HIS Exam 1 Notes

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(lecture 1)

The Protestant Reformation in Western Europe

Main Goals and Ideas:

Demonstrate how I use outlines in class

Europe was not a unified whole, but full of internal conflicts and divisions, both before and after the Protestant Reformation.

Religion was the strongest division between individuals in early Modern Europe.

The Reach of the Catholic Church, 313-1500s

Apostolic Succession

-the ordaining of popes, bishops, all trace roots back to peter, and therefor jesus

-only way to get to heaven is through priest

-only way to get to heaven is to heaven is through the priest, who has ties to pope

The Limits of the church outside of Western Europe/ the limits of the church within Western Europe

-every local area is going to have some version or hybridization attached to catholicism

-there were many debates about the life of jesus (was he human, divine, or both?)



Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther and the 95 theses (the symbolic beginning)

-statement of things church was doing wrong

-believed that the bible should be translated, the church was too political, and that you do not need a priest to get to heaven

Peasants revolt

-revolt against landlords due to luthers actions

-luther did not approve when they became violent

-caused lose of appeal in rural poor because princes reacted cruelly

Counter-Reformation by the Catholic Church

Council of Trent (1545-1563)

-standardization of beliefs

-catholic mass emerges (mass is still in latin)

-attempt to spread catholicism

-changes due to protestant reformation

-set out clear differences with protestantism

-condemned corruptions such as simony (sale of church offices), pluralism (one individual held several offices), and nepotism (favoritism granted to relatives)

-index of forbidden books

Creation of Jesuits

-missionaries that carried catholicism to distant nationsReligious Conflict:

St. Bartholomew Days Massacre (1572)-Huguenots (protestant family of bride)

-started out by the assassination of the brides protestant family and then turned to a mob of violence

-mass murder of protestants by catholics

Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

-holy roman emperor had conflicts with protestant princes

-sparked in progue (two catholic officials thrown out of protestant princes window)

-war between catholics and protestants

-violence was extreme

-every major power was involved: transformed from religious to political

-places where there is not warfare people had abandoned their fields, there is famine

-ended with treaty of wesphalia

-importance: how serious people took religion

Concluding Thoughts:

Europe was not a unified whole, but full of internal conflicts and divisions, both before and after the Protestant Reformation.

Religion was the strongest division between individuals in early Modern Europe.

(lecture 2) pg. 475-490 9:3-5Main Points:

The system of nation-states is a relatively new creation in world history.

Focusing only on one single nation-state will make you miss the things that are happening in many places at once.

Medieval Spain provides a good case study of a local place that served as a global crossroads.

Setting up Europe for future comparisons:


-levels of society



-ex: protestantism vs. catholic


-all societies have own, different backgrounds

-every society changes

What does it mean to be ahistorical?

-assumption that this or that society has not changed

-to see a place and assume it has always been like that

Weak States in Europe before and during the Reformation:

-kings did not have much power

-they depended on local forces (decentralized)

Four goals of centralizing monarchies, 1500-1700

1. Bureaucracy (ppl who work for the govt)


-king pays bureaucrat, they are dependent and loyal to king

-selected official from outside of nobility and payed them in small scattered estates

-kings also granted towns privledges in return for payments (reduced dependence on nobles)

-more sophisticated state structure, can now go further into country to tax2. Militarization-forces the payment of taxes

vagabonds; vagabondage

-bandits in european countryside

-brought in to serve in military

-advantageous to state because you take away crime to fight crime

3. Creation of Legitimacy

-prove to people that you deserve to rule

Louis XIV Aprs moi, ltat. (I am the state)

-called himself the sun king


-king decides everything

-placed king at highest point

-king louis moved palace to versailles from paris because he could, was a way to project total power

no checks and balances on king however, power doesnt compare to modern president

4. Homogenizing population (desire to make population similar)

-less tolerance for certain minorities

Cardinal Richelieu

-standardized french language, unified population

-inquistition (spanish tribunal for detection and punishment of heresy, operated as agency of state, free from church control)

Global processes in a local setting: Iberian Peninsula

The places we call Spain and Portugal were loose collections of subregions

-has not always been roman catholic

-practiced muslim and catholicism


Castile, Granada, Aragon, Catalua, Asturias, etc. (GOOGLE)