General Problems Faced by the Women Police

  • Published on
    05-Feb-2016

  • View
    21

  • Download
    0

DESCRIPTION

The present study aims to have an anthropological research on women who work as police officersin Islamabad. These female officers face several social, personal, and psychological problems due to numerousreasons, including insufficient transportation and infrastructure facilities. Furthermore, they are less in numberand new recruitment has also been stopped. Discriminatory behavior by low and high profile officers is alsowitnessed among them. Such discriminations are visible in facilities, control over transportation, andinsufficient power in self-governing. These all factors are restrictions towards better performance as comparedto their counterpart. Beside these the women police are incompetent to meet the challenges due to lack ofphysical and military training i.e. usage of weapons. In addition the women as police officers are incapable oftaking independent decisions in time due to their dependency on male seniors. This research was conducted inIslamabad. In the territory of the Islamabad only one police station is operational. This police station is situatedin the sector G-7 Sitara Market. Qualitative anthropological techniques were used to collect empirical data.

Transcript

  • The Explorer Islamabad: Journal of Social Sciences ISSN (E): 2411-0132, ISSN (P): 2411-5487 Vol-1, Issue (7):255-263 www.theexplorerpak.org

    255

    GENERAL PROBLEMS FACED BY THE WOMEN POLICE Adnan Jamil , Anwaar Mohyuddin

    Department of Anthropology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Corresponding Author: Anwar Mohyuddin Department of Anthropology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad unwaar@gmail.com Abstract: The present study aims to have an anthropological research on women who work as police officers in Islamabad. These female officers face several social, personal, and psychological problems due to numerous reasons, including insufficient transportation and infrastructure facilities. Furthermore, they are less in number and new recruitment has also been stopped. Discriminatory behavior by low and high profile officers is also witnessed among them. Such discriminations are visible in facilities, control over transportation, and insufficient power in self-governing. These all factors are restrictions towards better performance as compared to their counterpart. Beside these the women police are incompetent to meet the challenges due to lack of physical and military training i.e. usage of weapons. In addition the women as police officers are incapable of taking independent decisions in time due to their dependency on male seniors. This research was conducted in Islamabad. In the territory of the Islamabad only one police station is operational. This police station is situated in the sector G-7 Sitara Market. Qualitative anthropological techniques were used to collect empirical data. Key Words: Police, Facilities, Problems, Transportation, Accommodation, Staff, Recruitment, Shelter, Training, Authority INTRODUCTION According to the 7th UN survey in 2000, the representation of women officers in the police of 13 countries that provided data in the Asia region vary between 2.2 to 19.1 percent. There is no information concerning the ranks held by these women or their duties (Natarajan 2012). This quotation has raised concerns about the availability of the data which is inadequate. On the other hand, we have not enough literature related to police women. A research study by Natarajan (2012) indicated that an exhaustive review of the research published in English on women policing in Asia found relatively few empirical studies which includes (Aleem 1991; Banks 2001; Bhardwaj 1991; Boni and Circelli 2002; Natarajan 1996a, 1996b, 2001, 2003, 2005; Prenzler and Hayes 2000; Prenzler 1995, 1998, 2004; Vishnoi 1999; Wilkinson and Froyland 1996; Amos-Wilson 1999; Yang 1985). The term POLICE stands for Protection Organization for Life and Investment in Civil Establishment. The word police has been derived from the Greek word POLITIA means the condition of a state or Government. Police is generally defined as the civil force responsible for maintaining law and order without which there can be no development of

    civilization. The police organization, which at present is known as the police department, is meant and constituted for the proper maintenance of law and order to perform the different functions relating to criminal administration. Law enforcement occupations have traditionally been dominated by males. However, with more and more females entering the workforce and more emphasis being placed on equal opportunity hiring, there has been a vast increase in the number of women becoming police officers. Women faced discriminating behavior, not only within their department, by their colloquies. They also face discrimination by society as well. This discrimination can be observed at all places. It could be observed either by studying institutions of high profile, or a in a small police station in the developing country. In policing gender integration and the opportunity for women to participate in forming police policy has been strongly resisted (Pagon 1996). An article published 1996 on Polish women police stated that "Sometimes it happens that they (female police officers) are scarcely tolerated" (Trzcinska and Pachlewski 1986) . In addition to this, women also faced various other problems

