FORGING THE LINK FORGING THE LINK

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  • FORGING THE LINK Linking the Economic Benefits

    of Low Impact Development

    and Community Decisions

    FORGING THE LINK Linking the Economic Benefits

    of Low Impact Development

    and Community Decisions

    A Study Conducted By

    the UNH Stormwater Center,

    Virginia Commonwealth University,

    and Antioch University New England

  • FORGING THE LINK Linking the Economic Benefits of Low Impact Development and Community Decisions

    This study was conducted by the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center, the Virginia Commonwealth University, and Antioch University New England.

    This project was funded by a grant from

    NOAA/UNH Cooperative Institute for Coastal and Estuarine Environmental Technology

    NOAA Grant Numbers NA06NOS4190167

    PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

    Robert M. Roseen, Ph.D. P.E., D.WREDirector, The UNH Stormwater Center

    Environmental Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, 35 Colovos Road, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

    Phone: 603-862-4024 Fax: 603-862-3957 email: Robert.roseen@unh.edu

    PROJECT INVESTIGATORS AND CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS

    Todd V. Janeski Environmental Scientist, Virginia Commonwealth University

    Trani Center for Life Sciences 1000 West Cary St, PO Box 843050, Richmond VA 23284-3050

    Phone: (804) 371.8984 Fax: (804)786-1798 e-mail: tvjaneski@vcu.edu

    James J. Houle, CPSWQOutreach Coordinator and Program Manager, The UNH Stormwater Center

    Environmental Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering35 Colovos Road, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

    Phone: 603-767-7091 Fax: 603-862-3957 email: james.houle@unh.edu

    Michael H. Simpson Chair, Environmental Studies Department

    Antioch University New EnglandKeene, NH USA 03431

    Jeff GundersonProfessional Content Writer

    Portland, OR 97209Email: jeffgun@earthlink.net

    PUBLICATION DESIGN AND PRODUCTION Tricia Miller, MillerworksPortsmouth, NH 03801

    July 2011

    mailto:Robert.roseen@unh.edumailto:tvjaneski@vcu.edumailto:james.houle@unh.edumailto:jeffgun@earthlink.net

  • FORGING THE LINK Linking the Economic Benefits

    of Low Impact Development

    and Community Decisions

    A Study Conducted By

    the UNH Stormwater Center,

    Virginia Commonwealth University,

    and Antioch University New England

  • ii F O R G I N G T H E L I N K

    We would like to recognize the partnerships with the National Estuarine Research Reserve Coastal Training Coordinators: Heather Elmer of the Old Woman Creek NERR, Christine Feurt of the Wells NERR, Steve Miller of the Great Bay NERR, and Tonna-Marie Surgeon-Rogers of

    the Waquoit Bay NERR, as well as David Dickson, National NEMO Coordinator; LaMarr Clannon,

    Maine NEMO Coordinator; and Julie Westerlund of Northland NEMO.

    We would also like to thank our federal, state, local, and non-governmental partners for sharing

    their valuable information and their commitment to advancing the practice: Tom Brueckner,

    Engineering Manager at the Narragansett Bay Commission (NBC); John Zuba, NBC Permits

    Manager; Linda Dobson, Program Manager for Sustainable Stormwater Management at the

    Portland Bureau of Environmental Services; Bill Owen, P.E., Engineering Services with the City

    of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services; Peter Mulvaney, Sustainable Infrastructure

    Administrator for the City of Chicago Department of Water Management; Ed MacMullan,

    ECONorthwest; Christy Perrin, North Carolina State University; Tom Ballestero, UNHSC; Katrina

    Hoffman, University of Washington Sea Grant; Robert Emanuel, Oregon State University Sea Grant;

    John Bilotta, University of Minnesota, Northland NEMO; Alex Foraste, USEPA Nonpoint Source

    Control Branch; and Jodi Castallo, Mt. Agamenticus to the Sea Conservation Initiative.

    We would like to extend our sincere appreciation for our commercial design partners for sharing

    their expertise and providing detailed information that is rarely available: David Jordan of SFC

    Engineering Partnership, Brian Potvin, and Austin Turner of Tetra Tech Rizzo, as well as the

    numerous volunteer municipal decision makers that participated in the development of this

    project. Without these partners, this project would not have been possible.

    We would also like to extend our sincere gratitude to the Cooperative Institute for Coastal and

    Estuarine Environmental Technology and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    for their generous support.

    Acknowledgements

  • F O R G I N G T H E L I N K iii

    Contents

    Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

    Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

    Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

    Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

    FACT SHEET #1: Forging the Link: Linking the Economic Benefits of LID and Community Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-A

    CHAPTER 1: Guiding Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1

    Low Impact Development Benefits for the Protection of Water Quality and Watershed Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2

    The Economic Benefits of Gray and Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3

    LID as A Climate Change Adaptation Planning Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4

    FACT SHEET #2: The Benefits of Low Impact Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-A

    CHAPTER 2: The Benefits of Low Impact Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1

    Natural Resource-Based Planning Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3

    Balancing Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4

    Low Impact Development Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5

    Site Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6

    Resource Conservation and Minimizing Cut and Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6

    Reduce Effective Impervious Cover (EIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7

    Strategic Timing and Decentralized Runoff Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8

    Integrated Management Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8

    Best Management Practice Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10

    Introduction to Treatment Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10

    Hydrologic Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10

    Physical Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-11

    Biological Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-12

    Chemical Processes . . . . .

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