Final Career Planning and Management

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    Career Management and Development 1




    Career management is the lifelong process of investing resources to achieve our career

    goals. Career management is not a singular event but a continuing process that is a

    necessity for adapting to the changing demands of the 21st Century economy. Career

    management focuses on two key investment assets to manage throughout our working

    years, our personal lifelong learning and our network of relationships:-

    1. Lifelong learningIt is often surprising to realize how much of our day-to-day work is now based

    around technology. Computers and other scientific advancements have radically

    altered the way in which we conduct work. How well we are able to adapt to these

    ongoing innovations will be directly related to keep up to date our knowledge and


    2. Network of RelationshipsAs we have moved to an information and service economy, relationships have

    become an increasingly critical asset. How we interact, respond and connect in all

    our relationships will impact our present performance and future opportunities.

    Very little is accomplished in isolation. Networking uncovers more than 70% of

    current job openings. Keeping connected and knowing how to build good

    relationships are more important than ever before. These skills can be developed

    in applied communication courses, mastering contact management software,

    effective listening and genuine desire to get to know people better.

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    From an organizations point of view career management in an organization is a strategy

    that need to be planned in well manner to develop the competencies and to attract as well

    as retain the talented persons in and for an organization.

    Figure 1 Career management system & Organizational strategies

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    organization and show how these strategies affect the career management system in an



    A career has been defined as the sequence of a person's experiences on different jobs

    over the period of time. It is viewed as fundamentally a relationship between one or more

    organizations and the individual.

    To some a career is a carefully worked out plans for self advancement to others it is a

    calling- a life role to others it is a voyage to self discovery and to still others it is life


    A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of his

    working life.

    The Dictionary meaning of career is, advancement in life specially advancement

    in profession.

    According to Edwin B. Flippo,A career is a sequence of separate but related

    work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning to a persons life.

    According to Garry Dessler,The occupational positions a person has had over

    many years.

    Many of today's employees have high expectations about their jobs. There has been a

    general increase in the concern of the quality of life. Workers expect more from their jobs

    than just income. A further impetus to career planning is the need for organizations to

    make the best possible use of their most valuable resources the people in a time of rapid

    technological growth and change.

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    Career Planning is a relatively new personnel function. Established programs on Career

    Planning are still rare except in larger or more progressive organizations.

    Career Planning aims at identifying personal skills, interest, knowledge and other

    features; and establishes specific plans to attain specific goals.


    1. To attract and retain the right type of person in the organization.2. To map out career of employees suitable to their ability and their willingness to be

    trained and developed for higher positions.

    3. To have a more stable workforce by reducing labour turnover and absenteeism.4. To ensure better use of human resource through more satisfied and productive


    5. To increasingly utilize the managerial talent available at all levels within theorganization.

    6. To improve employee morale and motivation by matching skills to jobrequirement and by providing opportunities for promotion.

    7. To ensure that promising persons get experiences that will equip them to reachresponsibility for which they are able.

    8. To provide guidance and encourage employees to fulfill their potentials.9. To achieve higher productivity and organizational development.


    Career development refers to set of programs designed to match an individuals needs,

    abilities, and career goals with current and future opportunities in the organization.

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    Where career plan sets career path for an employee, career development ensures

    that the employee is well developed before he or she moves up the next higher ladder in

    the hierarchy.


    In fact both individuals and the organization are going to benefit from career planning

    and development. So the advantages are described below:

    a) For Individuals1. The process of career planning helps the individual to have the knowledge of

    various career opportunities, his priorities etc.

    2. This knowledge helps him select the career that is suitable to his life styles,preferences, family environment, scope for self-development etc.

    3. It helps the organization identify internal employees who can be promoted.4. Internal promotions, up gradation and transfers motivate the employees, boost up

    their morale and also result in increased job satisfaction.

    5. Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense ofbelongingness and loyalty to the organization.

    6. Employee will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to anotherorganization. This will lower employee turnover.

    7. It improves employees performance on the job by taping their potential abilitiesand further employee turnover.

    8. It satisfies employee esteem needs.b) For OrganizationsA long-term focus of career planning and development will increase the effectiveness of

    human resource management. More specifically, the advantages of career planning and

    development for an organization include:

    1. Efficient career planning and development ensures the availability of humanresources with required skill, knowledge and talent.

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    2. The efficient policies and practices improve the organizations ability to attractand retain highly skilled and talent employees.

    3. The proper career planning ensures that the women and people belong tobackward communities get opportunities for growth and development.

    4. The career plan continuously tries to satisfy the employee expectations and assuch minimizes employee frustration.

    5. By attracting and retaining the people from different cultures, enhances culturaldiversity.

    6. Protecting employees interest results in promoting organizational goodwill.H) CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Figure 2: Career planning & Development process








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    1. I denti fying individual needs and aspirations:Itsnecessary to identify and communicate the career goals, aspiration and career

    anchors of every employee because most individuals may not have a clear idea

    about these. For this purpose, a human resource inventory of the organization and

    employee potential are ascertained.