  • 256

    during their services. Women police officers, even in exclusively female stations, are unable to register a case without clearance from their Male superiors and have no powers of investigation (Crisis Group Asia 2008) . As our society has been male dominating, women were influenced in each body of work, and the same situation has been found in the police profession also. As in comparing with other societies, Pakistani society is more strict regarding women, so in this context, it is very essential for them, how they can work in such a challenging atmosphere, where they have to face this situation on a daily basis. Research has shown that women in policing are not easily accepted by their male peers, their supervisors, or their own police department. Women are viewed with skepticism or worse by their male counterparts in spite of the fact that women have been doing police work for over one hundred years. The public is, however, considerably more positive and frequently welcoming of their presence. In recent years acceptance by the public has grown as women police have been seen more frequently on the street on patrol and in uniform (Price 1996). However, in policing, gender integration and the opportunity for women to participate in forming police policy has been strongly resisted. Police organizations, typically inbred and fraternal in spirit, emphasizing male values of dominance, and use of force, assertion of authority, generally are not hospitable to women even if good-faith efforts are made to integrate them (Fairchild 1987). As talking about the police womans functions during the job, a female police officer discussed in an article as Indecently, you will find out, that policewomen function with equal competence in police community related work. As a female representative, of the police agency she is less burdened by public resentment of her authority. As a woman, the female police officer tends to project the social consciousness and is hereby essential to the dialogue of the police workforce community, and the understanding of each other (Melchionne 1967). The Police Service in Pakistan was still overwhelmingly male in composition, even after initial steps taken in 1976, but in the October 1993 Benazir Bhutto took some bold steps in response to international pressure of Gender Equality and attempted to assist

    Pakistani Women in their problems in an efficient way. Thus it was in January 1994, when Benazir announced the opening of Pakistan's first all-female police station. The objective was to provide a relief to the women victims who were reluctant to approach the male dominated police stations with their complaints.1 On the other hand, female work is underpaid and undervalued. It often involves emotional danger and calls less for physical strength than for physical stamina. Female work is an extension of womens role in the home. Men have traditionally not welcomed women who want to work in masculinized occupations. There have been a number of arguments advanced for this (Niland 1996). Women police officials do not have proper accommodations/hostels. They even do not a get pick and drop service, which make them face a lot of problems. Women police officers in Pakistan are not equipped with powers to make self-governing decisions (Niazi 2013). The police department in Pakistan has always a lot of criticism from the society, due to different reasons. The police system in Pakistan is still working with a command and control model, where the males are dominating the overall structure (Niazi 2013). There are also some reasons behind the factor that female joins this occupation as one Indian author described that, They work for a variety of reasons, including the need to feel useful and important. But they work mainly in order to earn money which they do not absolutely need. However, in India most of the women seek outside jobs to a great extent due to economic necessity, the female economic empowerment is absolutely essential for raising their status in society (Srinivasan and Ilango 2013). METHODOLOGY This research study is based on qualitative research methods by using anthropological skills. For the very purpose triangulation of the research method has been adopted to create the notion of reliability and confidentiality with the data of this research study of women working as a police. Sampling technique was based on the systemic random sampling. A list of 40 policewomen was arranged alphabetically and the same quantity of chits was enclosed. The selection of respondents was based on

