HYDROELECTRIC DAMS IN AMAZONIA AS CONTRIBUTORS TO GLOBAL WARMING: THE CONTROVERSY HEATS UP Philip M. Fearnside Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz´nia

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Text of HYDROELECTRIC DAMS IN AMAZONIA AS CONTRIBUTORS TO GLOBAL WARMING: THE CONTROVERSY HEATS UP Philip M....

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  • HYDROELECTRIC DAMS IN AMAZONIA AS CONTRIBUTORS TO GLOBAL WARMING: THE CONTROVERSY HEATS UP Philip M. Fearnside Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaznia - INPA
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  • Its baloney and its much overblown... Methane is produced quite substantially in the rain forest and no one suggests cutting down the rain forest. Karolyn Wolf, spokesperson for the US National Hydropower Association responding to reports of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs, 1995.
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  • Tucuru spillway photo
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  • tuc spillway diagram
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  • Tuc intake diagram
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  • Eicchornia
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  • Ivan Tavares macrophytes
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  • Adjusted methane profile
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  • Methane export from turbines
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  • Tuc. emiss. by source
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  • compar with other estimates
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  • Human lung
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  • islands aereal view
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  • Aereal view 3
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  • P. Fearnside... assume[s], without demonstration, that hydro reservoirs increase dramatically the area of floodplain ecosystems. It is probably true that new floodplain ecosystems are created in the periphery of new reservoirs, but a fair assessment must consider the fact that, prior to impoundment, floodplain ecosystems existed in the area of the reservoirs. These large sources are replaced by deep water in the main portion of the reservoir, dramatically reducing methane emissions. So overall, it is possible that this is a zero-sum issue. (Gagnon 2002)
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  • Hydroelectric dam emissions in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 (million tons CO 2 -C equivalent) TucuruiBalbinaSamuelCuru-UnaTotal Percentag e of total recurrent emission Flux source Recurrent (inventory) emissions Surface emissions0.540.750.080.0081.3817 Turbine emissions2.480.720.240.083.5244 Spillway emissions3.070.000.040.063.1739 Total recurrent emissions6.091.470.370.148.06100
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  • Additional components of net impact TucuruiBalbinaSamuel Curu- Una Total Forest biomass aerobic decay2.586.431.130.0110.15 Pre-dam ecosystem fluxes (a)-0.09-0.15-0.02-0.003-0.27 Displaced fossil fuels-3.86-0.34-0.13-0.04-4.38 Net emission4.717.411.350.1113.57 Hydro emission as multiple of thermal2.323.511.83.74.2 (a) Pre-dam ecosystem fluxes: CH 4 sink in forest soil, N 2 O source in forest soil, and CH 4 source from forest termites.
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  • Ns [o setor de clima do MCT] conversamos com o Prof. Pinguelli [Rosa] e eu pedi ajuda da ELETROBRS [sobre o assunto de emisses de gs de efeito estufa de hidreltricas]; alis quem coordenou esse trabalho [i.e., a estimativa de emisses de hidreltricas para o Inventario Nacional] foi a ELETROBRS exatamente por causa disso, porque esse assunto estava virando poltico. Ele tem um impacto muito grande no nvel mundial, ns vamos sofrer presso dos pases desenvolvidos por causa desse assunto.
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  • E esse assunto era pouco conhecido. maltratado. Ele maltratado e continua sendo maltratado pelo prprio Philip Fearnside e ns temos que tomar muito cuidado. Esse debate que esta acontecendo agora na imprensa mostra claramente isso, quer dizer, voc pega qualquer declarao e leva para um lado para mostrar que o Brasil no limpo, que o Brasil est se omitindo muito, que o Brasil, implicitamente, no futuro tem que ter compromisso [para reduzir as emisses]. Esse que o grande debate poltico e ns estamos nos preparando para isso. (Brasil, MCT, 2002). http://www.mct.gov.br/clima/brasil/doc/workad. doc http://www.mct.gov.br/clima/brasil/doc/workad. doc
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  • It is necessary to avoid... the lures of the thermo-power and nuclear- power lobbies that are trying to blame higher emissions on power dams. Luiz Pinguelli Rosa, Marco Aurelio dos Santos, Bohdan Matvienko, Ednaldo Oliveira dos Santos & Elizabeth Sikar (Climatic Change, 2004)
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