    2. Analyzing career opportunit ies:The organizational set up, future plans and career system of the employees are

    analyzed to identify the career opportunities available within it. Career paths can

    be determined for each position. It can also necessary to analyze career demands

    in terms of knowledge, skill, experience, aptitude etc.

    3. I denti fying match and mismatch:A mechanism to identifying congruence between individual current aspirations

    and organizational career system is developed to identify and compare specific

    areas of match and mismatch for different categories of employees.

    4. Formulating and implementi ng strategies:Alternative action plans and strategies for dealing with the match and mismatch

    are formulated and implemented.

    5. Reviewing career plans:a periodic review of the career plan is necessary to know whether the plan is

    contributing to effective utilization of human resources by matching employee

    objectives to job needs. Review will also indicate to employees in which direction

    the organization is moving, what changes are likely to take place and what skills

    are needed to adapt to the changing needs of the organization.

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    Career of an employee represents various job positions held by him during the course of


    Figure 3 Career pathin case of a Management Trainee

    working life. This is described in Human resource management as career path. In the

    case of an executive, the career path includes generally five steps. These steps or say

    these job positions are described in Figure 3.


    Career anchors are those pivots around which ones career swings and he or she cant drop

    these pivots, because these pivots give them a base for choosing a particular career. These

    pivots are as follows:-

    Managing Director


    General Manager

    Assistant Manager

    Management Trainee

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    1. Technical CompetencePerson having strong technical ability choose some technical filled like


    2. SecurityPerson seeking security may choose career in government sector.

    Figure 4: Career Anchors.






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    3. AutonomyPerson may seek freedom of actions may go for his own business.

    4. CreativityCreative person may become an artist or may work in a research lab.

    5. Managerial CompetenceSuch type of people seeks position of high responsibility with managerial position.


    1. ExplorationAlmost all candidates who start working after college education start around mid-

    twenties. Many a time they are not sure about future prospects but take up a job in

    anticipation of rising higher up in the career graph later. From the point of view of

    organization, this stage is of no relevance because it happens prior to the employment.

    Some candidates who come from better economic background can wait and select a

    career of their choice under expert guidance from parents and well-wishers.

    2. EstablishmentThis career stage begins with the candidate getting the first job getting hold of the right

    job is not an easy task. Candidates are likely to commit mistakes and learn from their

    mistakes. Slowly and gradually they become responsible towards the job. Ambitious

    candidates will keep looking for more lucrative and challenging jobs elsewhere. This may

    either result in migration to another job or he will remain with the same job because of

    lack of opportunity.

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    3. Mid-Career stageThis career stage represents fastest and gainful leap for competent employees who are

    commonly called climbers. There is continuous improvement in performance. On the

    other hand, employees who are unhappy and frustrated with the job, there is marked

    deterioration in their performance. In other to show their utility to the organization,

    employees must remain productive at this stage. climbers must go on improving their

    own performance. Authority, responsibility, rewards and incentives are highest at this

    stage. Employees tend to settle down inn their jobs and job hopping is not common.

    4. Late-Career stageThis career stage is pleasant for the senior employees who like to survive on the past

    glory. There is no desire to improve performance and improve past records. Such

    employees enjoy playing the role of elder statesperson. They are expected to train

    younger employees and earn respect from them.

    5. Decline stageThis career stage represents the completion of ones career usually culminating intoretirement. After decades of hard work, such employees have to retire. Employees who

    were climbers and achievers will find it hard to compromise with the reality. Others may

    think of life after retirement.


    Despite planning the career, employees face certain career problems. They are:

    1. Dual Career Families:- With the increase in career orientation among women,number of female employees in on increase. With this, the dual career families

    have also been on increase. Consequently, one of those family members might

    face the problem of transfer. This has become a complicated problem to

    organizations. Consequently other employees may be at disadvantage.

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    2. Low ceiling careers:- Some careers do not have scope for much advancement.Employees cannot get promotions despite their career plans and development in

    such jobs.

    3. Declining Career Opportunities:- Career opportunities for certain categoriesreach the declining stage due to the influence of the technological or economic

    factors. Solution for such problem is career shift.

    4. Downsizing and careers:- Business process reengineering, technological changesand business environmental factors force the business firms to restructure the

    organizations by and downsizing. Downsizing activities result in fixing some

    employees, and degrading some other employees.

    5. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical mobility areavailable. Therefore, it is not suitable for a very small organization.

    6. In developing country like India, environment factors such as Government policy,public sector development, growth of backward areas, etc. influence business and

    industry. Therefore, career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be


    7. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees whoon the shop floor, particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers.

    8. In family business houses in India, members of the family expect to progress fasterin their career than their professional colleagues. This upset the career planning


    9. Systematic career planning becomes difficult due to favoritism and nepotism seatsfor schedule castes/tribes and backward classes.

    10.Several other problems hamper career planning. These include lack of anintegrated human resources policy, lack of a rational wage structure, absence of

    adequate opposition of trade unions, lack of a good performance reporting system,

    ineffective attitudinal surveys, etc.

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    To support the Welfare there are some broad reasons that are as follows:-

    1. To Retain the EmployeesCareer development programs also helps an organization to retain its valuable

    asset- the People.

