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  • Fuel Certification

    Overview

    Chris Lewis Engineering Specialist - Fuels

    2014 Rolls Royce plc

    FORUM-AE, Madrid. October 2014.

    2014 Rolls-Royce plcThe information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc.This information is given in good faith based upon the latest information available to Rolls-Royce plc, no warranty or representation is given concerning such information, which must not be taken as establishing any contractual or other commitment binding upon Rolls-Royce plc or any of its subsidiary or associated companies.

    Trusted to deliver excellence

  • Fuel criteria

    Safety and operability issues including Energy density Chemical characteristics and more.

    Environmental and social issues Fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions Change in land and water usage Feedstock competition with food crops

    Large-scale commercial production issues Fuel technology maturity level Production capability and readiness level Production capability and readiness level

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Advanced engine concepts Fuel Performance RequirementsWill increase!

    Future and Novel Technology

    Advanced High Temperature Materials Advanced High Temperature Materials

    Complex Combustion, Aerothermal & Fluid Systems

    Ad d T i i S t Advanced Transmission Systems

    Potential Challenges and Opportunities ?g pp Improved SFC and Reduced Emissions

    Noise abatement challenge Noise abatement challenge

    Advanced Fluid Systems and Heat Management

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Jet fuel A multi-functional fluid

    Energy storage Airframe and engine Provides fuel for in aircraft coolant combustion

    /Highenergydensityforgoodrange/payload

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Jet fuel A multi-functional fluid

    Energy storage Airframe and engine Provides fuel for in aircraft coolant combustion

    Wideoperatingtemperature:47CFreezePoint,38Cp g pFlashPointandgoodThermalStability(heat

    management)

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Jet fuel A multi-functional fluid

    Energy storage Airframe and engine Provides fuel for in aircraft coolant combustion

    Specific combustion characteristics for OperabilitySpecificcombustioncharacteristicsforOperability,EmissionsandHotendLife

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Impact of fuel propertiesS f t F t T h l D itiFl id P f

    Certification

    SafetyFlash Pt., Freezing Pt.

    Microsep

    Future TechnologySpecific Heat, Thermal Stab.

    Aromatics, Sulfur/polar Materials

    Deposition(coking)

    Thermal stability, Gum,Distillation

    Fluid PerformancePrediction

    Freezing Pt., viscosityDistillation, Thermal stability

    All Characteristics

    Cost ofOwnership

    Hot-End LifeThermal Stability, Acidity

    Aromatics, Sulfur

    E i i

    DurabilityAs Above

    OwnershipThermalStab.

    Exist. GumSulfur

    Cold Start &

    EmissionsAromatics, Sulfur

    distillation

    M t i l

    As AboveLubricityAcidity

    PerformanceHeating Value

    Density

    Alt re-lightFlash Pt., Heating Value

    Distillation, viscosity

    MaterialCompatibilityAromatics, freezing pt.Acidity, Copper Strip

    MaintenanceSame as Durability

    DensityFlash/Freezing Pts.

    Legacy HardwareAromatics, lubricity

    System Design& MaterialsAll Characteristics

    PhysicalProperties

    ChemicalProperties

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Designed for each other

    Engine certification Fuel specificationEngine certification Fuel specification

    Operate on Jet A/A-1 f l W ld id

    Composition properties d ffuels - World-wide

    standard

    Ensure safety emissions

    and performance

    Allowable source materials and processesEnsure safety, emissions,

    performance and durability

    materials and processes

    Quality Assurance

    Fueloutsidescoperequiretestingandcertification

    Fuelhastobedropintobetechnicallyviable

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Industry qualification ASTM D4054 process

    Specification Properties

    Engine/APU Testing

    Fit-For-Purpose Properties

    Component/Rig TestingProperties TestingProperties Testing

    A t

    ASTM

    Review

    & BallotA t

    ASTM

    Review

    & Ballot

    ASTM Research

    ReportASTM

    Accept & Ballot

    Re-EvalAs Required

    Reject

    ASTM

    Accept & Ballot

    Re-EvalAs Required

    Reject

    FAA & OEM Review & A l

    ASTM Balloting Process

    pSpecificationSpecification

    Def-Stan ApprovalDef-StanJP8/5

    Courtesy of Mark Rumizen, FAA Note Some items added by Rolls-Royce

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosine - SPK

    AromaticParaffinic(AKA: SPK, FT-SPK, Bio-SPK, HRJ, HEFA...)

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Fuel clearance status

    DefStan9191approvedSASOLsemisyntheticCoalToLiquidlate1990s

    Def Stan 91-91 approved SASOL fullysyntheticinCoal To Liquid 2008Coal-To-Liquid -2008.

    ASTMapprovedtheuseof50%GenericXtLblendviappASTMD7566 ASTMD1655JetA/A1 2009.

    l f ASTMapprovalof:

    Hydrogenatedvegoils/fats(HEFA) incorporatedinto ASTM D7566 2011intoASTMD7566 2011.

