as broad as possible. Do you have any discomfort or unpleasant feelings in your chest? As you proceed to the full history, ask the patient to point to where the pain is in the chest.You should elicit all seven attributes of.this symptom
THE SEVEN ATTRIBUTES OF A SYMPTOM Location. Where is it? Does it radiate? Quality. What is it like? Quantity or severity. How bad is it? (For pain, ask for a rating on a scale of 1 to 10.) Timing. When did (does) it start? How long does it last? How often does it come? Setting in which it occurs. Include environmental factors, personal activities, emotional reactions, or other circumstances that may have contributed to the illness. Remitting or exacerbating factors. Is there anything that makes it better or worse? Associated manifestations. Have you noticed anything else that accompanies it?
:Pleuritic Pain Inflammation of the parietal pleura, as in pleurisy, pneumonia, pulmonary infarction, or neoplasm Chest wall overlying the process Sharp, knifelike Often severe Persistent Inspiration, coughing, movements of the trunk
Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea) and Wheezing
Dyspnea is a nonpainful but uncomfortable awareness of breathing
dyspnea commonly results from cardiac or pulmonary disease.
Ask Have you had any difficulty breathing? Find out when the symptom occurs, at rest or with exercise, and how much effort produces onset.
How many steps or flights of stairs can the patient climb before pausing for breath?
Carefully elicit the timing and setting of dyspnea, any associated symptoms, and relieving or aggravating factors.
Most patients with dyspnea relate shortness of breath to their level of activity
Anxious patients may have episodic dyspnea during both rest and exercise, and hyperventilation, or rapid, shallow breathing. At other times, they may sigh frequently
Anxiety With Hyperventilation More often occurs at rest than after exercise.. Sighing, lightheadedness, numbness or tingling of the hands and feet, palpitations, chest pain
Wheezes are musical respiratory sounds that may be audible to the patient and to others. Wheezing suggests partial airway obstruction from secretions, tissue inflammation, or a foreign body.
Cough: cough is a reflex response to stimuli that irritate receptors in the larynx, trachea, or large bronchi.
These stimuli include mucus, pus, and blood, as well as external agents such as dust, foreign bodies, or even extremely hot or cold air. Other causes include inflammation of the respiratory mucosa and pressure or tension in the air passages from a tumor or enlarged peribronchial lymph nodes.
Duration of the cough is important: is the cough acute, or lasting less than 3 weeks; subacute, or 3 to 8 weeks; or chronic, more than 8 weeks?
Viral upper respiratory infections are the most common cause of acute cough; also consider acute bronchitis, pneumonia, left ventricular heart failure, asthma, foreign body. Postinfectious cough, bacterial sinusitis, asthma in subacute cough; postnasal drip, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis in chronic cough.
Ask whether the cough is dry or produces sputum, or phlegm?
Mucoid sputum is translucent, white, or gray; purulent sputum is yellowish or greenish
Ask the patient to describe the volume of any sputum and its color, odor, and consistency
Foul-smelling sputum in anaerobic lung abscess; tenacious sputum in cystic fibrosis
How much do you think you cough up in 24 hours: a teaspoon, tablespoon, quarter cup, half cup, cupful? If possible, ask the patient to cough into a tissue; inspect the phlegm and note its characteristics.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood from the lungs; it may vary from blood-streaked phlegm to frank, assess the volume of blood.
source of the bleeding: may originate in the mouth, pharynx, or gastrointestinal tract. When vomited, it probably originates in the gastrointestinal tract. Occasionally, however, blood from the nasopharynx or the gastrointestinal tract is aspirated and then coughed out.
Blood originating in the stomach is usually darker than blood from the respiratory tract and may be mixed with food particles.