    2. Goodwill of the CompanyThe goodwill of a company is maintained when the attrition rates are low. Higher

    retention rates motivate potential employees to join the organization.

    3. Loss of Companys Valuable KnowledgeWhen an employee leaves, he takes with him valuable knowledge about the

    company, customers, current projects and past history (sometimes to competitors).

    Often much time and money has been spent on the employee in expectation of a

    future return. When the employee leaves, the investment is not realized.

    4. Regaining EfficiencyIf an employee resigns, then good amount of time is lost in hiring a new

    employee and then training him/her and this goes to the loss of the company

    directly which many a times goes unnoticed. And even after this you cannot assure

    of the same efficiency from the new employee.

    5. Tough Process, Stress & FrustrationTextile industry has the toughest process from processing of cotton to the garment

    manufacturing. It may create some type of frustration and stress also. In this case

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    through adequate career planning & development programs organization can

    reduce the frustration and stress among employees.

    6. Other reasonsIt motivates employees to grow.It motivates employees to avail training and development.It increases employee loyalty as they feel organization cares about them.Organization image as better employment market.It contributes to organizational development and effective achievement of

    corporate goals.


    Career development is an organized approach used to match employee goals with the

    business needs of the agency in support of workforce development initiatives. In this


    The purpose of career development is to:

    Enhance each employee's current job performance. Enable individuals to take advantage of future job opportunities. Fulfill agencies' goals for a dynamic and effective workforce.

    Who's Responsible For It?

    Managers are responsible for linking the organization's needs to employee career goals,

    and can assist employees in the career planning process.

    Human Resources is responsible for designing career paths and employeedevelopment programs that help employees reach their goals.

    Each employee is responsible for planning and managing his/her career.

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    Career Development Definition: Career development involves managing your career

    either within or between organizations. It also includes learning new skills, and making

    improvements to help you in your career. Career development is an ongoing, lifelong

    process to help you learn and achieve more in your career.

    Whether you are looking at making a career change, or moving up within a company,

    planning your own career development will help you succeed.

    By creating a personal career development plan, you can set goals and objectives for your

    own personal career growth.

    Don't make the mistake of leaving your career development future in the hands of your

    employer, hoping that you will get the next promotion or pay raise. This misconception

    can lead to job dissatisfaction and resentment.

    You may have already experienced this...

    You work for so long for a company, hoping that your hard work and efforts will be

    rewarded. After a while, you're burned out, and you become disappointed and jaded, not

    understanding why you can't seem to get ahead. While many employers do have career

    development programs in place, there is no guarantee that your dream position will be

    open when you're ready, or that all your efforts will finally be rewarded.

    Just realizing that you need to take control of your own career future is the first step to

    career growth and job satisfaction.

    Careerdevelopment represents the entire sequence of activities and events related to an

    individual's career. Career development encompasses acquiring of educational

    qualifications and certifications, career path, self-actualization as an individual, shifting
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    of careers and career growth, learning curve, family life, accomplishments and

    recognitions or felicitations.


    1. Setting goals and milestones based around well-defined objectives is integral toany career development plan. In today's fast-moving and constantly shifting

    business and external environment, goal setting tends to be more medium term.

    Individual Involvement

    2. Career development is generally decided, shaped and managed by an individualrather than the immediate superior, Human Resources (HR) department or

    organization-defined influence that it was generation or two ago.


    3. A career development plan needs to flexible enough to account for crisissituations, mid-career blues, relocation possibilities, career shifts and other


    Staying Competitive

    4. Career development calls for innate professionalism, sharp-edged focus, a keenlearning temperament, intent to gain new skills and certifications as desired.

    Family Role

    5. Family commitments, growing needs of a young family and health-related issuesof elderly parents are some aspects that are part of the stages of career

    development that influence career shifts, relocation plans and other changes.
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    Overview of Career

    Development Model

    All Career Center programs are based on the premise that career development is a

    lifelong, cyclical process. No matter where our students and alumni find themselves in

    the cycle, the Career Center is prepared to assist them.

    The following phases provide organization to our approach:

    Phase I - Assessing Self & Preferences

    understanding self, skills, interests & values

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    Phase II - Exploring Options

    proactively identifying, understanding and matching self to the possibilities

    Phase III - Developing Skills & Experience

    building skills, knowledge & reputation

    Phase IV - Marketing Self

    obtaining the skills to seek, obtain, maintain and change jobs

    Phase V - Performing & Planning Next Steps

    developing the skills to make effective career-related decisions and career transitions

    Career Development Process

    Making a successful plan for your future is a continual process through which you will

    cycle many times. Regardless of class year, you may jump in at whatever point is

    relevant to you. You may be working on two stages at once.

    The pathway to good decision making and successful life management typically involves

    the following four stages:

    1. Self-AssessmentIdentify your interests, skills, values, and personality style.

    2. Implementing GoalsTake action through effective job search and/oreducation strategies.

    3. Exploring OptionsLearn about different career and education options.

    4. Narrowing OptionsConnect your knowledge about yourself and the world of work to formulate career

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    Career development theories help make sense of experiences. A theory is, in effect, a

    rationalized set of assumptions or hypotheses that allows you to explain the past and

    predict the future. As such, theories may provide "direction"; and as theories are tested

    and prove "true", they may be said to expand knowledge. There are two types of career

    development theories: structural and developmental

    Two types of theories

    1. Structural Theories:

    Focus on individual characteristics and occupational tasks.