    Synthesizedisoparaffinsfromhydroprocessedfermentedsugars(SIPS) 2104.g ( )

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Syn GasCoalFischer-Tropsch (FT) Conventional Refinery

    P

    Potential alternative aviation fuels - 1Syn Gas (CO, H2)

    Coal

    Natural GToday

    ProcessesHydroprocessing

    HydrogenationGas

    Biomass

    y

    Syn-Crude

    Hydrogenation- Produces paraffins

    Isomerisation- Improved Fz pt

    FT ProcessGasify

    5

    HEFA from Plant OilHydrocracking-Molecules in jet

    range

    Oil E traction

    Plants/Nuts

    5 years

    Hydroprocessing

    Bio-Crude

    Oil Extraction

    HarvestedAlgae

    HEFA from AlgaeHydroprocessing

    All above used to produce/upgrade

    conventional jet fuel

    Bio Crude

    Process Facilitators

    Oil Extraction

    Algae

    10 years

    Jet FuelOil Extraction

    Courtesy of Mark Rumizen, FAA Note Some items added by Rolls-Royce

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Potential alternatives in R&D phase - 2Synthetic Biology

    Genetically Engineered Microbes

    Fermentation

    Jet Fuel

    C ti l R fisugarcane Alcohol Oligomerization Conventional Refinery ProcessesSugar

    switchgrassDehydrationFermentation

    PolymerizationOlefins

    corn stover

    Pyrolysis

    Jet FuelLignocellulose

    forest waste

    HydroprocessingBio-CrudePyrolysis

    Hydroprocessing

    Courtesy of Mark Rumizen, FAA Note Some items added by Rolls-Royce

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Rolls-Royce alternative fuel programmesy p g

    CurrentFAA CLEEN programme

    Current

    003782

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Summary - Bio-fuel timelineTimeline FocusofIndustryActivity

    Early1990stomid2000s EarlyApprovalProcessDevelopmentDefiningfuelnormsandexperienceg pApprovalofSasolCtL

    2004 Today R&DandApprovalProcessDefinitionDefinition & EvaluationDefinition&EvaluationSpecificationDevelopment

    Today FuelApprovalsXtL d HRJ k SPK HEFA tXtLandHRJ akaSPK,HEFAetcNovelrawmaterials/processes

    2011 2050 Options&DeploymentCapacityandCommercialisationQualityAssuranceandRegulationImprovedProductionFlexibilityandEfficiency

    b l fSustainabilityCertification

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • Thank You

  • SPARE SLIDES TO SUPPORT FURTHER DISCUSSION IF REQUIRED

  • Trackingprogress Fuel Readiness Levels (FRL) FuelReadinessLevels(FRL)

    FRL1:Feedstock/ProcessBasicPrinciples

    FRL2:Feedstock/ProcessConcept

    FRL3:FuelSampleforBasicFuelPropertiesR & D Phase Certification &

    FRL4.1:PerformanceStudiesFRL4.2:SpecProperties

    Phase Certification & Qualification Phase

    FRL5.1:LabProductionDevelopmentFRL5.2:SubscaleProductionDevelopmentFRL5.3:ProductionScalabilityFRL5.4:PilotPlantCapability

    FRL6.1:FitForPurposeProperties

    FRL6.2:TurbineHotSection

    FRL6.3:Component/RigTesting

    Business Phase

    FRL6.4:EngineTesting

    FRL7:FuelClassListedinIntlFuelSpecifications

    FRL 8: Commercial ValidationFRL8:CommercialValidation

    FRL9:ProductionCapability

    2014RollsRoyceplc

  • CurrentStatusofSyntheticAviationFuelTaskForces

    Status Class Process Feedstock Companies TFLeaderCompletedAnnexA1 FTSPK FischerTropsch(FT)derivedSPK

    Coal,NaturalGas,Biomass

    AnnexA2 HEFASPK HydroprocessedFatsandOils(HEFA)derivedSPK TriglycerideOilsIntheApprovalProcess

    FTSKA FTderivedSKA,FurtherMaterialsCompatibilityTestingRequiredCoal,NaturalGas,Biomass Sasol,Rentech, CliffMoses

    ATJSPKFermentationalcohol,oligmerized andhydrotreated (ATJ)derivedSPK Research ReportreadyforOEMreview. Sugar,Alcohol GEVO,Philips66,

    GlennJohnston(GEVO)

    HDCJSKAHydroporcessed DepolymerizedCellulosederivedSKA ResearchReportstillinprocess. Lignocellulose Kior,UOP

    JeffTrewella(KiOR)

    DSHCSPK DirectFermentationtoSPK ResearchReportininitial Ballot. Sugar Amyris/TotalFernandoGarcia(Amyris)

    InDevelopmentGregg

    ATJSAK CatalysistoSAK,primarilyaromatics Sugar,Alcohol Virent/Shell,SwiftHemighaus(Virent)

    ATJSKA ATJderivedSKA,partialaromatics Sugar,AlcoholByogy,Cobalt,SwedishBiofuels

    KevinWeiss(Byogy)

    CHSKA HydrothermalCrackingandCyclizationderivedSKA TriglycerideOilsAppliedResearchAssociates(ARA)

    EdCoppola(ARA)G

    CRJSPK Catalysis,oligermerizedandhydrotreatedderivedSPK Sugar,Alcohol Virent

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