Grain Crops Topic #2085 Josh Miller. Crops and Use Grain Grain Seed of a cereal grain plant Seed of a cereal grain plant Grain kernels have a high starch

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Text of Grain Crops Topic #2085 Josh Miller. Crops and Use Grain Grain Seed of a cereal grain plant Seed of...

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  • Grain Crops Topic #2085 Josh Miller
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  • Crops and Use Grain Grain Seed of a cereal grain plant Seed of a cereal grain plant Grain kernels have a high starch content Grain kernels have a high starch content Grain has been used for food for thousands of years Grain has been used for food for thousands of years Grain domesticated about 9,000 bc Grain domesticated about 9,000 bc Kernel Kernel Part of an individual grain within the seed coat Part of an individual grain within the seed coat
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  • Grain Crops Grown Major grain crops in US Major grain crops in US Wheat, corn, and rice Wheat, corn, and rice Other important crops Other important crops Oats, barley, rye, grain sorghum Oats, barley, rye, grain sorghum World leading grain crops World leading grain crops Wheat, Corn, Rice Wheat, Corn, Rice Corn is most important to US Corn is most important to US
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  • Grain Crop#1#2#3 WheatKansasNorth DakotaMontana CornIowaIllinoisNebraska OatsWisconsinNorth DakotaMinnesota BarleyNorth DakotaMontanaIdaho RiceArkansasCaliforniaLouisiana RyeTexasGeorgiaNorth Dakota Grain Crops cont.
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  • Grain Use Primary used for human consumption Primary used for human consumption Also used as animal feed which intern is consumed by humans Also used as animal feed which intern is consumed by humans Corn Corn Most versatile grain Most versatile grain Cattle, hogs, poultry Cattle, hogs, poultry Humans bread, chips, oil Humans bread, chips, oil
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  • Uses of Selected Grains Corn Corn Cooking oil, bread, breakfast cereal, livestock feed, fuel, cosmetics, medicine Cooking oil, bread, breakfast cereal, livestock feed, fuel, cosmetics, medicine Wheat Wheat Bread, pasta, livestock feed, alcohol, manufacturing Bread, pasta, livestock feed, alcohol, manufacturing Rice Rice Main meal, side dish, breakfast cereal Main meal, side dish, breakfast cereal Oats Oats Breakfast cereal, livestock feed Breakfast cereal, livestock feed
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  • Uses of Selected Grain cont. Barley Barley Malting, livestock feed Malting, livestock feed Rye Rye Bread, livestock feed Bread, livestock feed Grain sorghum Grain sorghum Livestock feed Livestock feed
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  • Selecting Crops and Varieties Things to consider when selecting grain crops to grow Things to consider when selecting grain crops to grow Climate Climate Average weather condition over a long period of time Average weather condition over a long period of time A variety must be selected so that the crop can mature before it frost A variety must be selected so that the crop can mature before it frost Soil and Water Soil and Water Must be within the range of the requirements of the crop to be grown Must be within the range of the requirements of the crop to be grown Rice requires large amounts, wheat requires little Rice requires large amounts, wheat requires little
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  • Selecting Crops cont. Market Market Grain marketing includes all the processes that connect the producer and the consumer Grain marketing includes all the processes that connect the producer and the consumer The closer the producer is to the market the cheaper it is to produce The closer the producer is to the market the cheaper it is to produce Technology Technology Equipment, fertilizer, improved seed, pest control Equipment, fertilizer, improved seed, pest control Personal skills Personal skills Knowledge/skill of the producer Knowledge/skill of the producer Skill level of available labor Skill level of available labor
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  • Scientific Names of Selected Crops Corn Zea mays Corn Zea mays Oats Avena sativa Oats Avena sativa Rye Secale cereale Rye Secale cereale Wheat Triticum aestivum Wheat Triticum aestivum Rice Oryza sativa Rice Oryza sativa
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  • Corn Production 70 million acres planted each year in US 70 million acres planted each year in US 750,000 acres planted to sweet corn 750,000 acres planted to sweet corn Average corn yield in the US is 123 bu Average corn yield in the US is 123 bu Most corn grains are: Most corn grains are: 65% carbohydrates 65% carbohydrates 10% protein 10% protein 25% moisture, ash, other materials 25% moisture, ash, other materials