    2. Developmental Theories:

    Focus on human development across life span.


    Trait and Factor

    This theory began with Parsons, who proposed that a choice of a vocation depended


    An accurate knowledge of yourself. Thorough knowledge of job specifications, and The ability to make a proper match between the two.

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    He wrote:

    "In the wise choice of a vocation there are three broad factors:

    1. A clear understanding of yourself, your aptitudes, abilities, interests, ambitions,resources, and limitations;

    2. a thorough knowledge of the requirements and conditions of success, advantagesand disadvantages, compensation, opportunities, and prospects in different lines of

    work; and

    3. True reasoning on the relations of these two groups of acts"

    --- (Parsons, 1909/1989, p.5).

    Two major assumptions of trait and factor theory are:

    (1) that individuals and job traits can be matched, and

    (2) that close matches are positively correlated with job success and satisfaction.

    These ideas are still part of our career counseling approach today.

    John Holland -- Vocational Personalities and Environments

    This typology theory was developed to organize the voluminous data about people in

    different jobs and the data about different work environments, to suggest how people

    make career choices and to explain how job satisfaction and vocational achievement


    Holland suggested that "people can function and develop best and find job satisfaction in

    work environments that are compatible with their personalities"; (ICDM, 1991, p. 4-4).

    Holland based his theory of personality types on several assumptions. People tend to

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    choose a career that is reflective of their of their personality. Because people tend to be

    attracted to certain jobs, the environment then reflects this personality.

    He classified these personality types and work environments into six types which he

    labeled realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional (often

    referred to by the acronym RIASEC). He suggests that the closer the match of personality

    to job, the greater the satisfaction.

    All types are part of each of us. However, one type is usually evidenced most strongly.

    We may even resemble up to three of the types. Holland developed a hexagon model that

    illustrates some key concepts: consistency, differentiation, identity, and congruence.

    A very brief overview of the six personality types, six work-related activities, and sample

    occupations is presented below:


    Realistic Working with things, i.e. tools and


    Farmer, Carpenter,

    Mechanical Engineer

    Investigative Working with information, i.e. abstract

    ideas and theories


    Artistic Creating things Painter, Writer

    Social Helping people Social Worker,


    Enterprising Leading others Sales Representative,

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    Conventional Organizing data Night Auditor

    "Holland's theory places emphasis on the accuracy of self-knowledge and career

    information necessary for career decision making".

    --- (Zunker, 1994, p.49).

    Although the theory appears to be applicable to both male and female workers, there is

    some question of gender bias in that most females frequently tend to score predominately

    in three personality types: artistic, social, and conventional. Holland suggests that in our

    sexist society, females will display a greater interest in female-dominated occupations.

    Socioeconomic Theory

    Sociologists and economists provide detailed explanations and descriptions of how one'sculture, family background, social and economic conditions and other factors outside an

    individual's control strongly influence one's identity, values, and overall human and

    career development. Socioeconomic theory is also known as the "chance" or "accident"

    theory. This approach to understanding career development suggest that many people

    follow the path of least resistance in their career development by simply falling into

    whatever work opportunities happen to come their way.

    --- Improved Career Decision Making (ICDM) in a Changing World,, NOICC,

    Garrett Park Press, 1996, p.4-4 - 4-6)

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    Super's Theory

    Donald Super (1957) and other theorists of career development recognize the changes

    that people go through as they mature. Career patterns are determined by socioeconomic

    factors, mental and physical abilities, personal characteristics and the opportunities to

    which persons are exposed. People seek career satisfaction through work roles in which

    they can express themselves and implement and develop their self-concepts. Career

    maturity, a main concept in Super's theory, is manifested in the successful

    accomplishment of age and stage developmental tasks across the life span.

    Self-concept is an underlying factor in Super's model: "...vocational self-concept

    develops through physical and mental growth, observations of work, identification with

    working adults, general environment, and general experiences....As experiences become

    broader in relation to awareness of world of work, the more sophisticated vocational self-

    concept is formed" --- (Zunker, 1994, p.30).

    Super's contribution was the formalization of stages and developmental tasks over the life



    Growth Birth to 14 or


    Form self-concept, develop capacity, attitudes,

    interests, and needs, and form a general

    understanding of the world of work.

    Exploratory 15-24 "Try out" through classes, work experience,

    hobbies. Collect relevant information. Tentative

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    choice and related skill development.

    Establishment 25-44 Entry skill building and stabilization through

    work experience.

    Maintenance 45-64 Continual adjustment process to improve


    Decline 65+ Reduced output, prepare for retirement.

    People change with time and experience, and progress through the following vocational

    development stages:




    Crystallization 14-18 Developing and planning a tentative vocational


    Specification 18-21 Firming the vocational goal.

