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Text of Feinstein International Famine Center - fic.tufts.edu .Abdul Jabbar Abdullah Fuddle The Feinstein

Darfur Livelihoods under Siege

Feinstein International Famine CenterJune 2005

Helen Young, Abdul Monim Osman, Yacob Aklilu, Rebecca Dale,Babiker Badri, andAbdul Jabbar Abdullah Fuddle

The Feinstein International Famine Center, established in 1996, is located within Tufts Universitys Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy. Our goal is to develop and promote operational and policy responses to protect and strengthen the livelihoods of people living in crisis affected and marginal-ized communities, impacted by violence, malnutrition or loss of assets. We work globally to understand the causes and effects of marginalization, famine, conflict, and forced displacement, and with national and international organizations to bring about institutional changes that enhance effective policy reform and promote best practice.

Feinstein International Famine Center

Helen Young, Abdul Monium Khider Osman, Yacob Aklilu, Rebecca DaleFeinstein International Famine Center, Tufts University

Babiker BadriAhfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan

Abdul Jabbar Abdullah FuddleDarfur Development Services, El Fasher, Sudan

Feinstein International Famine Center

June 2005

Darfur Livelihoods under Siege

2005. Feinstein International Famine Center. All rights reserved.

The views presented in this paper do not represent the official views of the Feinstein International Famine Center. This paper is available on line at www.famine.tufts.edu.

Correct citation:Young, H., Osman, A.M., Aklilu, Y., Dale, R., Badri, B. and Fuddle, A.J.A. (2005) Darfur Livelihoods under Siege. Feinstein International Famine Center, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.

Feinstein International Famine CenterFriedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy Tufts University Medford, MA 02155USAEmail: faminecenter@tufts.edu

Acknowledgements vi Executive Summary vii

1. Introduction 1 Introduction 1 Methodology 1 Background: livelihoods in Darfur 4 References 10

2. The History and Origins of the Current Conflict in Darfur 12 Historical background to Darfur 13 The current conflict 19 National and regional processes contributing to the conflict 19 Local processes 25 Links between local, national and regional processes 34 Conclusion 36 References 37

3. Impact of Conflict on Livelihoods in Darfur 40 Profiles of the case-study areas 40 Effects of conflict on livelihoods 43 Continuing processes of systematic destruction 44 References 50

4. The Livestock Sector in the Darfur Crisis 51 The livestock resource in Sudan 51 Livestock resources and migration patterns in Darfur 53 Flock and herd structure in North and South Darfur 55 Livestock trade in Darfur 56 Effects of drought and conflict on production 63 Trade-induced production expansion 66 The impact of the conflict on the livestock sector in Darfur 70 Conclusions 81 References 81

5. Labour Migration and Remittances 83 Introduction 83 Labour migration to Libya 83 Internal migration to Khartoum and Gedaref 99 Conclusions 106 References 107

6. Conclusions and Recommendations 109

Contents

Boxes 1. Five categories of rural production system in Darfur 7 2. The six food economy zones (FEZs) in North Darfur (SCUK) 8 3. Military regimes and democratic governments in Sudan since Independence 18 4. Disparities in health and development in Darfur, 1956 20 5. Who are the Janjaweed? 23 6. Famine in Darfur 26 7. Changes in land tenure since the Fur Sultanate 32 8. Rebel/opposition groups in Darfur 35 9. Oil and the economy of Libya 84 10. Onward travel to Italy from northern Libya 86 11. Example of remittances from Libya received in Darfur 94

Tables 1. Food purchases as a percentage of households sources of food 6 2. Distribution of agricultural irrigation schemes in 1955 17 3. Tribal affiliation of Darfur MPs in the National Assembly 31 4. Estimates of livestock populations in Darfur 54 5. Officially recognised stock routes 55 6. Cattle herd structure in the baggara system (%) 56 7. Trekking and other costs for various destinations from Darfur (US$) 62 8. Primary and secondary markets in Darfur 61 9. Value chain for livestock from Darfur (US$) 64 10. Average land and livestock holdings by small-scale farmers in North Darfur 68 11. Risks associated with pastoral migration routes 71 12. Profile of Sudanese labour migrants in Kufra, south-eastern Libya (July 2004) 90 13. Foreign workers employed by the Kufra Agricultural Project and Flour Mill 92 14. Examples of wage rates for foreign workers in Kufra and Benghazi 94 15. Cash value of remittances sent by Sudanese migrant workers in Libya, by income group 96 16. Cash value of remittances sent by Sudanese skilled and unskilled migrant workers in Libya 96 17. Household size of Darfurian migrants in Khartoum 102 18. Type of work and wage rates for Darfurian migrants: men 104 19. Type of work and wage rates for Darfurian migrants: women 105 20. Challenges facing Darfurians in Khartoum and Gedaref 105

