General Problems Faced by the Women Police

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The present study aims to have an anthropological research on women who work as police officersin Islamabad. These female officers face several social, personal, and psychological problems due to numerousreasons, including insufficient transportation and infrastructure facilities. Furthermore, they are less in numberand new recruitment has also been stopped. Discriminatory behavior by low and high profile officers is alsowitnessed among them. Such discriminations are visible in facilities, control over transportation, andinsufficient power in self-governing. These all factors are restrictions towards better performance as comparedto their counterpart. Beside these the women police are incompetent to meet the challenges due to lack ofphysical and military training i.e. usage of weapons. In addition the women as police officers are incapable oftaking independent decisions in time due to their dependency on male seniors. This research was conducted inIslamabad. In the territory of the Islamabad only one police station is operational. This police station is situatedin the sector G-7 Sitara Market. Qualitative anthropological techniques were used to collect empirical data.

Text of General Problems Faced by the Women Police

  • The Explorer Islamabad: Journal of Social Sciences ISSN (E): 2411-0132, ISSN (P): 2411-5487 Vol-1, Issue (7):255-263 www.theexplorerpak.org

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    GENERAL PROBLEMS FACED BY THE WOMEN POLICE Adnan Jamil , Anwaar Mohyuddin

    Department of Anthropology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Corresponding Author: Anwar Mohyuddin Department of Anthropology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad unwaar@gmail.com Abstract: The present study aims to have an anthropological research on women who work as police officers in Islamabad. These female officers face several social, personal, and psychological problems due to numerous reasons, including insufficient transportation and infrastructure facilities. Furthermore, they are less in number and new recruitment has also been stopped. Discriminatory behavior by low and high profile officers is also witnessed among them. Such discriminations are visible in facilities, control over transportation, and insufficient power in self-governing. These all factors are restrictions towards better performance as compared to their counterpart. Beside these the women police are incompetent to meet the challenges due to lack of physical and military training i.e. usage of weapons. In addition the women as police officers are incapable of taking independent decisions in time due to their dependency on male seniors. This research was conducted in Islamabad. In the territory of the Islamabad only one police station is operational. This police station is situated in the sector G-7 Sitara Market. Qualitative anthropological techniques were used to collect empirical data. Key Words: Police, Facilities, Problems, Transportation, Accommodation, Staff, Recruitment, Shelter, Training, Authority INTRODUCTION According to the 7th UN survey in 2000, the representation of women officers in the police of 13 countries that provided data in the Asia region vary between 2.2 to 19.1 percent. There is no information concerning the ranks held by these women or their duties (Natarajan 2012). This quotation has raised concerns about the availability of the data which is inadequate. On the other hand, we have not enough literature related to police women. A research study by Natarajan (2012) indicated that an exhaustive review of the research published in English on women policing in Asia found relatively few empirical studies which includes (Aleem 1991; Banks 2001; Bhardwaj 1991; Boni and Circelli 2002; Natarajan 1996a, 1996b, 2001, 2003, 2005; Prenzler and Hayes 2000; Prenzler 1995, 1998, 2004; Vishnoi 1999; Wilkinson and Froyland 1996; Amos-Wilson 1999; Yang 1985). The term POLICE stands for Protection Organization for Life and Investment in Civil Establishment. The word police has been derived from the Greek word POLITIA means the condition of a state or Government. Police is generally defined as the civil force responsible for maintaining law and order without which there can be no development of

    civilization. The police organization, which at present is known as the police department, is meant and constituted for the proper maintenance of law and order to perform the different functions relating to criminal administration. Law enforcement occupations have traditionally been dominated by males. However, with more and more females entering the workforce and more emphasis being placed on equal opportunity hiring, there has been a vast increase in the number of women becoming police officers. Women faced discriminating behavior, not only within their department, by their colloquies. They also face discrimination by society as well. This discrimination can be observed at all places. It could be observed either by studying institutions of high profile, or a in a small police station in the developing country. In policing gender integration and the opportunity for women to participate in forming police policy has been strongly resisted (Pagon 1996). An article published 1996 on Polish women police stated that "Sometimes it happens that they (female police officers) are scarcely tolerated" (Trzcinska and Pachlewski 1986) . In addition to this, women also faced various other problems