    Implementation 21-24 Training for and obtaining employment.

    Stabilization 24-35 Working and confirming career choice.

    Consolidation 35+ Advancement in career.

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    Although Super originally presented the stages and tasks in a sequential manner, he later

    added that we cycle and recycle throughout our life span as we adapt to changes in

    ourselves as well as to the trends in the work place. Understanding these ages and related

    stages of career development helps the facilitator select appropriate responses and


    Super and Thompson (1979) identified six factors in vocational maturity:

    1. Awareness of the need to plan ahead2. Decision-making skills3.

    Knowledge and use of information resources

    4. General career information5. General world of work information, and6. Detailed information about occupations of preference.

    Super also looked at the different roles we play during our lifetimes and the relative

    importance we give to those roles at different times in our lives.

    Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory

    Much growth takes place as a result of learning and imitating the behavior of others.

    Krumboltz developed a theory of career decision making and development based on our

    social learning, or environmental conditions and events, genetic influences and learning

    experiences. People choose their careers based on what they have learned. Certain

    behaviors are modeled, rewarded and reinforced.

    Decision-Making Theories

    Some decision-making theories hypothesize that there are critical points in our lives when

    choices are made that greatly influence our career development. These decision making

    points are such events as educational choices, entry-level job positions, changing jobs,

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    etc. Other decision-making theories concerned with ongoing choices across the life span.

    The decisions that we make are influenced by our awareness of the choices that are

    available to us and our knowledge of how to evaluate them.

    Others address our complex environment. For example, H.B. Gelatt says, "We make our

    decisions based upon what is actual and what is actual is never static"

    --- (Gelatt, 1991, p. 1).

    Cognitive Theories

    Cognitive theories of career development are built around how individuals process,

    integrate and react to information. The ways in which individuals process information are

    determined by their cognitive structures. These structures influence how individuals see

    themselves, others and the environment. Cognitive theories suggest ways to help clients

    build or refine a hierarchy of thinking skills and decision making skills that influence

    career development.

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    View Career Development Cycle

    The career development cycle model was developed to help students better understand

    the process of career development. Throughout your college experience you should touch

    upon each part of this cycle. Over time you will find yourself building your resume, and

    your confidence in a particular career direction.

    Begin to explore our career services and educational opportunities that match your need

    by clicking on each section of the career development cycle.

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    Getting experience can involve anything from taking a class that interests you to joining a

    club or organization on or off campus. Experiencing something will allow you to

    distinguish between your likes and dislikes. Further, this will help you discover where

    your strengths and/or weaknesses lie.


    Reflection is a great way to understand your experiences more fully. Whether using a

    career log , journal writing, or talking with a career counselor this practice can help you

    organize your thoughts and create career goals.

    Career Concept

    The career you think you want to pursue after graduation. For example, after reflecting

    on my last two internships, I think I really want to be a pediatrician.

    I nformation Gathering

    Doing occupational research through our online resources, meeting with alumni through

    the Zebra Career Advising Network (ZebraCAN) to talk about their career experiences,

    reading books from our Career Library or observing others doing the job you think you

    would like to do someday.
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    Development Activities

    Development Activities can be work assignments, projects, training and other activities

    that help you develop the skills you require to be successful for the next step in your

    career path. The following examples of Development Activities have been provided to

    assist you in your own career development planning. Choose one or two that are

    appropriate for your situation and feel free to add your own development activities to the

    list. Incorporate these into your Career Development Plan and work towards achieving

    your goals.

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    So why is career management important? It means that you can assume responsibility for

    what happens to your in relation to your career and employment. Sure events not under

    your control will still happen from time to time, but if you take the trouble to learn what

    career planning and career management are all about you'll understand that to a

    significant degree you CAN be in control of your own destiny.

    The concept of career management starts to become important to most people when their

    career is up and running and then usually some crisis occurs which causes people to

    become serious about taking charge of their career.

    What sort of crisis? - Your employer goes out of business because of an event like a

    global financial crisis for example, or your position is made redundant because your

    company is taken over, or downsizing or change management occurs or any other related

    reason you can think of. It's amazing how energetic people become in relation to career

    management when they lose their jobs because someone decided to terminate their


    Under these circumstances people can, and do, change jobs, and even entire career

    direction because they learn how to prepare a career management plan.

    Most people actually experience career by accident. That is they drift along in their job

    day to day taking what their employer of boss dishes out, perhaps taking advantage of

    opportunities that are offered to them along the way - or not.

    A recent CNN on-line article suggested that more than 50% of people are dissatisfied

    with their jobs - yet people stay where they are. It doesn't have to be that way. You don't

    have to put up with a 'settle for' existence.

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    Career Management: Defining the Process and Purpose

    The term career management is a bit abstract for some people. It sounds like this fluffy,

    indefinable concept that doesnt really mean a whole lot. In reality, career management is

    a very significant and specific process that, when done properly, helps to ensure long-

    term career success.

    According to, its sort of like contributing to your own career piggy

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    Career management uses concepts similar to good financial management. A good rule of

    thumb to keep in mind is that a disciplined investment, made on a regular basis, yields a

    greater return.