Figures 1. Humanitarian livelihoods framework 1 2. Darfur region, Sudan 5 3. Extract from 1928 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Tribal areas (dar) of Darfur 14 4. Growth trend of livestock population in Sudan 51 5. Live animal exports from Sudan 52 6. Value of live animal exports 53 7. Volume and value of chilled meat exports 53 8. Cattle and sheep productivity and off-take models in a Darfur traditional system 57 9. Schematic diagram of the livestock marketing chain in Sudan 58 10. Camel and donkey trade routes to and from Darfur 60 11. El Fasher rainfall record 66 12. Livestock growth trends in Darfur 67 13. Limits of normal and crisis migration routes for Abbala and Baggara pastoralists 73 14. Normal and crisis trade routes 76 15. Price fluctuations before and after the conflict (North Darfur) 79 16. Livestock price trends in selected markets 79

17. Immediate impact of the conflict on livestock prices at El Fasher 80 18. Annual number of Sudanese arriving and departing from Kufra, south-eastern Libya 88 19. Livelihoods of Sudanese before the border closure and currently (excludes those in transit) 93 20. The Hawala mechanism 98 21. Arrival of Darfurian migrants in Khartoum and Gedaref 100 22. Distribution of Darfurian migrants in Central and Eastern Sudan by ethnic group 102 23. Interaction between different Darfurian tribes in Gedaref and Khartoum 103

Annex 1. Notes on the Tribes of Darfur Region 109 Table 1. The tribal homelands dar in Darfur 119 Table 2. The layers of the tribal administration for different groups in Darfur 121Annex 2. Livelihoods in Kebkabiya 123 Table 1. Livestock migration routes, pre-crisis and current 132 Figure 1. Zaghawa in Saburna sources of food and income before the crisis 122 Figure 2. Sources of food and income for Zaghawa IDPs 128 Figure 3. Changes in livelihood strategies among Arab groups living in the Wadi Shallal area of Kebkabiya 133 Figure 4. Changes in livelihood strategies among Arab groups in the Wadi Shoba area of Kebkabiya 134 Figure 5. Changes in livelihood strategies among Gimir groups in Kebkabiya 135 Annex 3. Livelihoods in Disa 137 Figure 1. Livelihoods in Disa before the crisis: principle sources of food and income for medium-income groups 139 Figure 2. Livelihoods in Disa Area, before the crisis and in October 2004 143 Figure 3. Examples of the permits required to take purchased goods outside of Kutum 144Annex 4. Livelihoods in El Seraif 147 Table 1. Livestock migration routes for the Beni Hussein, Dar Seraif 149 Figure 1. Livelihood strategies in Seraif Pre-crisis and currently 150 Figure 2. Proportion of food and income provided by livestock sales (live animals) and milk, meat and skins in El Seraif, pre-crisis and currently 151Annex 5. Livelihoods in Mellit 154 Table 1. Typical Zayadia land holdings before the crisis (mukhamas) 156 Table 2. Typical Zayadia livestock holdings before the crisis (head of livestock) 156 Figure 1. Activities of the Zayadia in Mellit 157 Figure 2. Pre-crisis sources of food and income for displaced Berti women in Mellit town 160Annex 6. Livelihoods in El Geneina 162 Table 1. Estimate of Masalit losses in tribal wars with Arab tribes, 19951997 166 Table 2. Livestock looted from the Masalit, 19951997 166 Table 3. Typical livestock holdings for Masalit farmers before the crisis 168 Figure 1. Ethnic map of western Darfur and Weddai 163 Figure 2. Livelihood strategies for the Masalit before the crisis 163 Figure3. Geographical distribution of labour migration from Dar Masalit 171

Glossary 175 Acronyms 177

Feinstein International Famine Center

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This study was funded by the United States Agency for International Development/Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) under the Livelihoods Cooperative Agreement with the Feinstein International Famine Center at Tufts University. The team would like to thank OFDA for its support and generosity, and also the Principal Investigator of the Cooperative Agreement, Sue Lautze, who has supported this work throughout. The study represents a joint effort between the Feinstein International Famine Center at Tufts Uni-versity, Medford, USA and Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan. Special thanks are due to the teams of research assistants from both universities who supported this work. They included Sung-Wook Choi, Alyson Abrami and Brian Bence from Tufts University, who undertook literature reviews and constructed timelines. In Sudan, special thanks are due to Iman Ahmed Ibrahim Mohammed and Sara Ismail Ibrahim Mustapha from Ahfad University for Women, who undertook fieldwork in Gedaref and Khartoum. In Darfur, Dr Abdul Jabbar Abdullah Fuddle, of Darfur Development Services, played an active and important role as a local consultant and adviser.