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    during their services. Women police officers, even in exclusively female stations, are unable to register a case without clearance from their Male superiors and have no powers of investigation (Crisis Group Asia 2008) . As our society has been male dominating, women were influenced in each body of work, and the same situation has been found in the police profession also. As in comparing with other societies, Pakistani society is more strict regarding women, so in this context, it is very essential for them, how they can work in such a challenging atmosphere, where they have to face this situation on a daily basis. Research has shown that women in policing are not easily accepted by their male peers, their supervisors, or their own police department. Women are viewed with skepticism or worse by their male counterparts in spite of the fact that women have been doing police work for over one hundred years. The public is, however, considerably more positive and frequently welcoming of their presence. In recent years acceptance by the public has grown as women police have been seen more frequently on the street on patrol and in uniform (Price 1996). However, in policing, gender integration and the opportunity for women to participate in forming police policy has been strongly resisted. Police organizations, typically inbred and fraternal in spirit, emphasizing male values of dominance, and use of force, assertion of authority, generally are not hospitable to women even if good-faith efforts are made to integrate them (Fairchild 1987). As talking about the police womans functions during the job, a female police officer discussed in an article as Indecently, you will find out, that policewomen function with equal competence in police community related work. As a female representative, of the police agency she is less burdened by public resentment of her authority. As a woman, the female police officer tends to project the social consciousness and is hereby essential to the dialogue of the police workforce community, and the understanding of each other (Melchionne 1967). The Police Service in Pakistan was still overwhelmingly male in composition, even after initial steps taken in 1976, but in the October 1993 Benazir Bhutto took some bold steps in response to international pressure of Gender Equality and attempted to assist

    Pakistani Women in their problems in an efficient way. Thus it was in January 1994, when Benazir announced the opening of Pakistan's first all-female police station. The objective was to provide a relief to the women victims who were reluctant to approach the male dominated police stations with their complaints.1 On the other hand, female work is underpaid and undervalued. It often involves emotional danger and calls less for physical strength than for physical stamina. Female work is an extension of womens role in the home. Men have traditionally not welcomed women who want to work in masculinized occupations. There have been a number of arguments advanced for this (Niland 1996). Women police officials do not have proper accommodations/hostels. They even do not a get pick and drop service, which make them face a lot of problems. Women police officers in Pakistan are not equipped with powers to make self-governing decisions (Niazi 2013). The police department in Pakistan has always a lot of criticism from the society, due to different reasons. The police system in Pakistan is still working with a command and control model, where the males are dominating the overall structure (Niazi 2013). There are also some reasons behind the factor that female joins this occupation as one Indian author described that, They work for a variety of reasons, including the need to feel useful and important. But they work mainly in order to earn money which they do not absolutely need. However, in India most of the women seek outside jobs to a great extent due to economic necessity, the female economic empowerment is absolutely essential for raising their status in society (Srinivasan and Ilango 2013). METHODOLOGY This research study is based on qualitative research methods by using anthropological skills. For the very purpose triangulation of the research method has been adopted to create the notion of reliability and confidentiality with the data of this research study of women working as a police. Sampling technique was based on the systemic random sampling. A list of 40 policewomen was arranged alphabetically and the same quantity of chits was enclosed. The selection of respondents was based on

    1 "Islamabad Capital Territory Police". Retrieved 2009-10-03

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    chits without seeing the numbers in lottery method. The data collection methods used were participant observation and in-depth interviews. Participant observation was used by getting familiar with the pattern of women police station and develop rapport among them. This method helped to pave the way for In-depth Interviews which are very essential. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The study shows the inadequacy of data and literature on women police in Asia. Available evidences indicate discrimination against the women in the police force in high and low profile ranks. It was until 1994 in Benazir Bhuttos regime when for the first time all-female police stations were constituted to deal with the women victims and prisoners. (IPGPK) However, the women officers face several problems due to poor facilities. Such poor facilities are transportation problems, lack of proper accommodations/hostels and so on. Beside these problems they face discrimination within and out of the department from their colleagues and so