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Journal of Cleaner Production 8 (2000) 375379www.cleanerproduction.netImplementation of cleaner production practices with the support ofa diploma courseAsher Kiperstok *Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, Federal University of Bahia, Rua Aristides Novis 02, Federacao, 40210-630, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilAbstractThis paper describes the initial proposal of a cleaner technologies network in the state of Bahia, in the northeast section of Brazil.This network intends to bring together industry, universities, and government to discuss the relationship between production andthe environment. Its main objective is to support a change in the way this relationship is nowadays perceived, in order to makepreventive practices a priority and improve eco-efficiency. Implementation of the network was preceded by a diploma course onenvironmental technologies and management directed at professionals in the workforce. The results of the course are helping tocreate an atmosphere that is beneficial for the start-up of the network. 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Keywords: Cleaner production; Networking; Clean technology; Training; Training for eco-efficiency1. IntroductionIf cleaner production practices so obviously makecommon sense, why should we take the time to developprogrammes to expand and support them? Why do theynot occur naturally in industry? Are they just an aca-demic preoccupation?These questions were raised during the birth ofTECLIM, a programme conceived in 1997 by theDepartment of Hydraulics and Sanitation and the Depart-ment of Chemical Engineering at the Federal Universityof Bahia, Brazil, to promote cleaner practices in indus-try. Initial contacts with representatives from the chemi-cal industry and industrial associations helped to clarifythe issues.At the outset of the programme, it became clear thatnone of the above questions have a single, simple yes-or-no answer, and that addressing these questions wouldrequire taking several factors into account. First, outsideenvironmental pressures have affected industry. The pre-dominant focus inside the facility limits of plants onincreasing production and profits now shares attentionwith growing societal concerns about protecting theenvironment. To address this tension, end-of-pipe meas-* Tel.: +55-71-2354436.E-mail address: asher@ufba.br (A. Kiperstok).0959-6526/00/$ - see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.PII: S0959- 65 26 (00)00 04 0- 8ures have flourished as the favored means of industryand governments for balancing interests.Second, recent industrialisation in many developingcountries has been encouraged by protective measuresadopted by their governments to gain greater economicindependence. These measures were designed to boostlocal enterprises and develop substitutes for importedgoods, thereby generating jobs at a local level. To fosterindustrialisation in the 60s and 70s, governments andprivate national interests formed alliances to createopportunities to attract foreign investors and technology.Huge investments in infrastructure were made, and rawmaterials were subsidized. In Brazil, for example, thisapproach was termed the economical miracle yetgenerated an external debt and dependence that contrib-uted to the countrys economic stagnation of the 80sand 90s. Under official protection, industry grew withfew demands for efficiency as long as it was able togenerate profits for shareholders. As a result of thisdevelopment model, high rates of inflation becameendemic in third world countries. Environmental con-straints were initially relaxed and then subsequentlyenforced, but governments subsidised industrys com-pliance costs.Third, in the 90s, globalisation forced industry tosearch for new patterns of production to survive undermore competitive circumstances. Environmental con-straints have grown more stringent, as standards have376 A. Kiperstok / Journal of Cleaner Production 8 (2000) 375379been exported from more developed and saturated mar-kets to the less developed world. Countries that havealready destroyed all their original ecosystems are put-ting pressure on those who still have some untouchedareas to preserve them. This kind of global sense of guiltmay change the present trend of biodiversity reduction.The questions initially posed by TECLIM were gradu-ally answered. To some professionals in industry, it wasobvious that pollution should be addressed at the sourcein order to avoid unnecessary consumption of rawmaterials and the additional costs of destroying unspentinputs. Those who recognised the need for a change inbehaviour saw TECLIMs initiative as an opportunity tofind other people who thought the same way as they did.Nevertheless, the vast majority of their colleagues stillreacted in an old-fashioned way by favoring pollutioncontrol. This response indicated that not all TECLIMparticipants perceived the new reality of the need for aprevention-based approach and that a change in estab-lished ways of thinking, not just individual attitudes, isrequired.2. TECLIM (Clean Technologies) programmeThe clean technology programme attempts to create anetwork linking industry, government, and universitiesto promote the use of clean technologies in local facili-ties. Institutions taking part in this programme includeuniversities and technical schools, industrial associ-ations, training and centres for technology, environmen-tal agencies as well as industrial and consulting firms,and industrial water and wastewater treatment firms.The programme is financially supported by the Brazil-ian Research Council, CNPq and the Research Co-oper-ative Network RECOPE funded by the FederalGovernment and the State Government of Bahia [2].The initial design for TECLIM included five work-groups, as indicated in Fig. 1. These workgroups addressthe following topics: 1) environmental management forthe transfer of cleaner technologies, 2) information sys-tems, 3) environmental optimisation of processes, 4)development of bio-indicators to assess the toxicity ofindustrial wastewater, and 5) education and training.These workgroups are