    In order to get the most out of your career, you have to put some effort into caring for it.

    Left to its own devices, your career may end up wildly off course. Without a structured

    career management plan, youll quickly find yourself doing whats easy or convenient or

    what others want you to do. You may discover that your future goals dont align with

    your present-day actions. And, before you know it, your career will be managing you.

    1. Career Management is a Lifelong Process

    The first point to understand is that career management is not a single event; its a part of

    your career journey. Dont put it off until you suddenly realize theres a problem. Just

    like a car, regular maintenance will help ensure a smooth ride.

    2. Career Management is an Active Process

    You cant simply sit back and let others do the work for you. Otherwise, youll end up in

    someone elses career! You have to be an active, engaged participant.

    3. Career Management is a Structured Process

    I believe that career management is most beneficial when it is carefully structured.

    Without structure, most of us would neglect it until an emergency came along. Structure

    helps keep the process moving at a steady, stable pace regardless of whats happening.

    4. Career Management is about Establishing, Tracking and Correcting:

    Establish Goals: The real nitty-gritty of career management is in understandingwhat youre trying to achieve. This, for many people, can also be the hardest part.

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    Each goal should be broken down into tasks that, once completed, will achieve the

    goal. A timeline can then be created to map each step along the way.

    Track Goals: Monitoring progress is a satisfying and useful strategy. Careermanagement involves regularly checking in on established goals and the

    movement being made. This helps prevent stagnation and ensures career goals are

    being methodically incorporated into the rest of your life.

    Course Correct: Career goals will change and grow just as you do. Part of thecareer management process involves monitoring and adjusting them as needed.

    Each step along the way will heighten your understanding of what you want and

    how to get there. The map isnt set in stone. As you move forward, the career

    management process will help you identify new paths and new destinations.

    Participating in a structured career management process demonstrates the important role

    that career plays in your life as a whole. For most people, your career can provide you

    with the means to achieve a great number of other personal goals, like buying a house or

    starting a family or traveling the world. Work also occupies a huge portion of our time

    spent on this planet, so managing your career is clearly a worthwhile investment of


    Career Management Skills Modules

    In response to suggestions from employers, academics and final year students, the Career

    Development Centre now offers students a range of assessed whole and half module

    courses in Career Management Skills (CMS). Each course is designed to help students

    identify appropriate career options and pursue their goals effectively.

    These credit-bearing modules are unique within the Scottish Higher Education system

    and include, along with the tutorial-based modules in CMS, an on-line course, an

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    Internship and courses in Active Learning in the Community. In the current academic

    year the courses have reached around 500 students, ensuring that the equivalent of half of

    all of our student population will have undertaken some form of Career Planning

    academic module.

    The Career Development Centre is keen to involve alumni and employers in the delivery

    of these programmes. Input is welcomed on subjects such as CV and applications

    techniques, succeeding at assessment centres, entrepreneurship, presentation skills and

    understanding working cultures. In addition, alumni/employer involvement is invaluable

    to students completing a job study and mock interview assignments.

    Career Management Cycle

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    Managing your career is a process that is very self-driven: it is up to you to determine

    your career goals and to plan for their achievement. To support employees in managing

    their careers through each of the steps in this process, the Public Service Commission

    offers a series of training courses through the Corporate Training Calendar.

    These courses provide tools and resources which support potential and aspiring leaders at

    all levels throughout the Government of Nova Scotia to effectively manage their careers

    and help realize their career goals. The course offerings are designed to support

    employees at all different stages in the career management process: employees can

    choose whichever courses they require on an as needed basis.

    The Career Management courses offered focus on each step of the career management

    cycle and promote career management and advancement through targeted development,

    as illustrated below.

    Career Management Courses Available Through Corporate Training Calendar

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    To learn how to effectively manage your career, register online at LearnNet.

    Additional information on available Career Management courses is provided below.

    Career Management Step 1: Determine Where You Want To Go

    The first step in managing your career is knowing yourself, and an important part of this

    self-insight is knowing where you want to go in your career. Why do you pursue the

    work and the life you do? What activities are you drawn to? What keeps you engaged and

    energized? What gives you the greatest satisfactions and wanting to strive for excellence?

    These questions are at the heart of knowing yourself. In this module, you will begin to

    identify your life interests, personality traits, and values that in turn drive your passions.

    In this module you will identify the interests, values, and skills you already have and

    which allow you to contribute productively to your workplace. This will help you to see

    more clearly which competencies and life interests you want to continue to use in a work

    setting and those you may want to develop further. This self-reflection will guide you in

    determining career goals that are a good fit.

    Career Management Step 1 (optional): Understand Your Worktype

    The first step in managing your career is knowing yourself, and a key piece of this self-

    insight is understanding your worktype. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI ) is an

    indispensable tool in understanding your strengths and how to leverage these when

    planning your career path. This half-day course explores the relationship between

    personality types and the workplace. It is designed to increase self-understanding and

    appreciation of personal differences in order to improve one-on-one interactions and

    career success.