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  • Corn Production cont. Dent corn major type grown for grain Dent corn major type grown for grain So widely grown it is know as field corn So widely grown it is know as field corn Grains are flat with indentation in the crown Grains are flat with indentation in the crown Livestock feed, human use and oil products Livestock feed, human use and oil products Flint corn more rounded than dent Flint corn more rounded than dent Shorter time to maturity Shorter time to maturity Grown in Northern United States Grown in Northern United States Floury corn soft and first corn grown in US Floury corn soft and first corn grown in US
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  • Corn Production cont. Sweet corn planted for human use Sweet corn planted for human use High sugar content and low starch content High sugar content and low starch content Popcorn food that many people enjoy as a snack Popcorn food that many people enjoy as a snack Kernels are smaller than other corn Kernels are smaller than other corn Each stalk may grow several ears Each stalk may grow several ears
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  • Corn Production cont. Varieties Varieties Height 2 to 20 feet average is 6 to 8 Height 2 to 20 feet average is 6 to 8 Maturity ranges from 50 days to 330 days Maturity ranges from 50 days to 330 days Some good for silage other better for grain Some good for silage other better for grain Planting Planting Occur after the threat of frost Occur after the threat of frost February in southern Texas February in southern Texas Mid-May in Northern States Mid-May in Northern States Ground temperature should be at least 50 Ground temperature should be at least 50 Seeds should be planted about 2 deep Seeds should be planted about 2 deep
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  • Corn Production cont. Degree Days Degree Days Is a measure of the temperature requirements for best corn growth Is a measure of the temperature requirements for best corn growth Daily high + Daily low divided by 2 minus 50 Daily high + Daily low divided by 2 minus 50 Ex. 80+60=140/2=70-50= 20 GDD Ex. 80+60=140/2=70-50= 20 GDD Seedbed Seedbed Corn is normally planted in 20 to 40 inch rows Corn is normally planted in 20 to 40 inch rows Normally 30 inch rows Normally 30 inch rows Plant population is the number of seeds planted in a acre (24,000 to 32,000) Plant population is the number of seeds planted in a acre (24,000 to 32,000)
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  • Corn Production cont. Fertilization Fertilization Research has found that to produce 150 bu corn you need to apply Research has found that to produce 150 bu corn you need to apply 170 lbs N 170 lbs N 35 lbs P2O5 35 lbs P2O5 175 lbs K2O 175 lbs K2O Soil pH 5.0 to 8.0 Soil pH 5.0 to 8.0 Pest control Pest control Pest include weeds, insects, nematodes Pest include weeds, insects, nematodes
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  • Corn Production cont. Harvesting Harvesting Starts when the kernel moisture is between 20% and 28% Starts when the kernel moisture is between 20% and 28% Corn with more than 15.5% will need to be dried artificially Corn with more than 15.5% will need to be dried artificially Should harvest to maximize yield if to late corn will fall and break Should harvest to maximize yield if to late corn will fall and break
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  • Wheat Production Types of wheat Types of wheat Spring wheat planted in the spring, grows in the summer and matures in early fall Spring wheat planted in the spring, grows in the summer and matures in early fall Winter wheat planted in the fall, establishes itself over the winter and grows rapidly in the spring Winter wheat planted in the fall, establishes itself over the winter and grows rapidly in the spring Color Color Red wheat and White wheat Red wheat and White wheat
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  • Wheat Production cont. Hardness Hardness Kernel hardness is either soft or hard Kernel hardness is either soft or hard Hardness is determined by the endosperm Hardness is determined by the endosperm Varieties Varieties Selected on climate adaptations and yield Selected on climate adaptations and yield Taller wheat sometimes goes down in wind Taller wheat sometimes goes down in wind Selection determined on the harshness of winter Selection determined on the harshness of winter
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  • Wheat Production cont. Planting Planting Important factors Important factors Planting date - winter wheat normally planted in October in the northern states Planting date - winter wheat normally planted in October in the northern states Seedbed preparation most is planted in prepared seedbeds a lot like corn Seedbed preparation most is planted in prepared seedbeds a lot like corn Seeding rate and depth normally seeded at 20 to 100 pounds per acre at a depth of 1 inch Seeding rate and depth normally seeded at 20 to 100 pounds per acre at a depth of 1 inch
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  • Wheat Production cont. Fertilization Fertilization A yield of 100 bu will normally require A yield of 100 bu will normally require 120 lbs N 120 lbs N 56 lbs P2O5 56 lbs P2O5 31 lbs K2O 31 lbs K2O Pest management Pest management Insects and diseases are particular problems Insects and diseases are particular problems Harvesting Harvesting Shattering is the point at which mature kernels fall