meant as a starting basis for thedevelopment of future initiatives or co-operative pro-jects [2].The first workgroup seeks to study environmentalmanagement systems that are already in place in localfirms (all large companies). The objectives of this studyare to develop a methodology for the implementation ofcleaner production practices in large, medium and smallfirms, with or without previous EMS experience, and toidentify mechanisms to promote the integration betweenindustrial sectors to allow the use of residues of oneplant to be used as raw materials of another.The information system workgroup seeks theimplementation of an information framework to supportthe expansion of clean technologies. This frameworkattempts to facilitate the exchange of opinions and infor-mation between the network partners and the public atlarge. This system will provide the virtual space neededto allow the network partners to meet and carry out theiractivities. It will also support educational and trainingactivities and a database offering technical informationand summaries of successful experiences. The initialhomepage can be found at http://www.teclim.ufba.brThe third workgroup is engaged in research into theenvironmental optimisation of processes. The researchaims to develop and apply mathematical programmingmethods to support the identification of cleaner industrialconfigurations. The workgroup also seeks cooperationbetween industry and the university to carry out researchinto the reduction of industrial effluent toxicity.The fourth workgroup, coordinated by UFBAs Insti-tute of Biology, seeks to develop bio-indicators to assessthe toxicity of industrial wastewater. By adapting bio-monitoring methods to the reality of local industry, theworkgroup intends to prioritise efforts for the segre-gation of industrial waste streams.Finally, the education and training workgroups objec-tive is to insert a pollution prevention approach intoengineering courses at UFBA and other local univer-sities. At the moment, the main initiative beingimplemented is the Diploma Course in EnvironmentalManagement and Technologies in Industry. An effort isalso being made to deliver this course using distancelearning techniques. The workgroup is also attemptingto make available recent information on pollution pre-vention and environmental technologies to professionalsalready positioned in the market place.3. The diploma course on environmentalmanagement and technologies in industryTo initially spread the cleaner production conceptamong industry and government, the School of Engin-eering of the Federal University of Bahia and the Indus-trial Technology Centre (CETIND) of the NationalIndustrial Training Service worked together to put for-ward a diploma course on environmental managementand technologies. The idea was discussed in 1997 withprofessionals working in industry, and the first coursewas offered in March 1998 in the city of Salvador, Bah-ias capital. Due to the success of this first course, asecond course was offered in 1999.The Diploma Course on Environmental Managementand Technologies in Industry is a 550-hour course deliv-ered in the evenings to encourage the participation ofprofessionals working in industry. The eight-modulecourse, which runs over the course of 12 months,377A. Kiperstok / Journal of Cleaner Production 8 (2000) 375379Fig. 1. Proposal for TECLIMs structure [2].includes 340 class instruction hours and the writing ofa small research project with an estimated duration ofnot less than 210 hours over six months. (see Table 1).The course begins with a review of environmental man-agement issues. It then presents technological issues ina sequence that follows the order of priorities rec-Table 1Course modules and subjects [1]Modules and subjects HoursI Environmental management 60Ia Economics and environment 15Ib Legal and institutional aspects 15Ic Environmental impact assessment 15Id Environmental management systems 15II Introduction to research methods 18III Environmental technologies 126IIIa Clean technologies and waste minimisation 36IIIb Liquid effluents 27IIIc Atmospheric emissions 15IIId Solid wastes 21IIIe Remediation of contaminated soils 27IV Behaviour of pollutants in the environment 60IVa Toxicology 15IVb Physical and chemical aspects 21IVc Biological aspects 24V Risk analysis and safety 30VI Case studies 16VII Supervised research work 210VIII Workshop for the presentation of best research30works and discussion of future scenariosTotal 550ommended to deal with environmental practices inindustry, namely, first solving problems at the source. Ifmanagerial or technological competence is not available,or is insufficient to prevent all possible pollution at thesource, end of pipe abatement and disposal techniqueshave to be considered. The course reviews the pollutionprevention hierarchy for discharges to water, air andland.In addressing the behaviour of pollutants in theenvironment, course instructors encourage debate overtoxicological issues as well as the principles that governthe transference and transformation of pollutants inphysical and biological structures. In reviewing risk andsafety issues, the course intends to give participantsbasic information to allow them to participate in workinggroups bringing together environmental and safety mat-ters.Although practical examples are discussed throughoutthe course, a special section is dedicated to the presen-tation of successful case studies from small to largeindustrial firms. Students have contributed to the courseby identifying and suggesting interesting cases to bepresented and discussed. Some of these are internationalexperiences presented by representatives of multi-national firms, suggested and supported by participantsof the course who themselves work for their Brazilianbranches.The inclusion into the curriculum of the experiencesof small firms is of special interest. The course, as partof the TECLIM programme, aims to reach not just large378 A. Kiperstok / Journal of Cleaner Production 8 (2000) 375379Table 2Students profile [1,3]By working place 98 99 By profession 98 99 By experience 98 99Medium in environmental issues,Large size, chemical industry 15 20 