Hominids, Paleolithic Society, and Neolithic Society
Key Concepts 1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies 1.3 The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies
My How Weve Changed First Humans: Lucy 3 ft 5 in 55 lbs 3.5 Million Years Old Ethiopia Oldest Skeleton ever found.
Key Difference b/t Humans and Animals in History Animals Adapt to environment to meet the demands of the environment Humans Adapt the environment to meet the demands of humans
The Hominids Hominids Include human and human like species. Australopithecus Short, hairy, upright, limited in intelligence, opposable thumbs. Lived in eastern and southern Africa Phased out by about one million years ago. Many remains found in Africa
The Hominids Homo Erectus Upright- walking human. Flourished from 2.5 million 200,000 years ago. Larger brain, more intelligent. Fire Tools: Axes, cleavers Language Migrated North Africa, Eurasian landmass
Homo Sapiens Homo Sapiens Consciously thinking human 200,000 years ago Possessed higher levels of intelligence and communication allowing them to adapt (i.e. created clothing for cold weather, complex weapons) Intelligence allowed movement Africa, Europe, Asia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, Siberia, Alaska, North America
Paleolithic Society Paleolithic Era The Old Stone Age Start: First Hominids End: Twelve Thousand Years Ago Key Characteristic Human beings foraged for their food. Hunted wild animals or gather edible products from naturally growing plants
Paleolithic Society Relative Social Equality Hunter Gatherers Meant they followed prey and moved with seasons Lived in small groups Resulted in no private ownership and relative equality Areas where food was especially rich sometimes meant abandonment of hunter gatherer lifestyle in exchange for permanent settlements. i.e.- Chinooks of the Pacific Northwest
Paleolithic Culture Paleolithic Culture Evidence of reflection Complex Burials (Neandertal people) Creative Achievements Cro-Magnon People Very similar to modern humans Intelligence, Communication, Appearance Harpoons, Bows and Arrows Jewelry Furniture Venus Figurines (p. 17) Cave Paintings (p. 18)
The Neolithic Era The Neolithic Era The New Stone Age. Refers to the early stages of agricultural society. Involved the systematic cultivation of crops and domestication of animals. Meant phasing out of the hunter-gatherer lifestyle 12,000-6,000 years ago Slow and gradual process
Neolithic Era Early Agricultural Society Increased food supply lead to huge population increase (p. 24) Villages and towns sprung up (Jericho and Catal Huyuk) Lead to specialization of labor Metalworking, pottery, and textile production
The Neolithic Era Social Distinctions First time people had opportunity to accumulate wealth Due to specialization of labor and increased value of land Class System developed as a result (first time for rich and poor)
The Neolithic Era Neolithic Culture Accumulated working knowledge of the earths rhythms and passed them on Religious beliefs in multiple gods associated with multiple things: Death, fertility, etc.
The Neolithic Era Emergence of cities Dense populations, specialized labor, and complex social relationships created by agriculture eventually gave rise to cities. Larger and more complex than villages Specialization Tax Collectors, military strategists, governors, etc. Influenced the political, cultural, and economic life of larger regions around the world.