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    Globally HarmonizedGlobally Harmonized

    System of ClassifyingSystem of ClassifyingChemicalsChemicals

    Rosalee B. FajilanRosalee B. FajilanSenior Industrial Hygienist,Senior Industrial Hygienist,

    Occupational Safety and Health CenterOccupational Safety and Health Center

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    The production and use of chemicalsis fundamental in the economic

    IntroductionIntroduction

    ,the same time, it may pose a risk tothe health and well-being of all

    people and the environment if notmanaged in a responsible manner.

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    In 1989-90, ILO developed andadopted a convention and

    History of GHS

    Chemicals at Work.

    These instruments require

    countries to adopt a system forhazard classification and labeling.

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    In 1992, United Nations Conference onthe Environment and Development(UNCED) took place in Brazil, often called

    History (cont.)

    Established 6 programme areas inChapter 19, Agenda 21, to strengthen

    national and international efforts relatedto the environmentally soundmanagement of chemicals.

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    Risk assessment Harmonization of classification andlabelling of chemicals (Creation of GHS)

    Chapter 19, Agenda 21Programme Areas

    Risk reduction programmes

    Strengthening of national chemical

    management capabilities and capacities Prevention of illegal international traffic intoxic and dangerous products

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    International Mandate

    A globally-harmonized hazardclassification and compatible labelingsystem, including material safety

    a a s ee s an eas yunderstandable symbols, should beavailable, if feasible, by the year

    2000. Developed in Agenda 21 of the United Nations Conference on the

    Environment and Development (UNCED) which took place in 1992in Brazil.

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    GHS Implementation

    The World Summit on SustainableDevelopment (WSSD)& theInter overnmental Forum for Chemical

    Safety (IFCS)have encouraged countriesto implement the new GHS as soon aspossible with a view to having the systemfully operational by 2008

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    International organization responsibilitiesInternational organization responsibilities

    International Labor Organization (ILO): Secretariat for

    the Coordinating Group and the hazardcommunication work group

    Organization for Economic Cooperation and

    Development (OECD): Secretariat for health andenvironmental hazard criteria, including mixtures

    United Nations Subcommittee of Experts on the

    Transport of Dangerous Goods: Secretariat forphysical hazard criteria

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    Who is responsible? Internationally, the UN Subcommittee of

    Experts on the GHS is responsible for themaintenance, updating and promotion of the

    GHS:

    Over 30 countries have jointed theSubcommitte

    Observer countries and stakeholders alsoparticipate

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    an international standard for chemicalclassification and hazard communication

    basis for establishing comprehensive

    What is GHS?

    comprehensive approach to defining and

    classifying hazards

    and communicating information onlabels and safety data sheets

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    Countries with systems havedifferent requirements for hazarddefinitions as well as information

    Why GHS?

    o e nc u e on a a e or sa e ydata sheet.

    These differences impact both onprotection and trade.

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    In the area of protection, users in

    countries that dont have specificrequirements may see different labelwarnings or data sheet information

    Why GHS? (cont.)

    . In the area of trade, the need tocomply with multiple regulations

    regarding hazard classification andlabeling is costly and time-consuming.

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    Examples of Differences

    Australia - Harmful

    India - Non-toxic

    Japan - Toxic

    Malaysia - Harmful

    Thailand - Harmful

    China - Harmful

    New Zealand - Hazardous

    Korea - Toxic

    Acute oralLD50 = 257 mg/kg

    Note: LD50 = Lethal Dosagethat kills 50% of the total

    test population

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    Countries, international organizations, chemical

    producers and users of chemicals will all benefit. Provides a chemical classification and

    labelling system that is updated and

    Benefits of GHSBenefits of GHS

    maintained internationally Enhance protection of humans and

    environment.

    Facilitate international trade inchemicals.

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    Countries, international organizations, chemical

    producers and users of chemicals will all benefit. Reduce need for testing and evaluation.

    Assist countries and international

    Benefits of GHS (cont.)Benefits of GHS (cont.)

    organizations to ensure the soundmanagement of chemicals.

    Increases efficiencies; reduces costs of

    compliance with hazard communicationregulations; lowers health care costs,etc.

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    What chemicals are covered?What chemicals are covered?

    CoversALL hazardous pure substances,dilute solutions and mixtures.

    Pharmaceuticals, food additives, cosmetics

    covered, but will be covered whereworkers may be exposed and in transport.

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    Does not include establishment of uniform test

    methods or promotion of further testing to addressadverse health outcomes

    Scope and ApplicationScope and Application

    intake or ingestion or intentional application to

    animals and products such as human or veterinary

    pharmaceuticals

    Not intended to harmonize risk assessmentprocedures or risk management decisions

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    Who is responsible for implementing?Who is responsible for implementing? The type of international legal instrument the GHS is

    considered to be is a non-mandatory

    recommendation

    The GHS provisions become mandatory in countries or

    Overseeing national or regional implementation is the

    responsibility of the competent authorities that adopt

    the GHS provisions. There is no international body

    that monitors implementation for compliance

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    Industrial workplace: Workers are a key sectorto be considered. Chemicals are often present

    in all types of workplaces, from manufacturingfacilities to construction, retail services to

    health care.

    19

    Sectors affected by the GHSSectors affected by the GHS

    Agriculture (pesticides): Involves bothworkplace and consumer exposures, and is

    often regulated separately by countries.

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    Sectors, cont.Sectors, cont.

    Transport (emergency response): Another subset of

    occupational exposures that is often regulated

    separately. Involves many provisions beyondclassification and labelling (e.g., packaging). These are

    addressed in the UN Recommendations on the

    Transport o Dangerous Goo s. A so impacts pu icexposures.

    Consumer Products (public): Involves products sold

    to the general public, and exposures of vulnerablepopulations (e.g., children).

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    GHSGHS

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    GHS Elements

    Hazard Classification

    Physical

    Health & EnvironmentalHazard Communication

    LabelingSafety Data Sheets

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    Explosives Flammable gases

    Flammable aerosols

    Pyrophoric solids

    Self-heating

    substances

    GHS Classification:Physical Hazards

    x z ng gases Gases under pressure

    Flammable liquids

    Flammable solids

    Self-reactive substances

    Pyrophoric liquids

    ,

    contact with water, emitflammable gases

    Oxidizing liquids

    Oxidizing solids Organic peroxides

    Corrosive to metals

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    Physical Hazards

    Hazard Class Hazard CategoryExplosives

    UnstableExplosives Div 1.1

    Div1.2

    Div1.3

    Div1.4

    Div1.5

    Div1.6

    Flammable Gases (includingchemically unstable gases)

    1 1A 1B 2 2A 2B

    Aerosols 1 2 3

    Oxidising Gases 1

    Gases Under Pressure 1Compressed Gases

    Liquefied Gases

    Refrigerated LiquefiedGases

    Dissolved Gases

    Flammable Liquids 1 2 3 4

    Flammable Solids 1 2

    Self-reactive Substances Type AType

    BType

    CType

    DType

    EType

    FType

    G

    Pyrophoric Liquids 1

    Pyrophoric Sol