    1 "Islamabad Capital Territory Police". Retrieved 2009-10-03

  • 257

    chits without seeing the numbers in lottery method. The data collection methods used were participant observation and in-depth interviews. Participant observation was used by getting familiar with the pattern of women police station and develop rapport among them. This method helped to pave the way for In-depth Interviews which are very essential. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The study shows the inadequacy of data and literature on women police in Asia. Available evidences indicate discrimination against the women in the police force in high and low profile ranks. It was until 1994 in Benazir Bhuttos regime when for the first time all-female police stations were constituted to deal with the women victims and prisoners. (IPGPK) However, the women officers face several problems due to poor facilities. Such poor facilities are transportation problems, lack of proper accommodations/hostels and so on. Beside these problems they face discrimination within and out of the department from their colleagues and society. Such discriminations are visible in facilities, control over transportation, and insufficient power in self-governing (Ahmad, et al. 2012). The problem faced by the women police is the co-police station who would share the same office simultaneously. These women police, especially married who reside with their families often had problems on a daily basis because they had no picked and drop facilities. They often get late after the discharge of their duties and as a result, they have to pay heavy fares for their travels to and off their duties. Furthermore, the late arrival of policewoman at their residency often leads to doubt and quarrels with husbands and senior family members. It is further problematic for married policewoman with children because they cannot concentrate on their duties. Along with this, it is observed that there is a lack of schedule of duties and the police woman often were called in an emergency. General Problems A proper transport facility was not provided to the female police officials, except in emergences or strikes, etc., due to which the female police officer was facing great difficulties, whilst coming to the police station from far flung areas and back to their homes late in the evening. The transport was provided only in the emergency environment only for

    their safety but very rare. The government plans to evolve a national security plan with the help of police to deal with terrorism, but the majority of police stations in the city lacks even the basic facilities such as sweepers, backup power, drinking water and cooks, greatly inconveniencing the staff (Asghar 2013). During field duty that was usually in emergency circumstances, the women police officials have to arrange their own conveyance while returning to the police station or to their homes by paying heavy charges to the taxi or rickshaw drivers from their own pocket without any re-imbursement, that was an alarming situation not only for the police station managers but also for the higher police authorities. While the relative financial status of the policeman varies, he is economically working class inasmuch as he is dependent on the sale of his labour power (Reiner 1978). Respondent shared: Hum nay duty kya khak kerni hay emergency main anay janay kay hei 500-1000 denay par jaty hain (How can we perform our duties, in case of emergencies we have to pay Rs.500 to 1000 from our own pockets). Moreover, after completing their duties, they were seen standing on the road looking for a lift, which is a dangerous and threatening situation for the women. They could lead to having to face critical situations, due to security compulsions. Similar was the condition whilst the female police officers, were on night duty, they have to travel alone in the late night to their homes either by taxi or rickshaw or by paying high conveyance charges from their meager salary. While talking to the researcher, few of the lady constables told the researcher that they have to face a lot of problems, whilst going home after their late night duties. And this was clearly caused by lack of public transport or other means of transportation. The second problem noted, was a shortage of vehicles and fuel. At the G-7 police station, there were only three vans for the transportation purposes available, and these vehicles were not properly utilized, due to fuel shortage. The previous government was providing 500 liters of petrol to the police station, for running their vehicles per month. The quantity of fuel was reduced gradually to 300 liters, which was not up to the requirements of the police station. So therefore

  • 258

    the available fleet was not properly functioning, and was creating several problems for women police officials in discharging their duties. Now we get less fuel, which has affected our response time. We get 10 liter petrol for the patrolling of 8 hour shift. We should also get a risk allowance because we face and arrest criminals, but we dont get it (Dawn 2013). The third problem witnessed was the buttering of male staff. The female officials were not permitted to use official transport, as it was used by the male officers and senior staff. The buttering of male duty officers, ASI and head constable was the only way out to avail the transport even for private purposes. It was observed by the researcher that the major use of transport was availed by the male officers and officials because they were frequently seen coming and leave the police station sitting in the official vehicles. The fourth problem recorded was problems of married policewomen. The police station, though, was functioning well, but there were some basic discrepancies as a result of the dual presence of male and female police in a combined police station, that had created many problems for the women police especially the married policewomen. Women officials always give their kids and household responsibilities as an excuse for not doing their job properly. They get the same training which is for men so they should understand that they ha...

Recommended

View more >