Chemical engineer/Chemist 15 17 17 22large in related areasConsulting firm 9 9 Manager/Economist 3 1 Little 13 6University 6 Biologist 4 Large in environmental issues 8 6Environmental agency 3 1 Mechanical engineer 4 4Computing firms 2 Safety engineer 4 5Industry federation 2 1 System analyst 2 Medium size industry 1 1 Geologist 2 2Research centre 2 Metallurgical engineer 2 Architect 1 Civil engineer 2Other 1 3Total 38 34 38 34 38 34and medium firms, but also small firms with very littletechnological know-how. One way to achieve this goalis to bring together professionals working in large firms,who have access to more current technologies, with col-leagues who understand the realities of working insmaller firms. Students are also encouraged to choosesmall firms as the subject of their research work.4. Experiences with the diploma courseIn 1998, 38 students participated in the first offeringof the course, and in 1999, the course enrolled 34 stu-dents. A profile of the students reflects a variety of pro-fessions, levels of experience, and places of employment(Table 2) [1,3]. Contributing lecturers are recruited bothfrom university and industry to facilitate the associationbetween academic and more applied thinking. A profileof the lecturers is presented in Table 3 [1,3].Interdisciplinary work is promoted in and out of classto facilitate a broader comprehension of environmentalproblems. This approach reproduces the kind of real-lifeinteraction that must be dealt with positively in industry.At the same time, it also poses a challenge to the lec-turers who, because they are facing an audience with abroader industrial experience than their own, tend todraw upon the students own experiences and diverseeducational and professional backgrounds. The parti-cipants diverse backgrounds and interests, combinedTable 3Lecturers profile [1,3]Institution 98 99 Highest qualification 98 99University 13 15 PhD 11 13Industry/Consulting/Government 8 13 MSc 6 9Diploma 4 6Total 21 28 21 28with the lecturers experiences and desire to develop aninterdisciplinary process of teaching and learning, havefostered a discussion environment where practical viewsconfront theoretical frameworks. At times, lecturers arecompelled to assume the role of mediators in an ongo-ing debate.The course has also demonstrated that encountersbetween individuals with specialised knowledge andthose with different, broader experiences may facilitatethe discovery and implementation of cleaner productionpractices. Students in the course with more expertise ina specific subject tended to help less experienced col-leagues, and differences in skill levels contributed to thegeneration of new approaches to the problems being dis-cussed. These interactions enriched not only the stu-dents knowledge but also the lecturers [4,5]. If repro-duced on a larger scale, this phenomenon couldcontribute to the introduction of cleaner practices inindustry. It could also be replicated in other universityclassrooms.Initially conceived just as one of the activities sup-porting TECLIM, the diploma course has shown greatpotential to support the development of the TECLIMprogramme as a whole, as well as develop as a long-term activity in its own right. This potential has emergedfrom the intense exchange of opinions occurring in classand could constitute a strong movement towards cleanerproduction if expanded through the information systemand distance learning methods being developed by the379A. Kiperstok / Journal of Cleaner Production 8 (2000) 375379TECLIM programme [4,5]. The gradual transformationof the course into a distance learning course will allowthe generation of information that may be used to feedthe information system. Moreover, the success of theinformation system will promote the course. Courseresearch work will be published and publicised throughthe programmes information system as well as otherconventional means. The idea is to encourage otherstakeholders to take part in the debate and bring theircleaner production experiences into the public space.5. ConclusionOur experience with the Diploma Course on Environ-mental Management and Technologies in Industry hasshown that the courses educational approach contributesto the success of both the course itself and the broaderindustrial cleaner technologies programme (TECLIM) ofwhich the course is a part. While TECLIMs informationsystem enhances the courses impact by reaching moreprofessionals as well as supporting the students pro-fessional growth even after they complete the course, thedebates and research projects generated in the course, inturn, feed the information system. Bringing the diplomacourse together with other TECLIM initiatives also fos-ters greater interaction between industry and academicinstitutions.A multidisciplinary approach is advantageous to theimplementation of courses similar to the diploma course.Benefits of such an approach include the enrichment ofclass debates, the fostering of multi-focused views, andthe development of new ideas. Although maintaining amultidisciplinary approach requires instructors to rethinktheir lectures and present them in an entirely new way,the positive response from students may well be worththe effort.References[1] Kiperstok A, Cardoso LF. Teclim/UFBa, Relatorio do Curso deEspecializacao em Gerenciamento e Tecnologias Ambientais naIndustria, elaborado para o PADCTIII. Salvador, Bahia: Capes,1999.[2] Kiperstok A, Pacheco Filho JG. Teclim/UFBa, Rede de Tecnolog-ias Limpas e Minimizacao de Resduos na Industria, proposta apre-sentada ao edital Recope. Salvador, Bahia: Cadct/Finep, 1998.[3] Kiperstok A. Teclim/UFBa, Relatorio do Primeiro Curso deEspecializacao em Gerenciamento e Tecnologias Ambientais naIndustria. Bahia: Salvador, 1998.[4] Kiperstok A. Tecnologias Limpas, Capacitacao e Pesquisa. Tec-bahia 1998;13(1):1369.[5] Kiperstok A. Implantacao de uma rede de cooperacao em tecnolog-ias limpas como o apoio de cursos de especializacao. O curso deespecializacao em gerenciamento e tecnologias ambientais naindustria da UFBA. Anais do II simposio intenacional de qualidadeambiental, Porto Alegre, Outubro, 1998:564570.

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