    Career Management Step 2: Identify Your Strengths and Development Areas Through

    360 Degree Feedback
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    The second step in managing your career is identifying your strengths and areas of

    development. The Hay Group 360 Tool will enable you to receive input from your

    manager, peers, people you manage, and other colleagues on the leadership competencies

    deemed critical to the provincial public service. A survey tool is administered online

    which allows participating individuals and their nominated colleagues to complete

    feedback in a secure, confidential and user-friendly environment. You will then meet

    individually with your Human Resources Development Consultant to review and discuss

    your feedback report.

    Career Management Step 3: Make a Career Development Plan

    The third step in managing your career is creating your own career development plan.

    Completing the plan will help you make the link between your career goals and the

    development that will help you move towards the achievement of your goals. Based on

    your past performance, strengths and career goals, you will prioritize your areas for

    development. You will then identify what types of opportunities will target your

    development areas and explore how to access these opportunities. You will also learn

    about the different available development resources.

    Career Management Step 4: Resume Writing and Interview Skills

    For many individuals, their career goal involves moving into a new position. Success in

    getting a jobexternally or within government is largely determined by gaining entry

    to the interview and then interviewing well. Good resumes are vital to getting an

    interview and strong interview skills are a must in selling the match between your

    qualifications and the job requirements. This workshop will provide you with the

    necessary skills to compete effectively for job opportunities.

    Courses Available For Managers

    Supporting Others in their Career Management: Basics of Coaching

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    This course examines effective coaching in the workplace. Youll explore the different

    roles a coach may play: the coach as trainer, as mentor, and as counsellor. Youll

    examine the criteria and conditions that must exist in order to engage an individual and

    establish a climate of trust and commitment so that coaching may take place. Build on the

    skills that you have in the areas of leadership and communication by exploring how to

    adapt coaching to meet the needs of individuals and manage the process.

    Career Management Model

    When faced with the challenge of obtaining a new position, many people start by writing

    or updating their resumes. Unfortunately, this approach does not always produce the bestresults.

    Career development is a self-initiated process with support and resources provided by

    managers and the organization. (SeeRoles and Responsibilities.) (pdf)

    At Cornell, we provide a 5-step model to help you manage and organize your individual

    career development. By following the steps in the Career Management Model, you will

    have a better understanding of both yourself and the job market at Cornell. We

    encourage you to explore all the information, resources, and tools provided in each area

    of our model.

    The Career Management Model consists of five steps:

    1. Self-Assessment Clarify and understand your interests, skills, values, andpersonality

    2. Exploring OptionsExplore career or job opportunities that interest you3. Skill Development Develop your knowledge and skills to enhance your

    performance or advance your career
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    4. Personal MarketingWrite or update your resume, interview, evaluate or accept ajob offer, or begin work or study toward a long-term career goal.

    5. Career EnrichmentAssess and regroup, or start over

    Roles Involved Career Management

    In the March 2006 Spotlight Human Resources discussed the different kinds of

    developmental pay at Lehigh. Lets discuss further the roles of staff members and

    supervisors in developmental pay and career management at Lehigh.
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    The Staff Members Role

    Each staff member assumes primary responsibility for managing his or her own career

    planning and personal development. Development is fueled by the staff member's own

    ability and desire to grow. Each person is responsible for his or her own self-assessment

    of the current career status, knowledge and skills, mobility, accomplishments, and

    progress as a starting basis for determining individual career goals. Each person should

    assess his or her own personal interests, define personal success for him or her, and

    determine his or her own willingness to provide the investment of time, effort, and

    mobility needed to succeed, evaluate alternatives, and develop a timetable. Individuals

    are ultimately responsible for seeking information on what job or training is available,where it is available, and what training paths are necessary to obtain goals.

    Learn the importance of development for each position held. This development is

    important for two reasons. Staff members will want to:

    1. Build a successful track recordgrowth must be visible in job accomplishments.

    2. Master current job responsibilities and strive to raise performance of theseresponsibilities to an above-average level. Dont become so engrossed in

    preparing for some future job assignment that individuals cease to perform

    effectively in current jobs.

    Drawing upon a variety of experiences will widen perspectives and apply a

    comprehensive outlook to later jobs. Look upon the current job as a building block for

    later opportunities.

    The Supervisor ' s and Staff Member's Role

    Its helpful to remember that any type of employment change doesnt just happen

    overnight. Staff members may be tempted to focus immediately on advancement and not

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    on the changes necessary to prepare to play a more responsible role within the current

    position. Individuals and supervisors will discuss what the departments needs are in

    relation to the staff member's own professional development and career aspirations. This

    process involves five different elements:

    DirectionThis involves career goals. Goal setting has two components. First, what the

    employee is able and wants to do, which consists of knowledge, interests, and needs. The

    second component is what the department or organization needs to have done. Goal

    setting focuses on both components through self-assessment if in current role and

    organizational/departmental assessment for other roles. Self-assessment refers to the staff

    member's role, relationships, personal attributes, personal limitations, and jobidentification.

    Organizational or departmental assessment refers to the boundaries that are set by the

    department and Lehigh that influence your perception of available alternatives and the

    extent to which personal aspirations are realistic and timely.

    Boundaries include the hierarchy or levels in an organization, the function of the staff

    member's department, the degree to which individuals are identified with a particular

    group or specialty, and the staff member's supervisors insights. Any combination of

    these factors and the norms of the organization may lead individuals to feel boxed in or

    frustrated. So, weigh the impact of organizational goals and values on individual plans.

    Take time to review the article in the May 2006 issue of LASER about Individual

    Development Plans (IDP).

    Career TimeThis relates to distance and speed factors, that is, how far individuals want

    to go on the career path and how fast each person expects to get there. Most of us think of

    career progress in terms of time, the distance we travel (typically upward), and the speed

    of advancement. Staff members gauge progress as being on schedule, ahead of

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    schedule, or behind schedule. Supervisors may help by providing feedback as to

    whether or not these are reasonable timeframes within each department.

    Transitions Transitions relate to the changes expected (in knowledge, skills, and

    attitudes) en route to a career goal. Individuals may be inclined to focus immediately on

    advancement and salary increases and not on the changes necessary to prepare to play a

    more responsible role within Lehigh. At this point in the career planning process, the

    notion of investment is introduced. It refers to what price each person is prepared to pay

    in order to change positions (taking on more responsibility, more energy output, more

    time, and perhaps more money spent to prepare for a new position). It also concerns the

    degree of certainty that individuals will be happy and satisfied in the new assignment.There are people who ultimately learn to perform well in their new positions but, if they

    are absolutely honest with themselves, they may discover that the new role does not

    completely match their expectations.

    Transitions involve the most thinking and planning. Setting goals and a timetable only

    initiates the career planning process. The transition factors are considered and analyzed in

    detail. Because it is very difficult to be absolutely objective about yourself, individuals

    require both information and feedback from others (supervisors, mentors, friends, and

    family) in order to calculate the transitions involved.

    Career Planning OptionsMany employees are unaware of all the options available to

    them for professional development/career management or reaching career goals:

    Advancement Moving to a position with a higher grade than the currentposition (which is the option to which most aspire)

    LateralMoving across functions at the same grade to develop new skills or as away to reach a career goal when one career path dead-ends

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    Change to lower gradeThis may also be used for development or career goalattainment. Some individuals choose to take a step back to diversify their skills

    and job knowledge in order to move forward an investment in future growth. A

    change to a lower grade may result in a loss of pay at first, but ultimately may lead

    to future career growth.

    Job enrichment For various reasons, a staff member may not desireadvancement (he or she likes the present position or location). Career goals for

    such a person may be working toward greater accountability and variety in the

    present position, which requires use of enhanced knowledge or abilities.

    Accomplishment of these goals results from high motivation and providespersonal growth. Where business needs and departmental structure allow,

    supervisors may be able to facilitate job enrichment by restructuring jobs or

    shifting duties.

    Exploratory researchActively investigating other options or taking temporaryspecial projects or assignments to explore a new area are forms of exploratory


    Projected Outcome This relates to the probabilities that individual investments and

    sacrifices for career progress will pay off. When considering predicted or actual

    outcomes, individuals will calculate the risks attached to the various actions in the career

    plan. When attempting to predict outcome, seek feedback from colleagues and leadership

    to reinforce understanding of the organization.

    As staff members think about professional development and career changes at Lehigh,

    keep these guidelines in mind:

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    For staff members:

    o Make professional development/career management an ongoing process

    o Work out agreements between staff members and supervisors about what isexpectedperformance outcomes, results, achievements, etc.

    o Seek opportunities and training programs to learn new skills and build ordevelop existing skills.

    For supervisors:

    o Identify compelling business needs and discuss them with staff members tohelp them understand why workplace learning and performance are critical

    for Lehighs success now and in the future

    o Make a personal commitment to help staff members growo Keep staff members informed as to how they are doing in their current job

    feedback is essential in any kind of development

    o Stay current with alternatives available at Lehigh for helping staff membersdevelop, such as special assignments, coaching, and formal training

    o Provide a supportive atmosphere.

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    Career planning and development programs as we find from the study plays crucial role

    in employee as well as organizations development. Career planning is an integral part of

    every organization. It motivates and inspires employees to work harder and keeps them

    loyal towards the organization. Career planning helps an employee know the career

    opportunities available in organization. This knowledge enables the employee to select

    the career most suitable to his potential and this helps to improve employees morale and


    On the basis questionnaire and personal interviews with the employees I also find

    that promotion is the major reason that sticks them with the current job. Employees also

    prefer sound compensation as well as proper training.

    So for conclusion, my objectives of the study, to get the overall knowledge about

    actually what the career planning and development is?, the scope of such programs in

    textile industry with specific reference to Him Chem etc., are adequately fulfilled. And

    study concludes that in textile industry because of its manpower orientation and due to

    tough process as well as more stress and frustration, need to be handling the careers of

    most valuable asset that is the People.

    Conclusively that was worthwhile to choose such topic as project, which not only

    important for an employee and employer, But for the student also like me to select my

    career, a particular line and may be a particular industry in which I wants to make my

    career and get the enough chances of advancement in my career.